European Business Aviation Association
European Business Aviation Association or EBAA, is a non-profit association based in Belgium that has existed since 1977. Its 684 member companies span all aspects of the business aviation sector in Europe and elsewhere; the EBAA’s aim is to promote excellence and professionalism amongst its members and to ensure that business aviation is properly recognized as a vital sector of the European Economy. EBAA represents corporate operators, commercial operators, airports, fixed-base operators, business aviation service providers. 1977Dr. Frits Philips of NV Philips and François Chavatte, head of IBM Flight Department in Europe, founded the International Business Aviation Association, set up in Eindhoven, the Netherlands, with 12 founding Members. 1984Recognizing that Brussels was the strategic place to be, the Association moved to Belgium and became known as the EBAA. Membership amounted at that time to 49. 2001Together with its US partner, the National Business Aviation Association, the EBAA launched the European Business Aviation Conference and Exhibition.
Membership for the first time hit the 100 + landmark. EBAA focuses on creating an environment that fosters business aviation in Europe and around the world, is recognized as the leading entity representing business aviation in Europe; the Association is involved in regulatory discussions in the various EU institutions and with the European Commission and Parliament, to communicate its position on regional and international regulations and issues affecting the business aviation industry in Europe. Such issues include the Single European Sky. Other European national aviation associations represented by the EBAA include: GBAA, EBAA France, BBGA, EBAA Switzerland, IBAA. In cooperation with the American NBAA, EBAA hosts the annual European Business Aviation Conference & Exhibition convention, which has become Europe's largest Business Aviation trade show, for several years has been held in Geneva, one of Europe's biggest hubs for business aviation traffic; the association produces Industry Surveys and Studies and State of the Market Assessments.
EBAA is headed by Secretary-General Athar Husain Khan. In 2007, upon a decade of robust, double-digit growth of the Business Aviation sector, EUROCONTROL recognised that the sector had reached for the first time 7.3% of all IFR movements in Europe. This prompted the European Commission to issue a Communication on the importance of Business Aviation for Europe and its economy, thereby formally recognizing the Association as the official voice of the sector in Europe, it was soon followed by a Resolution of the European Parliament in 2009. Today, the Association is involved in regulatory discussions with the EU-28 Member States and with various European bodies, including in particular the European Aviation Safety Agency, EUROCONTROL, the European Commission, the Council and the European Parliament. Among others, it is involved in a vast range of aeropolitical issues affecting air transport and its members in particular, such as the Single European Sky, the Emissions Trading Scheme, Security, Flight Time Limitations, CORSIA and the access to ground infrastructure.
With the publication of "The Aviation Strategy" - as presented by the Commissioner in December 2015 - the EBAA published its positioning on the multiple issues tackled in the strategy. Here it showcased its willingness and active participation in the European policy making process. Business Aviation is a vital part of the European aviation infrastructure, providing links between remote communities not served by airlines, or any other direct means, it may carry only a fraction of the total number of yearly air passengers in Europe yet, with a fleet of 3,500 jet and turboprop aircraft – the second largest in the world and equivalent in number to the European airlines’ – it allows the connection of around 100,000 airport-pairs, three times more than low-cost and legacy carriers together As a new strategy provides a great opportunity to start anew and remind all that all too current legislation is not only ill-suited, but simply not applicable, the EBAA enumerated 16 areas where Business Aviation needs major change and makes specific recommendations to facilitate early action: 1.
