Bagan is an ancient city and a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in the Mandalay Region of Myanmar. From the 9th to 13th centuries, the city was the capital of the Pagan Kingdom, the first kingdom that unified the regions that would constitute modern Myanmar. During the kingdom's height between the 11th and 13th centuries, 4,446 Buddhist temples and monasteries were constructed in the Bagan plains alone, of which the remains of 3822 temples and pagodas still survive to the present day; the Bagan Archaeological Zone is a main attraction for the country's nascent tourism industry. Bagan is the present-day standard Burmese pronunciation of the Burmese word Pugan, derived from Old Burmese Pukam, its classical Pali name is Arimaddanapura. Its other names in Pali are in reference to its extreme dry zone climate: Tattadesa, Tampadīpa; the Burmese chronicles report other classical names of Thiri Pyissaya and Tampawaddy. According to the Burmese chronicles, Bagan was founded in the second century AD, fortified in 849 AD by King Pyinbya, 34th successor of the founder of early Bagan.
Mainstream scholarship however holds that Bagan was founded in the mid-to-late 9th century by the Mranma, who had entered the Irrawaddy valley from the Nanzhao Kingdom. It was among several competing Pyu city-states until the late 10th century when the Burman settlement grew in authority and grandeur. From 1044 to 1287, Bagan was the capital as well as the political and cultural nerve center of the Pagan Empire. Over the course of 250 years, Bagan's rulers and their wealthy subjects constructed over 10,000 religious monuments in an area of 104 square kilometres in the Bagan plains; the prosperous city grew in size and grandeur, became a cosmopolitan center for religious and secular studies, specializing in Pali scholarship in grammar and philosophical-psychological studies as well as works in a variety of languages on prosody, grammar, alchemy and legal studies. The city attracted students from as far as India, Sri Lanka and the Khmer Empire; the culture of Bagan was dominated by religion. The religion of Bagan was fluid, syncretic and by standards, unorthodox.
It was a continuation of religious trends in the Pyu era where Theravada Buddhism co-existed with Mahayana Buddhism, Tantric Buddhism, various Hindu schools as well as native animist traditions. While the royal patronage of Theravada Buddhism since the mid-11th century had enabled the Buddhist school to gain primacy, other traditions continued to thrive throughout the Pagan period to degrees unseen; the Pagan Empire collapsed in 1287 due to repeated Mongol invasions. Recent research shows that Mongol armies may not have reached Bagan itself, that if they did, the damage they inflicted was minimal. However, the damage had been done; the city, once home to some 50,000 to 200,000 people, had been reduced to a small town, never to regain its preeminence. The city formally ceased to be the capital of Burma in December 1297 when the Myinsaing Kingdom became the new power in Upper Burma. Bagan survived into the 15th century as a human settlement, as a pilgrimage destination throughout the imperial period.
A smaller number of "new and impressive" religious monuments still went up to the mid-15th century but afterward, new temple constructions slowed to a trickle with fewer than 200 temples built between the 15th and 20th centuries. The old capital remained a pilgrimage destination but pilgrimage was focused only on "a score or so" most prominent temples out of the thousands such as the Ananda, the Shwezigon, the Sulamani, the Htilominlo, the Dhammayazika, a few other temples along an ancient road; the rest—thousands of less famous, out-of-the-way temples—fell into disrepair, most did not survive the test of time. For the few dozen temples that were patronized, the continued patronage meant regular upkeep as well as architectural additions donated by the devotees. Many temples were repainted with new frescoes on top of their original Pagan era ones, or fitted with new Buddha statutes. Came a series of state-sponsored "systematic" renovations in the Konbaung period, which by and large were not true to the original designs—some finished with "a rude plastered surface, scratched without taste, art or result".
The interiors of some temples were whitewashed, such as the Thatbyinnyu and the Ananda. Many painted inscriptions and murals were added in this period. Bagan, located in an active earthquake zone, had suffered from many earthquakes over the ages, with over 400 recorded earthquakes between 1904 and 1975. A major earthquake occurred on 8 July 1975, reaching 8 MM in Bagan and Myinkaba, 7 MM in Nyaung-U; the quake damaged many temples, in many cases, such as the Bupaya and irreparably. Today, pagodas remain. Many of these damaged pagodas underwent restorations in the 1990s by the military government, which sought to make Bagan an international tourist destination. However, the restoration efforts instead drew widespread condemnation from art historians and preservationists worldwide. Critics are aghast that the restorations paid little attention to original architectural styles, used modern materials, that the government has established a golf course, a paved highway, built a 61-meter watchtower. Although the government believed that t
Pambazo is a Mexican dish or antojito made with pambazo bread dipped and fried in a red guajillo pepper sauce and filled with papas con chorizo or with papas only. The bread used for pambazos lacks a crispy crust; this particular bread is made of flour, is softer than the similar bolillo, which allows it to retain its shape while being soaked in sauce. Teleras are found in Mexican bakeries where they are sold just as any other white bread, it is unclear since when or why the pambazo is prepared and filled in a specific way. While other similar dishes changed the fillings or toppings, the pambazo recipe remains the same; the bread is first filled with the potato and chorizo dipped in warm red guajillo pepper sauce, which gives the bread its famous orange-red sprinkled coloration. Once the bread has been soaked, it is passed on to fry in a bit of oil; the pambazo is to fry on the bottom of the bread. The pambazo is ready, it is garnished with shredded lettuce, salsa and queso fresco. In the Mexican State of Veracruz, the pambazo, the bread, after some proofing the buns are punched in a bed of wheat flour and back to proofing and baked.
