Sunshine duration or sunshine hours is a climatological indicator, measuring duration of sunshine in given period for a given location on Earth expressed as an averaged value over several years. It is a general indicator of cloudiness of a location, thus differs from insolation, which measures the total energy delivered by sunlight over a given period. Sunshine duration is expressed in hours per year, or in hours per day; the first measure indicates the general sunniness of a location compared with other places, while the latter allows for comparison of sunshine in various seasons in the same location. Another often-used measure is percentage ratio of recorded bright sunshine duration and daylight duration in the observed period. An important use of sunshine duration data is to characterize the climate of sites of health resorts; this takes into account the psychological effect of strong solar light on human well-being. It is used to promote tourist destinations. If the Sun were to be above the horizon 50% of the time for a standard year consisting of 8,760 hours, apparent maximal daytime duration would be 4,380 hours for any point on Earth.
However, there are physical and astronomical effects. Namely, atmospheric refraction allows the Sun to be still visible when it physically sets below the horizon. For that reason, average daytime is longest in polar areas, where the apparent Sun spends the most time around the horizon. Places on the Arctic Circle have the longest total annual daytime, 4,647 hours, while the North Pole receives 4,575; because of elliptic nature of the Earth's orbit, the Southern Hemisphere is not symmetrical: the Antarctic Circle, with 4,530 hours of daylight, receives five days less of sunshine than its antipodes. The Equator has a total daytime of 4,422 hours per year. Given the theoretical maximum of daytime duration for a given location, there is a practical consideration at which point the amount of daylight is sufficient to be treated as a "sunshine hour". "Bright" sunshine hours represent the total hours when the sunlight is stronger than a specified threshold, as opposed to just "visible" hours. "Visible" sunshine, for example, occurs around sunrise and sunset, but is not strong enough to excite the sensor.
Measurement is performed by instruments called sunshine recorders. For the specific purpose of sunshine duration recording, Campbell–Stokes recorders are used, which use a spherical glass lens to focus the sun rays on a specially designed tape; when the intensity exceeds a pre-determined threshold, the tape burns. The total length of the burn trace is proportional to the number of bright hours. Another type of recorder is the Jordan sunshine recorder. Newer, electronic recorders have more stable sensitivity than that of the paper tape. In order to harmonize the data measured worldwide, in 1962 the World Meteorological Organization defined a standardized design of the Campbell–Stokes recorder, called an Interim Reference Sunshine Recorder. In 2003, the sunshine duration was defined as the period during which direct solar irradiance exceeds a threshold value of 120 W/m². Sunshine duration follows a general geographic pattern: subtropical latitudes have the highest sunshine values, because these are the locations of the eastern sides of the subtropical high pressure systems, associated with the large-scale descent of air from the upper-level tropopause.
Many of the world's driest climates are found adjacent to the eastern sides of the subtropical highs, which create stable atmospheric conditions, little convective overturning, little moisture and cloud cover. Desert regions, with nearly constant high pressure aloft and rare condensation—like North Africa, the Southwestern United States, Western Australia, the Middle East—are examples of hot, dry climates where sunshine duration values are high; the two major areas with the highest sunshine duration, measured as annual average, are the central and the eastern Sahara Desert—covering vast desert countries such as Egypt, Libya and Niger—and the Southwestern United States. The city claiming the official title of the sunniest in the world is Yuma, with over 4,000 hours of bright sunshine annually, but many climatological books suggest there may be sunnier areas in North Africa. In the belt encompassing northern Chad and the Tibesti Mountains, northern Sudan, southern Libya, Upper Egypt, annual sunshine duration is estimated at over 4,000 hours.