Ownership & Control Lift barrier of 49.9% of foreign O&C for non-scheduled carriers on an ad hoc, reciprocal basis with like-minded countries 2. Traffic Rights Obtain mandate from EU MS to negotiate with third countries extra-bilateral rights and aim at opening up 5th, 6th and 7th freedom rights for Business Aviation with like-minded countries, dropping practice of non-objection 3. Slot Regulation Modify the current revision of Regulation 95/93 to allow airports and national authorities to recognize grandfather rights where they have been established for both scheduled and non-scheduled operations 4. GPS-Based Approaches Support the publication of Localizer Performance with Vertical Guidance enabling CAT-I precision approaches at regional airports through SESAR and other means 5. Complex TMAs Increasing capacity at congested airports: one solution is to improve access to satellite airports in complex TMAs 6. Capacity Increase at Major Hubs Promote trials at saturated hubs utilising steeper glideslopes for types of aircraft that have the capability but are co
SkyTeam is an airline alliance. Founded in June 2000, SkyTeam was the last of the three major airline alliances to be formed, the first two being Star Alliance and Oneworld; as of January 2019, SkyTeam consists of 19 carriers from five continents and operates with the slogan "Caring more about you". It operates a cargo alliance named SkyTeam Cargo, which partners ten carriers, all of them SkyTeam members, its centralised management team, SkyTeam Central, is based at the World Trade Center Schiphol Airport on the grounds of Amsterdam Airport Schiphol in Haarlemmermeer, Netherlands. In 2004, the alliance had its biggest expansion when Continental Airlines, Northwest Airlines and KLM joined as full members. In 2010, the alliance celebrated its 10th anniversary with the introduction of a special livery, the joining or upgrading status of four airlines, followed by the announcements of Aerolíneas Argentinas, China Airlines, Garuda Indonesia to become full members. In January 2011, incorporated both Saudi Arabian Airlines and Middle East Airlines during 2012.
Garuda Indonesia entered the alliance in March 2014. As of November 2018, SkyTeam flies to more than 1,000 destinations in more than 170 countries and operates more than 17,000 daily flights; the alliance and its members have 750 lounges worldwide. On 22 June 2000, representatives of Aeroméxico, Air France, Delta Air Lines and Korean Air held a meeting in New York to found a third airline alliance; these became the four founding carriers of SkyTeam. Upon its formation, SkyTeam would offer its customers a total of 6,402 daily flights to 451 destinations in 98 countries. In September 2000, the alliance established SkyTeam Cargo; the group's inaugural members were Aeromexpress, Air France Cargo, Delta Air Logistics and Korean Air Cargo. The following month, the newly established airline alliance announced its intentions to incorporate CSA Czech Airlines as the 5th member in April the following year; the alliance saw the joining of CSA Czech Airlines on 25 March 2001. On 30 September 2001, the alliance received KLM's application for membership, following the airline's plans to create a leading airline group with Air France.
In 2003, Delta's subsidiary, Delta Express, was replaced by Song. That same year, SkyTeam launched an improved website focused on providing passengers with more information, increased interactivity and other resources. On 24 May 2004, the flag carrier and principal airline of Russia, signed a Memorandum of Understanding with SkyTeam as it intended to become a full member; the event took place in Kremlin following the airline's application earlier in the year for membership. SkyTeam expressed that Aeroflot has not met the consortium's standards, but that the airline's large hub networks made it ideal for the alliance, made up for its deficiencies. On 28 August, China Southern Airlines, the largest carrier in the People's Republic of China, signed a preliminary agreement in Guangzhou in its bid to become a full member. In the presence of a number of Chinese and airline officials, Yan Zhiqing, the chairman of China Southern Airlines, said, "This agreement-signing event is an important step forward into the future for China Southern Airlines to adapt itself to the need of further reforms and opening to the international community, as it will strengthen the airline's international cooperation and global competitiveness."
On 13 September, KLM and Northwest Airlines joined the alliance. Their simultaneous entry was the largest expansion event in airline alliance history; as a result of the three new members, SkyTeam surpassed Oneworld to become the second largest airline alliance, serving more than 341 million customers with 14,320 daily flights to 658 destinations in 130 countries. Though member CSA Czech Airlines pledged to help Malév Hungarian Airlines become an associate member of the alliance, Malév Hungarian Airlines opted to join the Oneworld airline alliance, signing a Memorandum of Understanding late in May. A few days SkyTeam announced four new associate members due to join by 2006, each one being "sponsored" by an existing member: Madrid-based Air Europa, Panama-based Copa Airlines, Kenya Airways and Romania's TAROM; every associate adopted a frequent-flyer program of a full member: Copa Airlines used Continental's OnePass. Following a 23-month joining process since May 2004, Aeroflot joined on 14 April 2006.
