South Wales Transport
South Wales Transport was a bus company that operated services in South Wales centred on Swansea and West Wales. South Wales Transport commenced operating on 2 May 1914 in Swansea, it operated bus services that connected with the Swansea Tramway Company. It was owned by British Electric Traction. In 1937, buses replaced the trams. In 1958, South Wales Transport bought the Swansea and Mumbles Railway, an electric tram service between Swansea and Mumbles which closed in 1960. On 1 January 1969, it became part of the National Bus Company. In May 1987, during the privatisation of the National Bus Company, South Wales Transport was sold to a management buy out, it was resold to Badgerline in 1990. It was included in the 16 June 1995 merger of Badgerline with GRT Group to form FirstBus and became part of First Cymru in April 1998; the South Wales Transport name has been revived by a bus operator in Neath
The Leyland Olympian was a 2-axle and 3-axle double-decker bus chassis manufactured by Leyland between 1980 and 1993. It was the last Leyland bus model in production; the Olympian shared the same chassis and running gear as with the Leyland Titan integral double deck bus, ordered en masse by London Transport. At the time there was a demand for non-integral vehicles, with operators wishing to have the chassis bodied by other manufacturers, thus Leyland created the B45 project, named Olympian, in 1979. This was in many ways an update of the popular Bristol VRT, with many VR customers choosing Olympians; the Olympian replaced the Leyland Atlantean. The Olympian was unveiled at the 1980 Commercial Motor Show, it was available in two lengths, 9.56m and 10.25m. Engines were either the Leyland TL11 unit, or the Gardner 6LXB or 6LXCT; some Olympians had Cummins L10 engines. For the export market a three-axle version was built with lengths of 10.4m, 11.32m and 11.95m. This was popular with operators such as Kowloon Motor Bus.
In 1988, Leyland developed an air-conditioned version of the Olympian, with the air conditioner driven by the main engine instead of a separate engine. Between 1979 and 1981, nine demonstrators were built, before the first production Olympian entered service with Ribble Motor Services in August 1981; the Olympian was manufactured at the former Bristol factory in Brislington with the first thousand completed here. In 1983, production transferred to Leyland's Workington plants; the last was completed for Singapore Bus Service in March 1994. The Leyland Olympian was built with a wide variety of body types: Walter Alexander East Lancs ECW Leyland Marshall Northern Counties Roe / Optare The Leyland Olympian was popular in the United Kingdom, with orders from operators both before and after privatisation, it was purchased by many National Bus Company subsidiaries. Although London Buses purchased the Leyland Titan, in 1984 it took delivery of three Olympians. Between 1987 and 1992, a further 350 Olympians were purchased.
The last were withdrawn in 2005, although some were converted to open top buses and remain in use with The Original Tour. London Country purchased 102. Lothian Buses purchased over 200, but all were removed by 2009. South Wales Transport ordered 7 of these in 1985 registered C901-C907 FCY; these remained in service with First Cymru until 2005. The last remaining Leyland Olympians were removed from service in December 2016 as they did not comply with Disabled Access Regulations. EAS of Athens received 19 Leyland Olympians in 1983, plus the Demo trialed in 1982, they were all withdrawn by 1/10/1994. One of them is preserved. Between 1981 and 1993, Kowloon Motor Bus purchased 906 Olympians, with all but four having Alexander bodywork; some were repatriated to the United Kingdom, including 22 converted to open top configuration by The Big Bus Company. China Motor Bus purchased 37 Olympians between 1981 and 1993. All 35 three-axle Olympians passed to New World First Bus, with the entire batch of ten non-air-conditioned buses being sold to FirstGroup who repatriated them to the United Kingdom for use at their East Counties, Manchester and PMT subsidiaries.
