Jinjiang is a county-level city of Quanzhou City, Fujian Province, China. It is located in the southeastern part of the province, on the right or south bank of the Jin River, across from Quanzhou's urban district of Fengze. Jinjiang borders the Taiwan Strait of the East China Sea to the south, Quanzhou's other county-cities of Shishi and Nan'an to the east and west, respectively, it has an area of 721.7 square kilometres and a population of 1,986,447 as of 2010. Jinjiang has the only extant Manichean temple in China and is near the eastern end of the world's longest estimated straight-line path over land, at 11,241 km, ending near Sagres, Portugal. Jinjiang has six subdistricts and 13 towns: SubdistrictsLingyuan Luoshan Meiling Qingyang Xintang Xiyuan TownsAnhai Chendai Chidian Cizao Dongshi Jinjing Longhu Neikeng Shenhu Xibin Yinglin Yonghe Zimao Jinjiang is known for the large number of factories which operate there in the clothing and name-brand footwear industry. Many migrant laborers come from elsewhere in Fujian and from outside the province to commit themselves to year-long contracts.
Jinjiang is famous as home to many Chinese in diaspora in Taiwan, Malaysia, Myanmar, etc. Once poor and overpopulated in early 19th century, Many locals moved to Southeast Asia for better lives, as what they called "xia nan yang, 下南洋" as "to sail down to the south sea" in English. Many of them have been integrated into local societies and achieved great success. For example, according to Forbes, 6 out of 10 richest business tycoons in Philippines can trace their ancestry back to Jinjiang. Therefore, from 80s to 90s, Jinjiang received much donation and investment from overseas Chinese communities. Jinjiang people speak the Jinjiang dialect, a variant of the Quanzhou dialect of Hokkien), intelligible to speakers of Xiamen and Taiwanese dialects, with many Chinese communities overseas, specially in southeast Asia, like Penang and Philippines; as in many parts of China, most Jinjiang people can use Putonghua to communicate with non-local people in commercial and other daily interactions. Jinjiang hosts the Quanzhou Jinjiang International Airport, IATA code JJN.
The facility is of international 4D standard, capable of handling mid-size jets, such as Boeing 737 series and Airbus 320 series. Most flights from JJN are domestic flights, with some international/regional flights to/from Hong Kong, Taipei, Bangkok, etc. Another way to get into the city is flying into Xiamen Gaoqi International Airport in the nearby city Xiamen, which has more international routes, including intercontinental flights to/from Amsterdam and Vancouver. From there, passengers can catch limousine buses to downtown Jinjiang in 1.5 hours. Jinjiang Station of the new high-speed Fuzhou-Xiamen Railway is located 14 kilometres away from the center of the city. Passengers are able to travel to bullet train hubs like Shanghai or Shenzhen in 2 to 3 hours, further transfer to other destinations national wide; the Jinjiang Railway Station is served by local buses and taxi. Thriving with economics in private sectors, Jinjiang has been ranked as No.1 county with the highest GDP in Fujian for over 15 consecutive years.
It's been ranked as top 10 richest county-level city in the whole country, as published by the National Bureau of Census. There are other garment and shoe manufacturers in Jinjiang. In 2013 the mayor of Jinjiang called for more focus on innovative design by shoe manufacturers plagued by surplus inventory. Manufacturers were encouraged by local official to engage in IPOs and seek listings on stock exchanges such as the Frankfurt Stock Exchange to raise global capital for expansion. Raising capital in this way bypasses the difficulty medium-sized firms have with obtaining loans from Chinese banks. About 30 firms have achieved listing on global stock exchanges but many have listings on stock exchanges in Shanghai or Hong Kong; as of 2012 many additional local firms include IPOs in their business planning. In some instances over-capacity and declining profit margins have resulted from suboptimal investment of capital. Due to the prevalence of copying in the industry investing capital in research and development seems futile.