It was the first Russian airline to be associated with any airline alliance. Aeroflot has increased its operational standards, passing International Air Transport Association's Operational Safety Audit. Delta's subsidiary Song continued to operate as Delta Air Lines. In June, it was announced that Portugália would become the alliance's next associate member candidate. However, in November, rival airline and Star Alliance member TAP Air Portugal, purchased 99.81% of the airline, bringing a sudden end to its candidacy. On 4 September 2007, Air Europa and Copa Airlines, Kenya Airways became members of SkyTeam's Associate program, launched to serve airlines in strategic regions which intended to become affiliated with the alliance. China Southern Airlines jo
Airlines for America
Airlines for America known as Air Transport Association of America, is an American trade association and lobbying group based in Washington, D. C. that represents the largest airlines. A4A member airlines and their affiliates transport more than 90 percent of U. S. airline passenger and cargo traffic. A4A's stated purpose is to "foster a business and regulatory environment that ensures safe and secure air transportation and enables U. S. airlines to flourish, stimulating economic growth locally and globally". A4A advocates on behalf of participating scheduled airline corporations to the U. S. Congress, state legislatures, the U. S. Department of Transportation, including the Federal Aviation Administration, the U. S. Department of Homeland Security, including the Transportation Security Administration and Customs and Border Protection. Since its founding in 1936, A4A has played a major role in all government decisions concerning aviation, including the creation of the Civil Aeronautics Board, the creation of the air traffic control system and airline deregulation.
It advocates that the American government implement a national airline policy that will enable U. S. airlines to function as effective multinational enterprises. Furthermore, it believes an element of such a policy is the modernization of the U. S. air the Next Generation Air Transportation System. Nicholas Calio became president of the Air Transport Association, in January 2011. Calio was hired. Hiring Calio, "a brand name" Republican, known for working well with Democrats, was seen as a positive for the ATA. Democratic lobbyist Jimmy Ryan said: "He’s so well liked by both Democrats and Republicans that for the ATA it’s a huge coup; the new challenge is figuring out how to get things done in a bipartisan manner and Nick is the guy who’s got the record to do it.” Senator Harry Reid said, "... Nick was a straight shooter and I appreciated that about him when he was at the White House; the ATA is fortunate to have a seasoned hand who understands the importance of finding bipartisan solutions.” A4A senior staff members have testified before Congress in favor of lowering taxes on airlines, arguing that current policies reduce profits and growth in the industry.
The A4A has lobbied on topics such as enhancing competition in international markets and advocating for a comprehensive review of the FAA's NextGen program costs, benefits and management. A4A works with its members on legal and technical issues affecting the U. S. airline industry. A4A operates member committees related to fuel. A4A advocates common association member positions before state and local governments to assure governmental and public understanding of the A4A's positions on the aspects of commercial airlines. A4A's priorities include maintaining airline safety. Airlines for America supports NextGen modernization of the air traffic control system; this system will update the current 1950s radar-based technology with a modern, satellite-based navigation system. Aviation experts predict that a modern air traffic management system will save jet fuel and reduce delays by allowing planes to fly shorter routes and by allowing more aircraft to fly safely at any given time. Modernizing the air traffic control system would reduce the amount of time that airplanes spend waiting on runways and in holding patterns.