There is a smaller, isolated area of sunshine maximum in the heart of the western section of the Sahara Desert around the Eglab Massif and the Erg Chech, along the borders of Algeria and Mali where the 4,000-hour mark is exceeded, too. Some places in the interior of the Arabian Peninsula receive 3,600–3,800 hours of bright sunshine annually; the largest sun-baked region in the world is North Africa. The sunniest month in the world is December in Eastern Antarctica, with 23 hours of bright sun daily. Conversely, higher latitudes lying in stormy westerlies have much cloudier and more unstable and rainy weather, have the lowest values of sunshine duration annually. Temperate oceanic climates like those in northwestern Europe, the western coast of Canada, areas of New Zealand's South Island are examples of cool, wet, humid climates where cloudless sunshine duration values are low; the areas with the lowest sunshine duration annually lie over the polar oceans, as well as parts of northern Europe, southern Alaska, northern Russia, areas near the Sea of
South Region, Brazil
The South Region of Brazil is one of the five regions of Brazil. It includes the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul and covers 576,409.6 square kilometres, being the smallest portion of the country, occupying only about 6.76% of the territory of Brazil. Its whole area is smaller in Southeast Brazil, for example, it is a great tourist and cultural pole. It borders Uruguay and Paraguay as well as the Centre-West Region, the Southeast Region and the Atlantic Ocean; the region is considered the safest in Brazil to visit, having a lower crime rate than other regions in the country. Despite the high standard of living and safety the unemployment rate in the region is medium to high. By the time the first European explorers arrived, all parts of the territory were inhabited by semi-nomadic hunter-gatherer Indian tribes, who subsisted on a combination of hunting and gathering. European colonization in Southern Brazil started with the arrival of Spanish Jesuits, they converted them to Catholicism.
Colonists from São Paulo arrived in the same period. For decades, the Portuguese and Spanish crowns disputed over this region. Due to this conflict, the King of Portugal encouraged the immigration of settlers from the Azores Islands to Southern Brazil. Between 1748 and 1756, six thousand Azoreans arrived, they composed over half of the population of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina by the late 18th century. The first Germans came to Brazil soon after independence from Portugal in 1822. Settlers from Germany were brought to work as small farmers because there were many land holdings without workers. To attract the immigrants, the Brazilian government had promised them large tracts where they could settle with their families and colonize the region; the first immigrants arrived in 1824, settling in the city of Sao Leopoldo, over the next four decades, another 27,256 Germans were brought to Rio Grande do Sul to work as smallholders in the country. By 1904, it is estimated. In Santa Catarina, most German immigrants were not brought by the Brazilian government but by private groups that promoted the immigration of Europeans to the Americas, such as the Hamburg Colonization Society.
These groups created rural communities or colonies for immigrants, many of which developed into large cities, such as Blumenau and Joinville, the largest city in Santa Catarina. Considerable numbers of immigrants from Germany arrived at Paraná during the civil war, most of them coming from Santa Catarina or Volga Germans from Russia; the Ragamuffin War was a Republican uprising that began in Southern Brazil in 1835. The rebels, led by generals Bento Gonçalves da Silva and Antônio de Souza Netto with the support of the Italian warrior Giuseppe Garibaldi, surrendered to imperial forces in 1845; this conflict occurred because in Rio Grande do Sul, the state's main product, the charque, suffered the hard competition of charque from Uruguay and Argentina, which had free access to the Brazilian market while the gaúchos had to pay high taxes inside Brazil. The Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Garibaldi joined the rebels in 1839. With his help the revolution spread through Santa Catarina, in the northern border of Rio Grande do Sul.
After many conflicts, in 1845 peace negotiations ended the war. Italian immigrants started arriving in Brazil in 1875, they were peasants from the Veneto in Northern Italy attracted to Southern Brazil to get their own lands and populate the South. Most of the immigrants worked as small farmers cultivating grapes in the Serra Gaúcha. Italian immigration to the region lasted until 1914, with a total of 100,000 Italians settling in Rio Grande do Sul in this period and many others in Santa Catarina and Paraná. In 1898, there were 300,000 people of Italian origin in Rio Grande do Sul, 50,000 in Santa Catarina and 30,000 in Paraná. Nowadays, their Southern Brazilian descendants number 9.7 million and comprise 35.9% of Southern Brazil's population. The region received large numbers of European immigrants during the 19th century, who have had a large influence on its demography and culture; the main ethnic origins of Southern Brazil are Portuguese, German, Luxembourger, Ukrainian, Spaniard and Russian.
Smaller numbers that follow are French, Swedish, Black, Croat, Lebanese and Latvian, Japanese and Estonian, Slovene, Ashkenazi Jew, British, Slovak and Hungarian Southern Brazil has subtropical or temperate climate. The annual average temperatures vary between 12°C and 22°C, it snows in the mountain ranges. The region is urbanized and many cities are famous for their urban planning, like Curitiba and Maringá, both in Paraná State, it has a high standard of living, with the highest Human Development Index of Brazil, 0.859, the second highest per capita income of the country, $13.396, behind only the Southeast Region. The region has a 98.3% literacy rate. Portuguese, the official language of Brazil, is spoken by the entire population. In the south countryside, dialects of German or Italian origins are spoken; the predominant dialects are Venetian. In Rio Grande do Curitiba there are some Yiddish speakers. In the northern region of Paraná there are some Japanese speakers. In the region around Ponta Grossa there are some Dutch speakers.