Another problem is that many of the firms are in fact family-owned business which have taken on corporate form but not best corporate management practices. In an effort to achieve listings on exchanges with strict requirements there is a temptation to engage in creative accounting. Zhang Gaoli, a former Vice Premier of the People's Republic of China Gong Beibi, internationally awarded actress Yao Chen and celebrity Henry Sy, Chinese-Filipino businessman, the richest man in the Philippines Shi Lang, admiral who served under the Ming and Qing dynasties Lai Changxing, smuggler Official website Arroyo lays wreath at Rizal Shrine in Jinjiang
Dumai, is a city in Riau province on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia. The city has an area of 2,039.35 km² and has 316,668 inhabitants in 2014. Dumai has a domestic airport, Pinang Kampai Airport. Dumai is an important transport and trade centre, both regionally and internationally to Malaysia. Dumai is rich in oil. Dumai is a city in Riau province, about 188 km from Pekanbaru. Dumai City is the second largest city in the province of Riau, but earlier it was a small hamlet on the east coast of Riau Province, it was inaugurated as a city on 20 April 1999, by Law no. 16 of year 1999, having had a town administrative in Bengkalis Regency. At its inception, the City only consisted of 3 districts, 13 villages and 9 villages with a population of just 15,699 people with density 83.85/km2. The city is divided into seven districts, tabulated below with the villages into which those districts are subdivided: Bukit Kapur, the Villages: Bagan Besar Bukit Kayu Kapur Bukit Nenas Gurun Panjang Kampung Baru Dumai Barat, the Villages: Bagan Keladi Pangkalan Sesai Purnama Simpang Tetap Darul Ichsan Dumai Timur, the Villages: Bukit Batrem Buluh Kasap Jaya Mukti Tanjung Palas Teluk Binjai Medang Kampai, the Villages: Guntung Mundam Teluk Makmur Pelintung Sungai Sembilan, the Villages: Bangsal Aceh Basilam Baru Batu Teritip Lubuk Gaung Tanjung Penyembal Dumai Kota, the Villages: Laksamana Rimba Sekampung Bintan Dumai Kota Sukajadi Dumai Selatan, the Villages: Bukit Timah Mekar Sari Bumi Ayu Ratu Sima Bukit Datuk Macro-economic indicators of the gross Regional Domestic Product Dumai increasing each year since 2000-2005 is a picture of the success of the development of economy in Dumai.
To support the increase in GDP that heavy economic development point of Dumai is to maintain the dominance of construction on industrial sectors, trade and buildings in addition to paying attention to the agricultural sector as a producer of industrial raw materials. Economic growth rate has provided job opportunities for people on social welfare so that the Dumai increases. Obstacles faced in addition to capital issues is the Status of land still touted ex HPH. Four subdistricts in Dumai District of Sungai Sembilan, Medang Kampai and Western Damai is an area that has the potential of land resources for the development of agribusiness and agro-industries with appropriate technology engineering byocyclo such as rice farming, vegetables, pineapples Sumatra, mango, Palm, cattle as well as the cultivation of farmed freshwater fish. More on the produce of the district the river nine to forward is Palm and crops; the town River nine new basilam village in particular is deficient means of infra-structures for the construction of the road.
The main road construction kaplingan up to the junction with the durian. There are several transportation modes in Pekanbaru such as Taxi, Oplet and Ojek. For land transport, Dumai is connected to Duri, Medan, Jambi and other cities and regions in Riau Province and Sumatra Island by the existence of bus services. Dumai Port is located in Dumai, connecting Dumai with regions in Riau Province and other destinations in Indonesia and the World; this port is a major port in Riau. Pinang Kampai Airport is a domestic airport that serves daily flights to/from several cities in Indonesia such as Jakarta, Medan, etc. Dumai is situated on the waterfront has the potential of tourism development such as nature tourism and shopping. Several area attractions including conservation areas in district Nine, forest River in district of Western and Eastern Damai Damai, Prosperous Gulf Coast region in district and Lake Kampai Phoebe Flowers of seven in Eastern Damai; as the main gate to enter the Riau Mainland, some tourists have visited the Damai those that like to visit Malacca.