The A4A has announced five "core elements" of a national airline policy include reducing taxes on the industry, reducing regulation, increased access to foreign markets, making the industry more attractive for investors, improving the air traffic control system. A4A President and CEO, Nicholas E. Calio, said, "Airlines enable their local businesses to export goods, connect their residents to the world for business and leisure travel – and create good-paying jobs. We face the real risk of U. S. airlines shifting to feeding foreign airlines at our gateways, rather than expanding their flying of lucrative international routes."In 2011, Calio said that the value of American exports shipped by air was 117 times the value of exports transported by sea and that commercial aviation had become an important catalyst for the economy. Calio said that the regulatory and tax environment, in addition to inadequate infrastructure, are making it hard for the US airline industry to compete internationally and still turn a profit.
On April 25, 2011, the Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections, "76 Federal Regulation 23110" rule was enacted. Amongst other items, the rule includes raising the minimum "denied boarding compensation" to customers with valid tickets yet still not allowed to board the aircraft; the legislation further penalizes airlines up to $27,500 per passenger if left stranded aboard an aircraft, on a tarmac for more than three hours. In 2010 the Air Transport Association and the Regional Airline Association both opposed this legislation; the ATA stated, "As we have noted before, competition in the marketplace and existing Department regulations supported by fair enforcement are sufficient to ensure airlines continue to deliver good customer service." In 2013, Airlines for America assembled a coalition of labor and consumer advocacy groups in order to oppose increasing the tax on airline tic
Qantas Airways is the flag carrier of Australia and its largest airline by fleet size, international flights and international destinations. It is the third oldest airline in the world, after KLM and Avianca having been founded in November 1920; the Qantas name comes from "QANTAS", an acronym for its original name, "Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services", it is nicknamed "The Flying Kangaroo". Qantas is a founding member of the Oneworld airline alliance; the airline is based in the Sydney suburb of Mascot with its main hub at Sydney Airport. As of March 2014, Qantas had a 65% share of the Australian domestic market and carried 14.9% of all passengers travelling in and out of Australia. Various subsidiary airlines operate to regional centres and on some trunk routes within Australia under the QantasLink banner. Qantas owns Jetstar Airways, a low-cost airline that operates both international services from Australia and domestic services within Australia and New Zealand. Qantas was founded in Winton, Queensland on 16 November 1920 by Hudson Fysh, Paul McGinness and Fergus McMaster as Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services Limited.
The airline's first aircraft was an Avro 504K. In 1920 Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services Ltd had its headquarters in Winton before moving to Longreach, Queensland in 1921 and Brisbane, Queensland in 1930. In 1934, QANTAS and Britain's Imperial Airways formed Qantas Empire Airways Limited; the new airline commenced operations in December 1934, flying between Darwin. QEA flew internationally from May 1935. After World War II began, enemy action and accidents destroyed half of the fleet of ten, when most of the fleet was taken over by the Australian government for war service. Flying boat services were resumed in 1943, with flights between the Swan River at Crawley in Perth, Western Australia and Koggala lake in Ceylon; this linked up with the British Overseas Airways Corporation service to London. Qantas' kangaroo logo was first used on the "Kangaroo Route", begun in 1944, from Sydney to Karachi, where BOAC crews took over for the rest of the journey to the UK. In 1947, QEA was nationalised by the Australian government led by Labor Prime Minister Ben Chifley.
QANTAS Limited was wound up. After nationalisation, Qantas' remaining domestic network, in Queensland, was transferred to the nationally owned Trans Australia Airlines, leaving Qantas with a purely international network. Shortly after nationalisation, QEA began its first services outside the British Empire – to Tokyo. Services to Hong Kong began around the same time. In 1957 a head office, Qantas House, opened in Sydney. In June 1959 Qantas entered the jet age. On 14 September 1992, Qantas merged with Australian Airlines; the airline started to be rebranded to Qantas in the following year. Qantas was privatised between 1993 and 1997. Under the legislation passed to allow the privatisation, Qantas must be at least 51% owned by Australian shareholders. In 1998, Qantas co-founded the Oneworld alliance with American Airlines, British Airways, Canadian Airlines, Cathay Pacific, with other airlines joining subsequently. With the entry of new budget airline Virgin Blue into the domestic market in 2000, Qantas' market share fell.