After importing a few second-hand Olympians from the United Kingdom, Citybus purchased 294 new Olympians. In 2003, 54 were repatriated to the United Kingdom to operate express services for Megabus. All Hong Kong franchised Olympians had been withdrawn by October 2011; the non-franchised, open-topped, air-conditioned double deckers and private hire buses were withdrawn by 2015 due to their non-compliance with Hong Kong's emission regulations. Citybus #391 was the last Leyland Olympian to run in Hong Kong. Dublin Bus purchased 63 Olympians; the total was increased to 175. In 1984, an Eastern Coach Works bodied left hand drive Olympian was sent to the United States as a demonstrator, it was used as a shuttle bus at Expo 86 in British Columbia, Canada. It entered service on Gray Line tours in Victoria, it was sold to Brampton Transit. Grosvenor Coach Lines of San Francisco received 10 Eastern Coach Works bodied three-axle Leyland Olympians in 1986 for sightseeing purposes. Seven were transferred to New York City and the other three to Seattle.
After a period in store, the three Seattle units were repoweed with Detroit Diesel engines in Los Angeles and returned to Gray Line duties in San Francisco in 2015. Singapore Bus Services would in 1981 take in a single Leyland Olympian B45, built for demonstration purposes in Singapore; the bus was displayed at the 1980 Commercial Motor Show in the UK and was described as a "Far Eastern" prototype. It had a 3+2 transverse seating arrangement unseen in Singapore but common in Hong Kong with a seating capacity of 97 but was refitted to the standard 2+2 transverse seating arrangement before export to Singapore. Registered in Singapore as SBS5396B, it bore a unique demonstration livery with the company's 1978 corporate logo not unlike a Leyland Leopard demonstrator with SBS and was allocated to Ang Mo Kio bus depot where it ran on bus route 162 until its withdrawal in late 1982, it was subsequently repatriated to the UK where it worked with the City of Oxford Motor Services afterwards. SBS received 200 Leyland Olympian 2-axles between 15 April 1986 and 20 February 1988.
These were deployed to Ang Mo Kio and Jurong depots. Between 1995 and 1999, all of the Jurong Industrial and Tuas services were converted to Leyland Olympian 2-Axles with the exception of 246, which still has only 1-2 single deckers in its fleet until 2003; these buses w
Bristol is a city and county in South West England with a population of 459,300. The wider district has the 10th-largest population in England; the urban area population of 724,000 is the 8th-largest in the UK. The city borders North Somerset and South Gloucestershire, with the cities of Bath and Gloucester to the south-east and north-east, respectively. South Wales lies across the Severn estuary. Iron Age hill forts and Roman villas were built near the confluence of the rivers Frome and Avon, around the beginning of the 11th century the settlement was known as Brycgstow. Bristol received a royal charter in 1155 and was divided between Gloucestershire and Somerset until 1373, when it became a county of itself. From the 13th to the 18th century, Bristol was among the top three English cities after London in tax receipts. Bristol was surpassed by the rapid rise of Birmingham and Liverpool in the Industrial Revolution. Bristol was a starting place for early voyages of exploration to the New World.
On a ship out of Bristol in 1497 John Cabot, a Venetian, became the first European since the Vikings to land on mainland North America. In 1499 William Weston, a Bristol merchant, was the first Englishman to lead an exploration to North America. At the height of the Bristol slave trade, from 1700 to 1807, more than 2,000 slave ships carried an estimated 500,000 people from Africa to slavery in the Americas; the Port of Bristol has since moved from Bristol Harbour in the city centre to the Severn Estuary at Avonmouth and Royal Portbury Dock. Bristol's modern economy is built on the creative media and aerospace industries, the city-centre docks have been redeveloped as centres of heritage and culture; the city has the largest circulating community currency in the UK—the Bristol pound, pegged to the Pound sterling. The city has two universities, the University of Bristol and the University of the West of England, a variety of artistic and sporting organisations and venues including the Royal West of England Academy, the Arnolfini, Spike Island, Ashton Gate and the Memorial Stadium.
It is connected to London and other major UK cities by road and rail, to the world by sea and air: road, by the M5 and M4. One of the UK's most popular tourist destinations, Bristol was selected in 2009 as one of the world's top ten cities by international travel publishers Dorling Kindersley in their Eyewitness series of travel guides; the Sunday Times named it as the best city in Britain in which to live in 2014 and 2017, Bristol won the EU's European Green Capital Award in 2015. The most ancient recorded name for Bristol is the archaic Welsh Caer Odor, consistent with modern understanding that early Bristol developed between the River Frome and Avon Gorge, it is most stated that the Saxon name Bricstow was a simple calque of the existing Celtic name, with Bric a literal translation of Odor, the common Saxon suffix Stow replacing Caer. Alternative etymologies are supported by numerous orthographic variations in medieval documents, with Samuel Seyer enumerating 47 alternative forms; the Old English form Brycgstow is used to derive the meaning place at the bridge.