There are Polish language and Ukrainian language speakers in Paraná as well. Rio Grande do Sul has a gre
Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul
Rio Grande is a municipality and one of the oldest cities in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. It was the state capital from 1835 to 1845, it is the most important port city in the state and has one of the most important maritime ports in Brazil. The city is named after a nearby channel which indirectly connects the Lagoa dos Patos, to the northeast, Lagoa Mirim, to the west, with the Atlantic Ocean; the municipality is bordered by Santa Vitória do Palmar on the south and Pelotas on the north, which lies across the São Gonçalo Channel. The city built up its wealth over the course of its long history of strong industrial movements. Today it is still one of the richest cities in Rio Grande do Sul because of its port, the second busiest in Brazil, its refinery, which processes Ipiranga petroleum; the city is served by Rio Grande Airport. The history of Rio Grande is as old as the history of the whole region, it was explored by Portuguese sailors led by Martim Afonso de Sousa who sought fortified places along the southern Brazilian coast for a defense against the French corsairs.
He discovered the tributary which indirectly connects the Lagoa dos Patos and Lagoa Mirim to the Atlantic Ocean and called the place Rio Grande de São Pedro. In 1669, the Portuguese established a colony further down the South American coastline along the Río de la Plata, which they called Colônia do Sacramento. With the first permanent Portuguese settlement in the region, livestock was introduced and began to spread far and wide over the territory. With the new settlers, the Portuguese decided to make a church-sanctioned settlement and, in 1736, created the Freguesia de São Pedro which covered what is today all of Uruguay and Rio Grande do Sul; the city of Rio Grande was founded in 1737 by Brigadier General José da Silva Pais and his men to defend Portugal's territory. The Jesus Maria e José Fort was constructed, built on the site of the future city; the fort was transformed into a town when colonists from the Azores and Madeira arrived in the 1750s. In 1751, the growing colony became the Village of Rio Grande de São Pedro.
In 1760, Rio Grande de São Pedro, governed from Santa Catarina became its own captaincy, a type of administrative division. In 1763 the village was occupied by the Spanish. After constant disputes, Portugal reconquered the village in 1776, thanks to the actions of General Rafael Pinto Bandeira. However, when the fortress was taken by Spanish troops, many families fled to Viamão and established around its port the city of Porto Alegre. During the Ragamuffin War, Rio Grande became the province's capital all at once. In 1835, revolutionary General Bento Gonçalves da Silva forced Antônio Rodrigues Fernandes Braga, the provincial president, to flee from Porto Alegre to Rio Grande, a journey of about 200 km; the city remained the province's seat of government until the revolution's end in 1845. Rio Grande, as the name suggests, is a littoral city, which boasts what many call the longest beach in the world—the Praia do Cassino; this beach is 250 km of uninterrupted Atlantic coastline. The entire municipality lies at a low altitude — at its highest point only 10 meters above sea level.
Additionally, the city, surrounded by water, sinks about one centimeter every year. The city is named after its 24-mile long tidal channel which indirectly mingles the waters of the Lagoa dos Patos and Lagoa Mirim with the Atlantic Ocean; the largest and most populous island in the Lagoa dos Patos is the Ilha dos Marinheiros, part of the municipality. For the most part, Rio Grande is made up of fields of low and herbaceous vegetation, characteristic of the Uruguayan savanna. There are planted trees eucalyptus and pine. Sand dunes are found all down the coastline; the municipality contains part of the Taim Ecological Station. The climate of Rio Grande is humid subtropical and mild, with a strong oceanic influence and cool winters, warm summers and regular precipitation all year; the average temperature in the city is 18.3 °C and the average annual precipitation is 1,207 mm. The hottest month is January, with an average temperature of 23.6 °C. The coldest month is July, with an average temperature of 12.9 °C, but due to intense winds in the city, the wind chill temperature drops to 6 °C.