Qantas created the budget Jetstar Airways in 2001 to compete. The main domestic competitor to Qantas, Ansett Australia, collapsed on 14 September 2001. Market share for Qantas neared 90%, but competition with Virgin increased as it expanded. Qantas revived the Australian Airlines name for a short-lived international budget airline between 2002 and 2006, but this subsidiary was shut down in favour of expanding Jetstar internationally, including to New Zealand. In 2004, the Qantas group expanded into the Asian budget airline market with Jetstar Asia Airways, in which Qantas owns a minority stake. A similar model was used for the investment into Jetstar Pacific, headquartered in Vietnam, in 2007, Jetstar Japan, launched in 2012. In December 2006, Qantas was the subject of a failed bid from a consortium calling itself Airline Partners Australia. Merger talks with British Airways in 2008 did not proceed to an agreement. In 2011, an industrial relations dispute between Qantas and the Transport Workers Union of Australia resulted in the grounding of all Qantas aircraft and lock-out of the airline's staff for two days.
On 25 March 2018, a Qantas Boeing 787 Dreamliner became the first aircraft to operate a scheduled non-stop commercial flight between Australia and Europe, with the inaugural arrival in London of Flight 9. QF9 was a 17-hour, 14,498 km journey from Perth Airport in Western Australia to London Heathrow; the key trends for the Qantas Group, are shown below: Qantas' headquarters are located at the Qantas Centre in the Bayside Council suburb of Mascot, New South Wales. The headquarters underwent a redevelopment, completed in December 2013. Qantas has operated a number of passenger airline subsidiaries since inception
An airline alliance is an aviation industry arrangement between two or more airlines agreeing to cooperate on a substantial level. Alliances may provide marketing branding to facilitate travelers making inter-airline codeshare connections within countries; this branding may involve unified aircraft liveries of member aircraft. In 2015, Star Alliance was the largest with 23% of total scheduled traffic in revenue passenger miles /revenue passenger kilometres, followed by SkyTeam with 20.4% and Oneworld with 17.8%, leaving 38.8% for others. Benefits can consist of: An extended network realised through codeshare agreements. Many alliances started as only codeshare networks. Cost reduction from sharing of: sales offices maintenance facilities operational facilities, e.g. catering or computer systems. Operational staff, e.g. ground handling personnel, at check-in and boarding desks. Investments and purchases, e.g.. Traveler benefits can include: lower prices due to lowered operational costs for a given route.
More departure times to choose from on a given route. More destinations within easy reach. Shorter travel times as a result of optimised transfers. A wider range of airport lounges shared with alliance members fast track access on all alliance members if having frequent flyer status faster mileage rewards by earning miles for a single account on several different carriers. Round-the-world tickets, enabling travelers to fly over the world for a low price. Airline alliances may create disadvantages for the traveler, such as: Higher prices when competition is erased on a certain route. Less frequent flights: for instance, if two airlines separately fly three and two times a day on a shared route, their alliance might fly less than 5 times a day on the same route; this might be true between hub cities for each airline. E.g. flights between Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport and Amsterdam Airport Schiphol. The ability of an airline to join an alliance may be restricted by laws and regulations or subject to approval by authorities.
Competition law issues must be considered in some countries. The first airline alliance was formed in the 1930s, when Panair do Brasil and its parent company Pan American World Airways agreed to exchange routes to Latin America. In 1990, the African Joint Air Services Accord between Tanzania and Zambia led to the launch of Alliance Air in 1994, with South African Airways, Air Tanzania, Uganda Airlines and the governments of Uganda and Tanzania as shareholders; the first large alliance began in 1989, when Northwest Airlines and KLM agreed to large-scale codesharing. In 1992, the Netherlands signed the first open skies agreement with the United States, in spite of objections from the European Union, which gave both countries unrestricted landing rights on the other's soil. Landing rights are granted for a fixed number of flights per week to a fixed destination; each adjustment requires negotiations between governments rather than between the companies involved. In return, the United States granted antitrust immunity to the alliance between Northwest Airlines and KLM.