Once the bread is ready the top remain dusted and is sliced to the filling of layered grided refried black beans with chorizo, shreaded lettuce, sliced chipotle peppers in adobo, ground or squared queso blanco or queso fresco and spread mayonaisse. From food stands to backpacks or school lunch boxes the sandwich is wrapped in napkins to avoid dusted fingers and lips. In other regions is filled with polish meat. At birthday parties, parties or social events, small sized pambazos are served instead of canapés; these are known as pambacitos, which means "little pambazo". The pambazo bread got its name from the Ladino word pan basso or low-class bread from Mexico's viceregal period. During that period, there were bakeries in Mexico dedicated to this type of bread named'panbasserias'. "On this type of bread, inferior quality flour or flour from deteriorated wheat were mixed to produce the pan basso. Bakeries produced minimal quantities of pan basso, a maximum of 4% of all flour in Mexico City"Virginia García Acosta, Las panaderías, sus dueños y trabajadores.
Ciudad de México. Siglo XVII. In some villages from State of Mexico, the pambazos are made with Semitic Mediterranean cuisine influence by the use the acemite or bran for bread made in artisan bakeries about horns of Spanish colonial period, as the case of Malinalco and Amecameca. In Malinalco, state of Mexico makes other pambazos, a Spanish colonial meal are made flour more small to Mexico City pambazos, filled with sausage and potatoes, chicken meat with epazote, shredded lettuce, white cheese and spicy salsa. In Tequixquiac, state of Mexico makes pambazos different to Mexico City, are made flour with dark wheat rind or bran named acemite, filled with sausage and potatoes, turkey meat or lamb meat, shredded lettuce, white cheese and spicy chili chipotle sauce, fried with butter; the name is registered in this place as an archaic Spanish word. In Puebla City, pambazos are made with flour in the bread named cemita or acemite, filled with sausage and potatoes, papalo, white cheese and with red spicy salsa on the pambazo.
In Orizaba, Veracruz, an important place with Sephardic roots, is made a pambazo with Carne Polaca "Polish meat", is mixture with traditional pambazo or acemite and lettuce, with spicy sauce. The Daily Meal reviewed the pambazo with "it’s insanely delicious" in their article "12 Life-Changing Sandwiches You've Never Heard Of". List of Mexican dishes food portal de Caraza, Laura B. El Libro Clásico de la Cocina Mexicana. Mexico, D. F.: Promexa. ISBN 968-39-0366-5. Nieto, Blanca. Cocina tradicional mexicana. Mexico: Selector. ISBN 968-403-710-4. Flores, Carlos Arturo. México, la cultura, el arte y la vida cotidiana. Mexico: Centro de Investigaciones Interdisciplinarias en Humanidades, Coordinación de Humanidades, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. ISBN 968-36-0667-9. Recipe
The Rose of Tibet is a 1962 adventure novel by Lionel Davidson. Charles Houston makes a perilous and illegal journey from India into the forbidden land of Tibet during the unsettled time 1950/51, in the hope of rescuing his vanished brother. What he does not know is that his coming was prophesied a century earlier, he is awaited by an impossible love, an enormous treasure, the invading Red Chinese army. Houston travels to the Yamdring monastery, finds his way to the abbess and makes a perilous escape with her; the story is set at the time of the Chinese invasion in 1950. Graham Greene said of the novel: "I hadn’t realised how much I had missed the genuine adventure story until I read The Rose of Tibet", while Daphne du Maurier wrote:'It has all the excitement of King Solomon's Mines'Author Barry Gifford considers this book the one he wishes he had written, he has written about it in his collection of essays The Cavalry Charges and has called it'a genuine work of literature. I was charmed by the device Davidson employed to entice the reader into believing he's headed in one direction and opening up an unexpected can of bedazzling worms.'
Gifford goes on to say'I re-read The Rose of Tibet every few years and each time am transfixed, transported. Among so many books and songs that I love, it's the one that I wish I'd written; the Rose of Tibet is the one novel I'd love to write the screenplay for.'