Dumai is easily accomplished due to the smooth transportation. There are some interesting sights on the way to Damai, such as the existence of the tribe called the retarded Sakai, tropical forests along the River, water colour is unique as the color of tea. Moreover, it can be seen hundreds of bobbing oil who raised the pipe from the bowels of the Earth. Ramayana shopping center on Jendral Sudirman Street Add icon Damai in 2007 and now has found a big chart on the artificial lake. Damai Beach has a beautiful place to unwind "sand beach" located in the upper reaches of the river Damai. At night, we can enjoy culinary tour along Ombak street which sells a variety of Indonesian culinary. Dumai has some interesting places to be visit, among others: Teluk Makmur Beach Putri Tujuh Grave Seascape of Dumai The Great Mosque of Al-Badar Bunga Tujuh Lake Pelintung Cave Forest Tour of Dumai The Great Mosque of Dumai Pawang Leon Grave Siti of Sea Grave The Great Mosque of Al-Mannan Magic Footprint Tiger Tepak Sirih Monument
Simplified Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language; the government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Hong Kong and the Republic of China. While traditional characters can still be read and understood by many mainland Chinese and the Chinese community in Malaysia and Singapore, these groups retain their use of simplified characters. Overseas Chinese communities tend to use traditional characters. Simplified Chinese characters may be referred to by their official name colloquially; the latter refers to simplifications of character "structure" or "body", character forms that have existed for thousands of years alongside regular, more complicated forms.
On the other hand, the official name refers to the modern systematically simplified character set, which includes not only structural simplification but substantial reduction in the total number of standardized Chinese characters. Simplified character forms were created by reducing the number of strokes and simplifying the forms of a sizable proportion of Chinese characters; some simplifications were based on popular cursive forms embodying graphic or phonetic simplifications of the traditional forms. Some characters were simplified by applying regular rules, for example, by replacing all occurrences of a certain component with a simplified version of the component. Variant characters with the same pronunciation and identical meaning were reduced to a single standardized character the simplest amongst all variants in form. Many characters were left untouched by simplification, are thus identical between the traditional and simplified Chinese orthographies; some simplified characters are dissimilar to and unpredictably different from traditional characters in those where a component is replaced by a simple symbol.
This has led some opponents of simplification to complain that the'overall process' of character simplification is arbitrary. Proponents counter that the system of simplification is internally consistent. Proponents have emphasized a some particular simplified characters as innovative and useful improvements, although many of these have existed for centuries as longstanding and widespread variants. A second round of simplifications was promulgated in 1977, but was retracted in 1986 for a variety of reasons due to the confusion caused and the unpopularity of the second round simplifications. However, the Chinese government never dropped its goal of further simplification in the future. In August 2009, the PRC began collecting public comments for a modified list of simplified characters; the new Table of General Standard Chinese Characters consisting of 8,105 characters was implemented for use by the State Council of the People's Republic of China on June 5, 2013. Although most of the simplified Chinese characters in use today are the result of the works moderated by the government of the People's Republic of China in the 1950s and 60s, character simplification predates the PRC's formation in 1949.
Cursive written text always includes character simplification. Simplified forms used in print are attested as early as the Qin dynasty. One of the earliest proponents of character simplification was Lufei Kui, who proposed in 1909 that simplified characters should be used in education. In the years following the May Fourth Movement in 1919, many anti-imperialist Chinese intellectuals sought ways to modernise China. Traditional culture and values such as Confucianism were challenged. Soon, people in the Movement started to cite the traditional Chinese writing system as an obstacle in modernising China and therefore proposed that a reform be initiated, it was suggested that the Chinese writing system should be either simplified or abolished. Lu Xun, a renowned Chinese author in the 20th century, stated that, "If Chinese characters are not destroyed China will die". Recent commentators have claimed that Chinese characters were blamed for the economic problems in China during that time. In the 1930s and 1940s, discussions on character simplification took place within the Kuomintang government, a large number of Chinese intellectuals and writers maintained that character simplification would help boost literacy in China.
In 1935, 324 simplified characters collected by Qian Xuantong were introduced as the table of first batch of simplified characters, but they were suspended in 1936. The PRC issued its first round of official character simplifications in two documents, the first in 1956 and the second in 1964. Within the PRC, further character simplification became associated with the leftists of the Cultural Revolution, culminating with the second-round simplified characters, which were promulgated in 1977. In part due to the shock and unease felt in the wake of the Cultural Revolution and Mao's death, the second-round of simplifications was poorly received. In 1986 the authorities retracted the second round completely. In the same year, the authorities promulgated a final list of simplifications, identical to the 1964 list except for six changes (including the restoration of three characters, simplified in the First Round: 叠, 覆, 像.