Other alliances would struggle for years to overcome the transnational barriers and lack of antitrust immunity, still do so. The Star Alliance was founded in 1997, which brought competing airlines to form Oneworld in 1999 and SkyTeam in 2000. In 2010 Richard Branson, chairman of the Virgin Group, announced his intention to form a fourth alliance among Virgin branded airlines. In September 2011, Branson said that Virgin Atlantic would join one of the existing alliances. In December 2012, Delta Air Lines purchased Singapore Airlines' 49% stake in Virgin Atlantic for £224 million. Virgin America was absorbed into Alaska Airlines, not a member of any alliance, in April 2018. On February 14, 2013, it was announced that American Airlines and US Airways would merge, retaining the American Airlines name and would remain in the Oneworld alliance. US Airways' participation in the Star Alliance lapsed. In 2012, in South America, LAN Airlines and TAM Airlines began their merger. In March 2014, with the merger complete, TAM became part of LAN in Oneworld.
On September 21, 2015, the Vanilla Alliance was formed between several airlines based in the Indian Ocean region, in order to improve air connectivity within the region. The founding members are Air Austral, Air Mauritius, Air Madagascar, Air Seychelles, Int'Air Îles. On January 18, 2016, the first alliance of low-cost carriers was formed, U-FLY Alliance; the founding members—HK Express, Lucky Air, Urumqi Air, West Air—are all affiliated with HNA Group, although the alliance is seeking airlines not within the group. On May 16, 2016, the world's largest alliance of low-cost carriers was formed, Value Alliance; the founding members are Cebu Pacific, Jeju Air, Nok Air, NokScoot, Scoot Airlines, Tigerair Australia, Vanilla Air. Star Alliance, founded in 1997 has 27 members: Former members: Juneyao Airlines, 2017 Oneworld, founded in 1999 has 13 members: Future members: Former members: Aer Lingus, left One World Alliance on 31st March 2007 Fiji Airways, 2018 SkyTeam, founded in 2000 has 19 members: Former members: Vanilla Alliance, founded in 2015 has 5 members: U-FLY Alliance, founded in 2016 has 5 members: Value Alliance, founded in 2016 has 8 members: Former members: Tigerair, 2016–2017, merged with Scoot Oneworld SkyTeam Star Alliance Value Alliance Graham Dunn.
"The 20-year history of globa
Moncton is the largest city in the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Situated in the Petitcodiac River Valley, Moncton lies at the geographic centre of the Maritime Provinces; the city has earned the nickname "Hub City" due to its central inland location in the region and its history as a railway and land transportation hub for the Maritimes. The city proper has a population of 71,889 and has a land area of 142 km2; the Moncton CMA has a population of 144,810, making it the largest city and CMA in New Brunswick, the second-largest city and CMA in the Maritime Provinces. The CMA includes the neighbouring city of Dieppe and the town of Riverview, as well as adjacent suburban areas in Westmorland and Albert counties. Although the Moncton area was first settled in 1733, Moncton is considered to have been founded in 1766 with the arrival of Pennsylvania Dutch immigrants from Philadelphia. An agricultural settlement, Moncton was not incorporated until 1855; the city was named for Lt. Col. Robert Monckton, the British officer who had captured nearby Fort Beauséjour a century earlier.