Utilizing another form, Rev. Dr. Shaw derived the name from the Celtic words bras, or braos and tuile; the poet Thomas Chatterton popularised a derivation from Brictricstow linking the town to Brictric, a leading landholder in the area. It appears that the form Bricstow prevailed until 1204, the Bristolian'L' is what changed the name to Bristol. Archaeological finds, including flint tools believed to be between 300,000 and 126,000 years old made with the Levallois technique, indicate the presence of Neanderthals in the Shirehampton and St Annes areas of Bristol during the Middle Palaeolithic. Iron Age hill forts near the city are at Leigh Woods and Clifton Down, on the side of the Avon Gorge, on Kings Weston Hill near Henbury. A Roman settlement, existed at what is now Sea Mills. Isolated Roman villas and small forts and settlements were scattered throughout the area. Bristol was founded by 1000. By 1067 Brycgstow was a well-fortified burh, that year the townsmen beat off a raiding party from Ireland led by three of Harold Godwinson's sons.
Under Norman rule, the town had one of the strongest castles in southern England. Bristol was the place of exile for Diarmait Mac Murchada, the Irish king of Leinster, after being overthrown; the Bristol merchants subsequently played a prominent role in funding Richard Strongbow de Clare and the Norman invasion of Ireland. The port developed in the 11th century around the confluence of the Rivers Frome and Avon, adjacent to Bristol Bridge just outside the town walls. By the 12th century Bristol was an important port, handling much of England's trade with Ireland, including slaves. There was an important Jewish community in Bristol from the late 12th century through to the late 13th century when all Jews were expelled from England; the stone bridge built in 1247 was replaced by the current bridge during the 1760s. The town incorporated neighbouring suburbs and became a county in 1373, the first town in England to be given this status. During this period, Bristol became manufacturing centre. By the 14th centur
Crosville Motor Services
Crosville Motor Services was a bus operator based in the north-west of England and north and mid-Wales. On 27 October 1906, Crosville Motor Company was formed in Chester by George Crosland Taylor and his French business associate Georges de Ville, with the intention of building motor cars; the company name was a portmanteau on the names of the founders. In 1909, Crosville commenced its first bus service, between Ellesmere Port. By 1929 Crosville had consolidated an operating area covering the Wirral and parts of Lancashire and Flintshire; the Railways Act, 1928 gave the four railway companies the opportunity to provide bus services. But rather than run in competition they purchased outright existing bus companies. In February 1929, the London and Scottish Railway made an offer of £400,000 to purchase Crosville, effected in November 1929; the new LMS company in the next few months purchased Holyhead Motors, UNU Motor Services of Caernarfon. Shortly afterwards, the four railway companies reached an agreement with the Tilling Group and British Automobile Traction to complete a cross-holding deal, whereby each organisation held a 50% share in a series of jointly-held and consolidated regional bus companies.
LMS was therefore merged with T&BAT's Royal Blue of Llandudno, renamed Crosville Motor Services on 15 May 1930, after only nine months of outright LMS ownership. In the next few months the company consolidated its majority share of the North Wales coastal services, buying up various smaller private companies that operated in the Crosville area, including: White Rose Motor Services of Rhyl, Red Dragon of Denbigh, Burton of Tarporley, North Wales Silver Motors and Llangoed Red Motors. On 1 May 1933, the Great Western Railway's northern Welsh service Western Transport was amalgamated with Crosville. In 1930 All-British Travels Ltd was formed by coach operators George Taylor of Chester, Alfred Harding of Birkenhead and J. W. Scott of Edinburgh, with sleeping partner Evan R. Davies, a solicitor in Pwllheli. Under the fleet name of'All-British Line' the initial intention was to run express coach services to and from Liverpool and Llandudno to London via Taylor's Market Square car showroom in Chester and to operate a central London travel agency to advertise those services and the other coach services of the respective companies.