Sri Lanka the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea. The island is geographically separated from the Indian subcontinent by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait; the legislative capital, Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte, is a suburb of the commercial capital and largest city, Colombo. Sri Lanka's documented history spans 3,000 years, with evidence of pre-historic human settlements dating back to at least 125,000 years, it has a rich cultural heritage and the first known Buddhist writings of Sri Lanka, the Pāli Canon, date back to the Fourth Buddhist council in 29 BC. Its geographic location and deep harbours made it of great strategic importance from the time of the ancient Silk Road through to the modern Maritime Silk Road. Sri Lanka was known from the beginning of British colonial rule as Ceylon. A nationalist political movement arose in the country in the early 20th century to obtain political independence, granted in 1948.
Sri Lanka's recent history has been marred by a 26-year civil war, which decisively ended when the Sri Lanka Armed Forces defeated the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam in 2009. The current constitution stipulates the political system as a republic and a unitary state governed by a semi-presidential system, it has had a long history of international engagement, as a founding member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, a member of the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, the G77, the Non-Aligned Movement. Along with the Maldives, Sri Lanka is one of only two South Asian countries rated "high" on the Human Development Index, with its HDI rating and per capita income the highest among South Asian nations; the Sri Lankan constitution accords Buddhism the "foremost place", although it does not identify it as a state religion. Buddhism is given special privileges in the Sri Lankan constitution; the island is home to many cultures and ethnicities. The majority of the population is from the Sinhalese ethnicity, while a large minority of Tamils have played an influential role in the island's history.
Moors, Malays and the indigenous Vedda are established groups on the island. In antiquity, Sri Lanka was known to travellers by a variety of names. According to the Mahavamsa, the legendary Prince Vijaya named the land Tambapanni, because his followers' hands were reddened by the red soil of the area. In Hindu mythology, such as the Ramayana, the island was referred to as Lankā; the Tamil term Eelam, was used to designate the whole island in Sangam literature. The island was known under Chola rule as Mummudi Cholamandalam. Ancient Greek geographers called it Taprobanē from the word Tambapanni; the Persians and Arabs referred to it as Sarandīb from Cerentivu or Siṃhaladvīpaḥ. Ceilão, the name given to Sri Lanka by the Portuguese Empire when it arrived in 1505, was transliterated into English as Ceylon; as a British crown colony, the island was known as Ceylon. The country is now known in Sinhala in Tamil as Ilaṅkai. In 1972, its formal name was changed to "Free and Independent Republic of Sri Lanka".
In 1978 it was changed to the "Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka". As the name Ceylon still appears in the names of a number of organisations, the Sri Lankan government announced in 2011 a plan to rename all those over which it has authority; the pre-history of Sri Lanka goes back 125,000 years and even as far back as 500,000 years. The era spans the Palaeolithic and early Iron Ages. Among the Paleolithic human settlements discovered in Sri Lanka, which dates back to 37,000 BP, Batadombalena and Belilena are the most important. In these caves, archaeologists have found the remains of anatomically modern humans which they have named Balangoda Man, other evidence suggesting that they may have engaged in agriculture and kept domestic dogs for driving game. One of the first written references to the island is found in the Indian epic Ramayana, which provides details of a kingdom named Lanka, created by the divine sculptor Vishwakarma for Kubera, the Lord of Wealth, it is said that Kubera was overthrown by his demon stepbrother Ravana, the powerful emperor who built a mythical flying machine named Dandu Monara.