A significant wooden shipbuilding industry had developed in the community by the mid-1840s, allowing for the civic incorporation in 1855, but the shipbuilding economy collapsed in the 1860s, causing the town to lose its civic charter in 1862. Moncton regained its charter in 1875 after the community's economy rebounded due to a growing railway industry. In 1871, the Intercolonial Railway of Canada had chosen Moncton to be its headquarters, Moncton remained a railway town for well over a century until the closure of the Canadian National Railway locomotive shops in the late 1980s. Although the economy of Moncton was traumatized twice—by the collapse of the shipbuilding industry in the 1860s and by the closure of the CNR locomotive shops in the 1980s—the city was able to rebound on both occasions; the city adopted the motto Resurgo after its rebirth as a railway town. The city's economy is stable and diversified based on its traditional transportation, distribution and commercial heritage, supplemented by strength in the educational, health care, information technology, insurance sectors.
The strength of Moncton's economy has received national recognition and the local unemployment rate is less than the national average. Acadians settled the head of the Bay of Fundy in the 1670s; the first reference to the "Petcoucoyer River" was on the De Meulles map of 1686. Settlement of the Petitcodiac and Memramcook river valleys began about 1700 extending inland and reaching the site of present-day Moncton in 1733; the first Acadian settlers in the Moncton area established a marshland farming community and chose to name their settlement Le Coude, an allusion to the 90° bend in the river near the site of the settlement. In 1755, nearby Fort Beausejour was captured by British forces under the command of Lt. Col. Robert Monckton; the Beaubassin region including the Memramcook and Petitcodiac river valleys subsequently fell under English control. That year, Governor Charles Lawrence issued a decree ordering the expulsion of the Acadian population from Nova Scotia; this action came to be known as the "Great Upheaval".
The reaches of the upper Petitcodiac River valley came under the control of the Philadelphia Land Company and in 1766 Pennsylvania Dutch settlers arrived to re-establish the pre-existing farming community at Le Coude. The Settlers consisted of eight families. There is a plaque dedicated in their honor at the mouth of Hall's Creek, they renamed the settlement "The Bend". The Bend remained an agricultural settlement for nearly 80 more years. By 1836, there were only 20 households in the community. At this time, the Westmorland Road became open to year-round travel and a regular mail coach service was established between Saint John and Halifax; the Bend became an important rest station along the route. Over the next decade and shipbuilding would become important industries in the area; the turning point for the community was when Joseph Salter took over a shipyard at the Bend in 1847. The expanded shipyard grew to employ about 400 workers; the Bend subsequently developed a service-based economy to support the shipyard and began to acquire all the amenities of a growing town.
The prosperity engendered by the wooden shipbuilding industry allowed The Bend to incorporate as the town of Moncton in 1855. The town was named for Lt. Col. Robert Monckton, but a clerical error at the time the town was incorporated resulted in the misspelling of the community's name, perpetuated to the present day; the first mayor of Moncton was the shipbuilder Joseph Salter. Two years in 1857, the European and North American Railway opened its line from Moncton to nearby Shediac. At about the time of the arrival of the railway, the popularity of steam-powered ships forced an end to the era of wooden shipbuilding; the Salter shipyard closed in 1858. The resulting industrial collapse caused Moncton to surrender its civic charter in 1862. Moncton's economic depression did not last long and a second era of prosperity came to the area in 1871 when Moncton was selected to be the headquarters of the Intercolonial Railway of Canada; the arrival of the ICR in Moncton was a sem
British Airways is the flag carrier and the second largest airline in the United Kingdom based on fleet size and passengers carried, behind easyJet. The airline is based in Waterside near its main hub at London Heathrow Airport. In January 2011 BA merged with Iberia, creating the International Airlines Group, a holding company registered in Madrid, Spain. IAG is the world's third-largest airline group in terms of annual revenue and the second-largest in Europe, it is listed in the FTSE 100 Index. BA was created in 1974 after a British Airways Board was established by the British government to manage the two nationalised airline corporations, British Overseas Airways Corporation and British European Airways, two regional airlines, Cambrian Airways from Cardiff, Northeast Airlines from Newcastle upon Tyne. On 31 March 1974, all four companies were merged to form British Airways. After 13 years as a state company, BA was privatised in February 1987 as part of a wider privatisation plan by the Conservative government.