This express coach service to London commenced on 14 April 1930. By 1933 Crosville, who had started an express coach service between Liverpool and London in 1929 and All-British Travels Ltd, attempted to co-ordinate the Liverpool to London service, thereby complying with the North Western Traffic Commissioner's decree to reduce the duplication of that service. A joint timetable was worked on but problems co-ordinating the service proved impossible to surmount. In January 1933 the coach operator, Red & White Services of Chepstow in South Wales, purchased All-British Travels Ltd and in September of that year the remaining All-British Line express coach service between Liverpool and London operated by Taylor ceased. Taylor continued in the coach excursion business and car trade in Chester up to 1972. Although the start of the Second World War brought about cuts in the company timetable, by the end of the war the company had increased passengers by 50% and revenues by 90%; this was through North Wales being seen as a safe area from Luftwaffe bombing, resulting in a number of shadow factories and munitions factories being built in the area.
This resulted in the expansion of a number of quiet villages, hence the route map changed quite dramatically. In example, ROF Wrexham, Marchwiel needed over 200 buses daily; this passenger demand brought about a change in fleet policy, with the small double deck fleet being expanded with second-hand vehicles as production capacity at most bus manufacturers had been given over meet the requirements of the military. On 3 December 1942, Crosville became a subsidiary of the Tilling Group, resulting in a change from maroon to Tilling-green livery, Bristol-chassised buses replacing Leyland as the manufacturer of choice. Crosville emerged from the war far stronger in many ways, with healthy cash reserves in the bank or accumulating nicely in property assets, unable to replace their fleet at their normal renewal rate. However, although Crosville focused on replacing its single-deck fleet with double deckers, Tilling had a group policy against investment in coaches, resulting in a rise across the geography of a number of new coach operators.
By the time that the post-war government of Clement Attlee merged both Tilling and the railway companies into the British Transport Commission on 1 January 1948, Crosville was nationalised, the coach operators were a sustainable competitive entity. New Bristol double-deckers had become the standard fleet purchase for all Tilling/BET fleets, which allowed the company to serve the post-war boom until 1950, when traffic began to fall again thanks to the increase in the number of private cars; the combination of this, plus the Suez Crisis of 1956 and a lack of staff due to low wages, lead to a general contraction of the network out of countryside routes and to reduce operations by at least half on a Sunday. The network continued to decline, except in the provision of a new service to replace railways removed by the Beeching Axe, with the 1965 introduced "Cymru Coastliner," between Chester and Caernarfon anticipating the closure of that British Rail route and the intermediate stations; the Transport Act 1968 created the National Bus Company, introduced the principle that rural bus services could be subsidised by councils.
Although they had reduced costs by the introduction of one-man operation, Crosville submitted a list of 196 route
First West of England
First West of England is a bus operator providing services in Bristol, Somerset, South Gloucestershire and West Wiltshire. It is a subsidiary of FirstGroup. In 1875 George White formed the Bristol Tramways Company and began a horse-drawn service from Upper Mauldlin Street to Blackboy Hill. In 1887 the Bristol Tramways Company merged with the Bristol Cab Company to form the Bristol Tramways & Carriage Company the Bristol Omnibus Company. In 1929 the White family sold out to the Great Western Railway who by 1932 had sold it to the Western National. In 1948 the company was nationalised, in 1969 it became part of the National Bus Company. In September 1983 the National Bus Company split the operation in two, with the Cheltenham and Gloucester Omnibus Company taking the services in Cheltenham, Gloucester and Swindon; the remainder stayed with the existing Bristol Omnibus Company, divided into two business units: Citybus for services within Bristol, Bristol Country Bus for services in Bath and Wiltshire.
Badgerline was formed in 1985 as the business name of the Bristol Country Bus and in 1986 its assets were transferred to a separate legal entity and privatised in September 1986 in a management buyout. In September 1987, City Line was sold to Midland Red West which in April 1988 was purchased by Badgerline. After Badgerline merged with GRT Group to form FirstBus in April 1995. In 1996 Badgerline was merged back into City Line, the City Line operation was rebranded as First Bristol. Southern National was formed in 1983 as the Dorset operations of Western National, it was acquired by FirstGroup in 1999 and rebranded as First Southern National. In 2001 FirstGroup changed the legal structure of some of its bus operating subsidiaries; the legal entity, Badgerline Limited was renamed First City Line Limited and became the operator of Bristol city services. The legal entity, First Bristol Buses Limited was renamed First Somerset & Avon Limited in May 2003 after merging with Somerset operations of First Southern National.