The modern city of Wariyapola is described as Ravana's airport. Early inhabitants of Sri Lanka were ancestors of the Vedda people, an indigenous people numbering 2,500 living in modern-day Sri Lanka; the 19th-century Irish historian James Emerson Tennent theorized that Galle, a city in southern Sri Lanka, was the ancient seaport of Tarshish from which King Solomon is said to have drawn ivory and other valuables. According to the Mahāvamsa, a chronicle written in Pāḷi, the original inhabitants of Sri Lanka are the Yakshas and Nagas. Ancient cemeteries that were used before 600 BC and other signs of advanced civilisation have been discovered in Sri Lanka. Sinhalese history traditionally starts in 543 BC with the arrival of Prince Vijaya, a semi-legendary prince who sailed with 700 followers to Sri Lanka, after being expelled from Vanga Kingdom (present-day Ben
The Hoklo people are Han Chinese people whose traditional ancestral homes are in southern Fujian and speakers of Hokkien, the prestige dialect of the Southern Min varieties. They are known by various endonyms, or other related terms such as Banlam people or Hokkien people. "Hokkien" is sometimes erroneously used to refer to all Fujianese people. "Hoklo people" of this page refers to people whose native language is the Quanzhang Minnan spoken in Southern Fujian, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines and by many overseas Chinese throughout Southeast Asia. There have been many famous Hoklo people throughout history, notably Koxinga, Shi Lang, Corazon Aquino and Su Song. In Taiwan, there are three common ways to write Hoklo in Chinese characters, although none have been established as etymologically correct: 福佬, it is not an accurate transliteration in terms from Hokkien itself although it may correspond to an actual usage in Hakka. 河洛. This term does not exist in Hokkien; the transliteration is a phonologically inaccurate folk etymology, though the Mandarin pronunciation Héluò has gained currency through the propagation of the inaccurate transliteration.
鶴佬. Meanwhile, Hoklo people self-identify as 河老. In Hakka and Cantonese, Hoklo may be written as Hoglo and 學佬. Despite the many ways to write Hoklo in Chinese, the term Holo is used in Taiwan to refer to the ethnicity and language. Hoklo architecture is for the most part similar to any other traditional Chinese architectural styles, Hoklo shrines and temples have tilted sharp eaves just like the architecture of Han Chinese in all parts of China due to superstitious beliefs, however Hoklo shrines and temples do have special differences from the styles in other regions of China: the top roofs are high and slanted with exaggerated finely-detailed decorative inlays of wood and porcelain; the main halls of Hoklo temple are a little different, they are decorated with two dragons on the rooftop at the furthest left and right corners, a miniature figure of a pagoda at the centre rooftop. One such example of this is the Kaiyuan Temple in China. Other than all these minor differences, Hoklo architecture is the same as any other traditional Chinese architecture of any other regions by Han Chinese.
The Hoklo people speak the mainstream Minnan dialect, not mutually intelligible with other Chinese dialects except for Teochew dialect to a small degree. Minnan can be traced back to the Tang Dynasty, it has roots from earlier periods such as the Northern and Southern Dynasties and a little influence from other dialects as well. Hokkien has one of the most diverse phoneme inventories among Chinese varieties, with more consonants than Standard Mandarin or Cantonese. Vowels are more-or-less similar to that of Standard Mandarin. Hokkien varieties retain many pronunciations; these include the retention of the /t/ initial, now /tʂ/ in Mandarin, having disappeared before the 6th century in other Chinese varieties. Hokkien has 5 to 7 tones or 7 to 9 tones according to traditional sense, depending on variety of hokkien spoken such as the Amoy dialect for example has 7-8 tones. About 70% of the Taiwanese people descend from Hoklo immigrants who arrived to the island prior to the start of Japanese rule in 1895.
They could be categorized as originating from Xiamen and Zhangzhou based on their dialects and districts of origin. People from the former two areas were dominant in the north of the island and along the west coast, whereas people from the latter two areas were dominant in the south and the central plains as well; the Hoklo or Hokkien-lang are the largest dialect group among the Malaysian Chinese and southern part of Thailand. They constitute the highest concentrations of Hokkien-lang in the region; the various Hokkien dialects/Minnan are still spoken in these countries but the daily use are decreasing in favor of Mandarin Chinese, English or local language. The Hoklo or Hokkien-lang are the largest group among the Chinese Indonesians. Most speak only Indonesian. In the Philippines, the Hoklo or Hokkien-lang form the majority of the Chinese people in the country; the Hokkien dialect/Minnan is still spoken there. The people of Minnan speaking people in Haifeng and Lufeng are Hoklo people, in a narrow scope, but are mistaken as Chaozhou/Teochew people in Hong Kong and Southeast Asia.