Águeda, Portugal Virtual Rio Grande Ilha dos Marinheiros Rio Grande Port Rio Grande Federal University – FURG
Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+
The Cisplatine War known as the Argentine-Brazilian War, was an armed conflict over an area known as Banda Oriental or the "Eastern Bank" in the 1820s between the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata and the Empire of Brazil in the aftermath of the United Provinces' independence from Spain. Led by José Gervasio Artigas, the region known as the Eastern Bank, in the Río de la Plata Basin, revolted against Spanish rule in 1811, against the backdrop of the 1810 May Revolution in Buenos Aires as well as the regional rebellions that followed in response to Buenos Aires' pretense of primacy over other regions of the viceroyalty. In the same context, the Portuguese Empire headquartered in Rio de Janeiro, took measures to solidify its hold on Rio Grande do Sul and to annex the region of the former Eastern Jesuit Missions. From 1814 on, the Eastern Province joined forces with the provinces of Santa Fe and Entre Rios in a loose confederation called the Federal League, which resisted Buenos Aires' authority.
After a series of banditry incidents in territory claimed by the Portuguese Empire, the Rio Grande do Sul, Portugal invaded the Eastern Bank in 1816. Artigas was defeated by the Luso-Brazilian troops in 1820 at the Battle of Tacuarembó; the Portuguese Empire formally annexed the Eastern Bank, under the name Cisplatina, with support from local elites. With the annexation, the Portuguese Empire now enjoyed strategic access to Río de la Plata and control of the estuary's main port, Montevideo. After Brazilian independence, in 1822, the Cisplatina became part of Brazil, it sent delegates to the 1823 Constitutional Convention and, under the 1824 Constitution, enjoyed a considerable degree of autonomy, more so than other provinces of the Empire. While welcoming Portuguese intervention in the rogue Eastern province, the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata urged the local populace to rise up against Brazilian authority, giving them political and material support with a view to reestablishing sovereignty over the region.
Rebels led by Fructuoso Rivera and Juan Antonio Lavalleja carried on resistance against Brazilian rule. In 1825, a Congress of delegates from all over the Eastern Bank met in La Florida and declared independence from Brazil, while reaffirming its allegiance to the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata. In response, Brazil declared war on the United Provinces; the two navies which confronted each other in the River Plate and the South Atlantic were in many way opposites. Brazil was a major naval power with 96 warships and small, an extensive coastal trade and a large international trade carried on in British and American ships; the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata had similar international trading links but had few naval pretensions. Its navy consisted of a few gunboats for port defence. Both navies were short of indigenous sailors and relied on British - and, to a lesser extent - American and French officers and men, the most notable of which were the Argentine commander, the Irish born Admiral William Brown, the commander of the Brazilian inshore squadron, the English Commodore James Norton.
The strategy of the two nations reflected their respective positions. The Brazilians imposed a blockade on the River Plate and the trade of Buenos Aires, while the Argentines vainly attempted to defy the blockade using Brown’s squadron while unleashing a swarm of privateers to attack Brazilian seaborne commerce in the South Atlantic from their bases at Ensenada and more distant Carmen de Patagones; the Argentines gained some notable successes - most notably by defeating the Brazilian flotilla on the Uruguay River at the Battle of Juncal and by beating off a Brazilian attack on Carmen de Patagones. But by 1828, the superior numbers of Brazil’s blockading squadrons had destroyed Brown’s naval force at the Monte Santiago and was strangling the trade of Buenos Aires and the government revenue it generated. On land, the Argentine army crossed the River Plate and established its headquarters near the Uruguayan town of Durazno. General Carlos María de Alvear invaded a series of skirmishes followed.
Pedro I of Brazil planned a counteroffensive by late 1826, managed to gather a small army composed of Southern Brazil volunteers and European mercenaries. The recruiting effort was hampered by local rebellions throughout Brazil, which forced the Emperor to relinquish direct command of his Army, return to Rio de Janeiro and bestow command of the troops on Felisberto Caldeira Brant, Marquis of Barbacena; the Brazilian counteroffensive was stopped at the inconclusive Battle of Ituzaingó. While Brazilian troops were prevented from marching on to Buenos Aires, Argentine troops no longer managed to operate in Brazilian territory. Ituzaingó was the only battle of some magnitude in the whole war. A series of smaller clashes ensued, including the Battle of Sarandí, the naval Battles of Juncal and Monte Santiago. Scarcity of volunteers hampered the Brazilian response, by 1828 the war effort had become burdensome and unpopular in Brazil; that year, Rivera reconquered the territory of the former Eastern Jesuit Missions.