In 2013 buses started to be painted into the new First Bus livery and'West of England' branding was applied on both sides beneath the windows. First Somerset & Avon is still printed on some tickets, while other tickets are printed with First Bristol & Avon or just First Bristol. In February 2014, First's Bridgwater and Taunton business was transferred to First South West and rebranded as The Buses of Somerset in an unprecedented break from the FirstGroup corporate style; the business instead now sports a two-tone green and cream livery with bespoke branding and social media profiles. In December 2016 all services operated by First Bristol transferred to First Somerset & Avon, renamed First West of England in June 2017, meaning Bristol city services are once again operated by the same legal company as when they first started in 1875. In August 2018, the Weston-super-Mare based operations were rebranded as Badgerline with the yellow and green livery of the former operator adopted. First West of England operate the majority of services in Bristol and an extensive network of services in and around Bath, Trowbridge and Weston-super-Mare.
As at March 2016, the fleet coaches. First West of England operate six depots: Bristol bus station, Lawrence Hill, Bath, Weston-super-Mare and Wells. There is an outstation at Westbury. Buses in Bristol First South West The Buses of Somerset Media related to First Somerset and Avon at Wikimedia Commons First Somerset & Avon Flickr gallery Flickr gallery
The Bristol RE was a rear-engined single-decker bus or single-decker coach chassis built by Bristol Commercial Vehicles from 1962 until 1982. It is considered the most successful of the first generation of rear-engined single-decker buses; the RE was only supplied to subsidiaries of the nationalised Transport Holding Company, by which Bristol was wholly owned. From 1965, when Leyland purchased a 25% shareholding in Bristol and the company's products became available to non state-owned bus operator customers, the RE gained popularity with companies in other sectors, including the British Electric Traction Group and many municipal operators. From 1972, sales to the National Bus Company, which had taken over the operations of both THC and BET) began to dry up, due to the introduction of the Leyland National. From 1976, the RE remained in production only for the Northern Irish state-owned bus companies Ulsterbus and Citybus, for export to Christchurch Transport Board, New Zealand. In Great Britain, the RE was most fitted with bodywork by ECW, but several other manufacturers built bodywork on the chassis.
Some coaches were fitted with Plaxton Panorama Elite or Alexander M Type bodywork. In Northern Ireland, the RE was bodied with the X Type bodywork. Three of the ex-Citybus REs from Belfast were acquired by Pinewood Studios in October 2005, where they appeared in movies such as Children of Men and St Trinian's 2: The Legend of Fritton's Gold. RELL - long, low frame RESL - short, low frame RELH - long, high frame RESH - short, high frame REMH - maximum length, high frame These designations were suffixed by a code indicating the type of engine fitted: 6G - 6-cylinder Gardner diesel 6L - 6-cylinder Leyland diesel What was to be the first production chassis was changed to a pre-production model, with a coach body built by ECW but devoid of any seats and fittings, it was used by Bristol Commercial Vehicles at its Brislington Experimental Shop for a few years. It was fitted and ran with a horizontal version of the contemporary Bristol BVW engine, fitted with a turbo-charger; the Gardner engine was refitted, the body completed and sold to West Yorkshire as their fleet number CRG1 OWT241E.