The carrier expanded with the acquisition of British Caledonian in 1987, Dan-Air in 1992, British Midland International in 2012. Its preeminence highlights the reach of the country's influence as many of its destinations in several regions were part of the British Empire, it is a founding member of the Oneworld airline alliance, along with American Airlines, Cathay Pacific and the now defunct Canadian Airlines. The alliance has since grown to become the third largest, after Star Alliance. Proposals to establish a joint British airline, combining the assets of the British Overseas Airways Corporation and British European Airways were first raised in 1953 as a result of difficulties in attempts by BOAC and BEA to negotiate air rights through the British colony of Cyprus. BOAC was protesting that BEA was using its subsidiary Cyprus Airways to circumvent an agreement that BEA would not fly routes further east than Cyprus to the important oil regions in the Middle East; the Chairman of BOAC, Miles Thomas, was in favour of merger as a potential solution to this disagreement and had backing for the idea from the Chancellor of the Exchequer at the time, Rab Butler.
However, opposition from the Treasury blocked the proposal. It was only following the recommendations of the 1969 Edwards Report that a new British Airways Board, managing both BEA and BOAC, the two regional British airlines Cambrian Airways based at Cardiff, Northeast Airlines based at Newcastle upon Tyne, was constituted on 1 April 1972. Although each airline's individual branding was maintained two years the British Airways Board unified its branding establishing British Airways as an airline on 31 March 1974. Following two years of fierce competition with British Caledonian, the second-largest airline in the United Kingdom at the time, the Government changed its aviation policy in 1976 so that the two carriers would no longer compete on long-haul routes. British Airways and Air France operated the supersonic airliner Aerospatiale-BAC Concorde, the world's first supersonic passenger service flew in January 1976 from London Heathrow to Bahrain. Services to the US began on 24 May 1976 with a flight to Washington Dulles airport, flights to New York JFK airport followed on 22 September 1977.
Service to Singapore was established in co-operation with Singapore Airlines as a continuation of the flight to Bahrain. Following the Air France Concorde crash in Paris and a slump in air travel following the 11 September attacks in New York in 2001, it was decided to cease Concorde operations in 2003 after 27 years of service; the final commercial Concorde flight was BA002 from New York JFK to London Heathrow on 24 October 2003. In 1981 the airline was instructed to prepare for privatisation by the Conservative Thatcher government. Sir John King Lord King, was appointed chairman, charged with bringing the airline back into profitability. While many other large airlines struggled, King was credited with transforming British Airways into one of the most profitable air carriers in the world; the flag carrier was privatised and was floated on the London Stock Exchange in February 1987. British Airways effected the takeover of the UK's "second" airline, British Caledonian, in July of that same year.
The formation of Richard Branson's Virgin Atlantic in 1984 created a competitor for BA. The intense rivalry between British Airways and Virgin Atlantic culminated in the former being sued for libel in 1993, arising from claims and counterclaims over a "dirty tricks" campaign against Virgin; this campaign included allegations of poaching Virgin Atlantic customers, tampering with private files belonging to Virgin and undermining Virgin's reputation in the City. As a result of the case BA management apologised "unreservedly", the company agreed to pay £110,000 damages to Virgin, £500,000 to Branson and £3 million legal costs. Lord King stepped down as chairman in 1993 and was replaced by his deputy, Colin Marshall, while Bob Ayling took over as CEO. Virgin filed a separate action in the US that same year regarding BA's domination of the trans-Atlantic routes, but it was thrown out in 1999. In 1992 British Airways expanded through the acquisition of the financially troubled Dan-Air, giving BA a much larger presence at Gatwick airport.
British Asia Airways, a subsidiary based in Taiwan, was formed in March 1993 to operate between London and Taipei. That same month BA purchased a 25% stake in the Australian airline Qantas and, with the acquisition of Brymon Airways in May, formed British Airways Citiexpress. In September 1998, British Airways, along with American Airlines, Cathay Pacific and Canadian