Battle of Sarandí: October 12, 1825 Battle of Ituzaingó: February 20, 1827 Battle of Juncal: February 8–9, 1827 Battle of Monte Santiago: April 7–8, 1827 The stalemate in the Cisplatine War was caused by the inability of the Argentine and Uruguayan land forces to capture major cities in Uruguay and Brazil, the severe economic consequences imposed by the Brazilian blockade of Buenos Aires, the lack of manpower for a full-scale Brazilian la
Relative humidity is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water at a given temperature. Relative humidity depends on the pressure of the system of interest; the same amount of water vapor results in higher relative humidity in cool air than warm air. A related parameter is that of dewpoint; the relative humidity of an air–water mixture is defined as the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor in the mixture to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water over a flat surface of pure water at a given temperature: ϕ = p H 2 O p H 2 O ∗. Relative humidity is expressed as a percentage. At 100 % relative humidity, the air is at its dewpoint. Climate control refers to the control of temperature and relative humidity in buildings and other enclosed spaces for the purpose of providing for human comfort and safety, of meeting environmental requirements of machines, sensitive materials and technical processes. Along with air temperature, mean radiant temperature, air speed, metabolic rate, clothing level, relative humidity plays a role in human thermal comfort.
According to ASHRAE Standard 55-2017: Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy, indoor thermal comfort can be achieved through the PMV method with relative humidities ranging from 0% to 100%, depending on the levels of the other factors contributing to thermal comfort. However, the recommended range of indoor relative humidity in air conditioned buildings is 30-60%. In general, higher temperatures will require lower relative humidities to achieve thermal comfort compared to lower temperatures, with all other factors held constant. For example, with clothing level = 1, Metabolic rate = 1.1, air speed 0.1 m/s, a change in air temperature and mean radiant temperature from 20 degrees C to 24 degrees C would lower the maximum acceptable relative humidity from 100% to 65% to maintain thermal comfort conditions. The CBE Thermal Comfort Tool can be used to demonstrate the effect of relative humidity for specific thermal comfort conditions and it can be used to demonstrate compliance with ASHRAE Standard 55-2017.
When using the adaptive model to predict thermal comfort indoors, relative humidity is not taken into account. Although relative humidity is an important factor for thermal comfort, humans are more sensitive to variations in temperature than they are to changes in relative humidity. Relative humidity has a small effect on thermal comfort outdoors when air temperatures are low, a more pronounced effect at moderate air temperatures, a much stronger influence at higher air temperatures. In cold climates, the outdoor temperature causes lower capacity for water vapor to flow about, thus although it may be snowing and the relative humidity outdoors is high, once that air comes into a building and heats up, its new relative humidity is low, making the air dry, which can cause discomfort. Dry cracked. Low humidity causes tissue lining nasal passages to dry and become more susceptible to penetration of Rhinovirus cold viruses. Low humidity is a common cause of nosebleeds; the use of a humidifier in homes bedrooms, can help with these symptoms.
Indoor relative humidities should be kept above 30% to reduce the likelihood of the occupant's nasal passages drying out. Humans can be comfortable within a wide range of humidities depending on the temperature—from 30% to 70%—but ideally between 50% and 60%. Low humidity can create discomfort, respiratory problems, aggravate allergies in some individuals. In the winter, it is advisable to maintain relative humidity above. Low relative humidities may cause eye irritation. For climate control in buildings using HVAC systems, the key is to maintain the relative humidity at a comfortable range—low enough to be comfortable but high enough to avoid problems associated with dry air; when the temperature is high and the relative humidity is low, evaporation of water is rapid. Wooden furniture can shrink; when the temperature is low and the relative humidity is high, evaporation of water is slow. When relative humidity approaches 100 percent, condensation can occur on surfaces, leading to problems with mold, corrosion and other moisture-related deterioration.
Condensation can pose a safety risk as it can promote the growth of mold and wood rot as well as freezing emergency exits shut. Certain production and technical processes and treatments in factories, laboratories and other facilities require specific relative humidity levels to be maintained using humidifiers and associated control systems; the basic principles for buildings, above apply to vehicles. In addition, there may be safety considerations. For instance, high humidity inside a vehicle can lead to problems of condensation, such
Emílio Garrastazu Médici
Emílio Garrastazu Médici was a Brazilian military leader and politician, President of Brazil from 1969 to 1974. His authoritarian rule marked the apex of the Brazilian military government. Médici was born in Bagé, Rio Grande do Sul state. From his father's side, he was the grandson of Italian immigrants who went to Uruguay and moved to Brazil. On his mother's side he descended from Basques. In the 1920s he entered military school at Porto Alegre and the Army where he was promoted, becoming general in 1961. Throughout the 1950s he served as a commander of reserve forces before being appointed chief of staff to Artur da Costa e Silva from 1957 to 1960. After the military coup Médici became Brazil's military attache to the USA from 1964-1966. In 1967 Médici was appointed chief of the National Intelligence Service of Brazil. In 1969 he became commander of the Third Army and was chosen to become President of Brazil by the Brazilian Military Junta of 1969, succeeding Costa e Silva, who had suffered a stroke.