After the 1960s, many Hokkiens from Taiwan began immigrating to the United States and Canada. See List of Hokkien people. Hokkien honorifics Demographics of Taiwan Taiwanese people Teochew people Hoklo
A river delta is a landform that forms from deposition of sediment, carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or stagnant water. This occurs where a river enters an ocean, estuary, reservoir, or another river that cannot carry away the supplied sediment; the size and shape of a delta is controlled by the balance between watershed processes that supply sediment, receiving basin processes that redistribute and export that sediment. The size and location of the receiving basin plays an important role in delta evolution. River deltas are important in human civilization, as they are major agricultural production centers and population centers, they can impact drinking water supply. They are ecologically important, with different species' assemblages depending on their landscape position. River deltas form when a river carrying sediment reaches either a body of water, such as a lake, ocean, or reservoir, another river that cannot remove the sediment enough to stop delta formation, or an inland region where the water spreads out and deposits sediments.
The tidal currents cannot be too strong, as sediment would wash out into the water body faster than the river deposits it. The river must carry enough sediment to layer into deltas over time; the river's velocity decreases causing it to deposit the majority, if not all, of its load. This alluvium builds up to form the river delta; when the flow enters the standing water, it is no longer confined to its channel and expands in width. This flow expansion results in a decrease in the flow velocity, which diminishes the ability of the flow to transport sediment; as a result, sediment drops out of deposits. Over time, this single channel builds a deltaic lobe; as the deltaic lobe advances, the gradient of the river channel becomes lower because the river channel is longer but has the same change in elevation. As the slope of the river channel decreases, it becomes unstable for two reasons. First, gravity makes the water flow in the most direct course down slope. If the river breaches its natural levees, it spills out into a new course with a shorter route to the ocean, thereby obtaining a more stable steeper slope.
Second, as its slope gets lower, the amount of shear stress on the bed decreases, which results in deposition of sediment within the channel and a rise in the channel bed relative to the floodplain. This makes it easier for the river to breach its levees and cut a new channel that enters the body of standing water at a steeper slope; when the channel does this, some of its flow remains in the abandoned channel. When these channel-switching events occur, a mature delta develops a distributary network. Another way these distributary networks form is from deposition of mouth bars; when this mid-channel bar is deposited at the mouth of a river, the flow is routed around it. This results in additional deposition on the upstream end of the mouth-bar, which splits the river into two distributary channels. A good example of the result of this process is the Wax Lake Delta. In both of these cases, depositional processes force redistribution of deposition from areas of high deposition to areas of low deposition.
This results in the smoothing of the planform shape of the delta as the channels move across its surface and deposit sediment. Because the sediment is laid down in this fashion, the shape of these deltas approximates a fan; the more the flow changes course, the shape develops as closer to an ideal fan, because more rapid changes in channel position results in more uniform deposition of sediment on the delta front. The Mississippi and Ural River deltas, with their bird's-feet, are examples of rivers that do not avulse enough to form a symmetrical fan shape. Alluvial fan deltas, as seen by their name and more approximate an ideal fan shape. Most large river deltas discharge to intra-cratonic basins on the trailing edges of passive margins due to the majority of large rivers such as the Mississippi, Amazon, Ganges and Yangtze discharging along passive continental margins; this phenomenon is due to three big factors: topography, basin area, basin elevation. Topography along passive margins tend to be more gradual and widespread over a greater area enabling sediment to pile up and accumulate overtime to form large river deltas.
Topography along active margins tend to be steeper and less widespread, which results in sediments not having the ability to pile up and accumulate due to the sediment traveling into a steep subduction trench rather than a shallow continental shelf. There are many other smaller factors that could explain why the majority of river deltas form along passive margins rather than active margins. Along active margins, orogenic sequences cause tectonic activity to form over-steepened slopes, brecciated rocks, volcanic activity resulting in delta formation to exist closer to the sediment source; when sediment does not travel far from the source, sediments that build up are coarser grained and more loosely consolidated, therefore making delta formation more difficult. Tectonic activity on active margins causes the formation of river deltas to form closer to the sediment source which may affect channel avulsion, delta lobe switching, auto cyclicity. Active margin river deltas tend to be much smaller and less abundant but may transport similar amounts of sediment.