The most popular model was the RELL, with 2,839 constructed. The two least successful models were the REMH, with 105 sold to just three customers, the RESH with 11 built for four customers. A sixth model, designated REML, was advertised from 1968 but none was built; this would have had a low frame suitable for a bus body. Of the 4,629 Bristol REs built, 3,242 were sold to subsidiaries of the NBC and its predecessor groups, THC and BET; the biggest customers were: Bristol Omnibus Company. Curtis, Martin S.. Bus Monographs: 5 - Bristol RE. Shepperton: Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-1683-6. Millar, Alan. Bus & Coach Recognition. Hersham: Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-3136-3. 0701/D2. Website about RELH coaches Website about one RELH
Essex is a county in the south-east of England, north-east of London. One of the home counties, it borders Suffolk and Cambridgeshire to the north, Hertfordshire to the west, Kent across the estuary of the River Thames to the south, London to the south-west; the county town is the only city in the county. For government statistical purposes Essex is placed in the East of England region. Essex occupies the eastern part of the ancient Kingdom of Essex, which united with the other Anglian and Saxon kingdoms to make England a single nation state; as well as rural areas, the county includes London Stansted Airport, the new towns of Basildon and Harlow, Lakeside Shopping Centre, the port of Tilbury and the borough of Southend-on-Sea. The name Essex originates in the Anglo-Saxon period of the Early Middle Ages and has its root in the Anglo-Saxon name Ēastseaxe, the eastern kingdom of the Saxons who had come from the continent and settled in Britain during the Heptarchy. Recorded in AD 527, Essex occupied territory to the north of the River Thames, incorporating all of what became Middlesex and most of what became Hertfordshire.
Its territory was restricted to lands east of the River Lea. Colchester in the north-east of the county is Britain's oldest recorded town, dating from before the Roman conquest, when it was known as Camulodunum and was sufficiently well-developed to have its own mint. In AD 824, following the Battle of Ellandun, the kingdoms of the East Saxons, the South Saxons and the Jutes of Kent were absorbed into the kingdom of the West Saxons, uniting Saxland under King Alfred's grandfather Ecgberht. Before the Norman conquest the East Saxons were subsumed into the Kingdom of England. After the Norman conquest, Essex became a county. During the medieval period, much of the area was designated a Royal forest, including the entire county in a period to 1204, when the area "north of the Stanestreet" was disafforested; the areas subject to forest law diminished, but at various times they included the forests of Becontree, Epping, Hatfield and Waltham. Essex County Council was formed in 1889. However, County Boroughs of West Ham, Southend-on-Sea and East Ham formed part of the county but were unitary authorities.
12 boroughs and districts provide more localised services such as rubbish and recycling collections and planning, as shown in the map on the right. A few Essex parishes have been transferred to other counties. Before 1889, small areas were transferred to Hertfordshire near Bishops Stortford and Sawbridgeworth. At the time of the main changes around 1900, parts of Helions Bumpstead, Sturmer and Ballingdon-with-Brundon were transferred to Suffolk. Part of Hadstock, part of Ashton and part of Chrishall were transferred to Cambridgeshire and part of Great Horkesley went to Suffolk; the boundary with Greater London was established in 1965, when East Ham and West Ham county boroughs and the Barking, Dagenham, Ilford, Romford and Wanstead and Woodford districts were transferred to form the London boroughs of Barking and Dagenham, Newham and Waltham Forest. Essex became part of the East of England Government Office Region in 1994 and was statistically counted as part of that region from 1999, having been part of the South East England region.
In 1998, the boroughs of Southend-on-Sea and Thurrock were granted autonomy from the administrative county of Essex after successful requests to become unitary authorities. Essex Police covers the two unitary authorities; the county council chamber and main headquarters is at the County Hall in Chelmsford. Before 1938, the council met in London near Moorgate, which with significant parts of the county close to that point and the dominance of railway travel had been more convenient than any place in the county, it has 75 elected councillors. Before 1965, the number of councillors reached over 100; the County Hall, made a listed building in 2007, dates from the mid-1930s and is decorated with fine artworks of that period the gift of the family who owned the textile firm Courtaulds. The highest point of the county of Essex is Chrishall Common near the village of Langley, close to the Hertfordshire border, which reaches 482 feet; the ceremonial county of Essex is bounded to the south by its estuary.
The pattern of settlement in the county is diverse. The Metropolitan Green Belt has prevented the further sprawl of London into the county, although it contains the new towns of Basildon and Harlow developed to resettle Londoners after the destruction of London housing in the Second World War, since which they have been developed and expanded. Epping Forest prevents the further spread of the Greater London Urban Area; as it is not far from London with its economic magnetism, many of Essex's settlements those near or within short driving distance of railway stations, function as dormitory towns or villages where London workers raise their families. Part of the s