As the President was elected by National Congress, it had to be re-convened for this purpose after being dismissed by Costa de Silva. The legislature, dominated by the pro-military National Renewal Alliance Party, elected him by a margin of 313-0, with 56 abstentions. Médici took the oath on October 30, 1969 and served until the end of his term on March 15, 1974. Médici ruled under a 1967 Constitution, amended a few months earlier to be more repressive than its predecessor, his regime made liberal use of torture and strict press censorship. Import of the men's magazines Playboy and Lui, as well as the West German news magazine Der Spiegel, was banned because they offended "morality and proper behavior". Médici was popular, as his term was met with the largest economic growth of any Brazilian President, the Brazilian Miracle unfolded, authored jointly by his liberal ministers ahead of the Ministério do Planejamento and Ministério da Fazenda Roberto Campos and Delfim Netto, the country won the 1970 Football World Cup.
In 1971 Médici presented the First National Development Plan aimed at increasing the rate of economic growth in the remote Northeast and Amazon basin. During the Brazilian Miracle economy grew at a rate of 10% per year and inflation was kept low in comparison to the stratospheric levels during the governments before the implementation of the military regime. Large construction projects were undertaken, including the Trans-Amazonian Highway, the Itaipu Dam and Rio–Niterói bridge. On the other side, the economic growth benefited the richer classes — by the end of 1970, the official minimum wage went down to US$40/month, the more than one-third of the Brazilian workforce whose wages were tied to it lost about 50% of their purchasing power in relation to 1960 levels at the end of Juscelino Kubitscheck's administration. In November 1970 federal and municipal elections were held. Most of the seats were won by ARENA candidates. In 1973, the electoral college was created and in January 1974 General Ernesto Geisel was elected to be the next President.
During his rule guerrilla movement led by Carlos Marighela, leader of Ação Libertadora Nacional and Carlos Lamarca was destroyed and Marighela and Lamarca killed. Revolutionary Movement 8th October was suppressed and Araguaia Guerrilla War won. In the 1980s, the Catholic vicariate of São Paulo and Protestant ministers obtained thousands of classified documents that detailed the use of torture during Médici's term; these revelations shocked Brazilians, unaware of the extensive use of torture. In 1971, President Richard Nixon and Médici discussed coordinating their efforts to overthrow Cuba's Fidel Castro and Chile's Salvador Allende. National security advisor Henry Kissinger's account of the December 9, 1971, White House visit by Médici was written "for the president's file" and classified Top Secret, it was declassified on September 4, 2008, made public in July as part of a State Department publication on U. S. foreign policy. Kissinger's memo shows that it was Nixon who raised the subject of Allende during the meeting, asking for Médici's views on Chile: "Médici said Allende would be overthrown".
Then asked whether Médici thought that the Chilean armed forces were capable of overthrowing Allende. Médici replied that he felt that they were, made clear that Brazil was "working towards this end." The memo notes that Nixon and Médici discussed whether Cuba should have readmission to the Organization of American States. For his part, Médici noted that Peru was trying to persuade the OAS to consider readmitting Cuba and asked Nixon how they should cooperate to oppose the move. Nixon said he would study the issue and reply to Médici "privately." The OAS voted to lift sanctions on Cuba in 1974. Upon leaving the presidency, Médici retired from public life, he declared himself against the political amnesty enacted in August 1979 during the administration of João Figueiredo. Médici was succeeded by General Ernesto Geisel on March 15, 1974. Médici died of kidney failure on 9 October 1985 at the age of 79 after suffering a stroke, his body was buried in the São João Batista Cemetery in Rio de Janeiro.
Grand Collar of the Military Order of Saint James of the Sword Grand Collar of the Order of the Tower and Sword Brazilian military government Brazilian Miracle Araguaia Guerrilla War