However, the sediment is never piled up in thick sequences due to the sediment traveling and depositing in de
Lesser Sunda Islands
The Lesser Sunda Islands are a group of islands in Maritime Southeast Asia, north of Australia. Together with the Greater Sunda Islands to the west they make up the Sunda Islands; the islands are part of a volcanic arc, the Sunda Arc, formed by subduction along the Sunda Trench in the Java Sea. The main Lesser Sunda Islands are, from west to east: Bali, Sumbawa, Sumba, Alor archipelago, Barat Daya Islands, Tanimbar Islands; the Lesser Sundas comprise many islands, most of which are part of Indonesia and are administered as the provinces of Bali, West Nusa Tenggara, East Nusa Tenggara and southern part of Maluku. The eastern half of Timor is part of East Timor; the Lesser Sunda Islands consist of two geologically distinct archipelagos. The northern archipelago, which includes Bali, Sumbawa and Wetar, is volcanic in origin. A number of these volcanoes, like Mount Rinjani on Lombok, are still active while others, such as Kelimutu on Flores with its three multi-coloured crater lakes, are extinct; the northern archipelago began to be formed during the Pliocene, about 15 million years ago, as a result of the collision between the Australian and the Asian plates.
The islands of the southern archipelago, including Sumba and Babar, are non-volcanic and appear to belong to the Australian plate. The geology and ecology of the northern archipelago share similar history and processes with the southern Maluku Islands, which continue the same island arc to the east. There is a long history of geological study of these regions since Indonesian colonial times. Lying at the collision of two tectonic plates, the Lesser Sunda Islands comprise some of the most geologically complex and active regions in the world. There are a number of volcanoes located on the Lesser Sunda Islands; the Lesser Sunda Islands differ from the large islands of Java or Sumatra in consisting of many small islands, sometimes divided by deep oceanic trenches. Movement of flora and fauna between islands is limited, leading to the evolution of a high rate of localized species, most famously the Komodo dragon; as described by Alfred Wallace in The Malay Archipelago, the Wallace Line passes between Bali and Lombok, along the deep waters of the Lombok Strait which formed a water barrier when lower sea levels linked the now-separated islands and landmasses on either side.
The islands east of the Lombok Strait are part of Wallacea, are thus characterised by a blend of wildlife of Asian and Australasian origin in this region. Asian species predominate in the Lesser Sundas: Weber's Line, which marks the boundary between the parts of Wallacea with Asian and Australasian species runs to the east of the group; these islands have the driest climate in Indonesia. A number of the islands east of the Wallace line, from Lombok and Sumbawa east to Flores and Alor, having original vegetation of dry forest rather than the rain forest that covers much of the Indonesian region, have been designated by the World Wildlife Fund as the Lesser Sundas deciduous forests ecoregion; the higher slopes of the islands contain forests of tall Podocarpus conifers and Engelhardias with an undergrowth of lianas and orchids such as Corybas and Malaxis, while the coastal plains were savanna grasses such as the savanna with Borassus flabellifer palm trees on the coasts of Komodo and Flores. Although most of the vegetation on these islands is dry forest there are patches of rainforest on these islands too in lowland areas and riverbanks on Komodo, there is a particular area of dry thorny forest on the southeast coast of Lombok.
Thorn trees used to be more common in coastal areas of the islands but have been cleared. These islands are home to unique species including seventeen endemic birds; the endemic mammals are the endangered Flores shrew, the vulnerable Komodo rat, Lombok flying fox, Sunda long-eared bat while the carnivorous Komodo dragon, which at three metres long and ninety kilograms in weight is the world's largest lizard, is found on Komodo, Gili Motang, the coast of northwestern Flores. More than half of the original vegetation of the islands has been cleared for planting of rice and other crops, for settlement and by consequent forest fires. Only Sumbawa now contains a large area of intact natural forest, while Komodo and Padar are now protected as Komodo National Park. While many ecological problems affect both small islands and large landmasses, small islands suffer their particular problems and are exposed to external forces. Development pressures on small islands are increasing, although their effects are not always anticipated.
Although Indonesia is richly endowed with natural resources, the resources of the small islands of Nusa Tenggara are limited and specialised. General observations about small islands that can be applied to Nusa Tenggara include: A higher proportion of the landmass will be affected by volcanic activity, earthquakes and cyclone damage.