Clothing is a collective term for items worn on the body. Clothing can be made of animal skin, or other thin sheets of materials put together; the wearing of clothing is restricted to human beings and is a feature of all human societies. The amount and type of clothing worn depend on body type and geographic considerations; some clothing can be gender-specific. Physically, clothing serves many purposes: it can serve as protection from the elements and can enhance safety during hazardous activities such as hiking and cooking, it protects the wearer from rough surfaces, rash-causing plants, insect bites, splinters and prickles by providing a barrier between the skin and the environment. Clothes can insulate against cold or hot conditions, they can provide a hygienic barrier, keeping infectious and toxic materials away from the body. Clothing provides protection from ultraviolet radiation. Wearing clothes is a social norm, being deprived of clothing in front of others may be embarrassing, or not wearing clothes in public such that genitals, breasts or buttocks are visible could be seen as indecent exposure.
There is no easy way to determine when clothing was first developed, but some information has been inferred by studying lice which estimates the introduction of clothing at 42,000–72,000 years ago. The most obvious function of clothing is to improve the comfort of the wearer, by protecting the wearer from the elements. In hot climates, clothing provides protection from sunburn or wind damage, while in cold climates its thermal insulation properties are more important. Shelter reduces the functional need for clothing. For example, hats and other outer layers are removed when entering a warm home if one is living or sleeping there. Clothing has seasonal and regional aspects, so that thinner materials and fewer layers of clothing are worn in warmer regions and seasons than in colder ones. Clothing performs a range of social and cultural functions, such as individual and gender differentiation, social status. In many societies, norms about clothing reflect standards of modesty, religion and social status.
Clothing may function as a form of adornment and an expression of personal taste or style. Clothing can be and has in the past been made from a wide variety of materials. Materials have ranged from leather and furs to woven materials, to elaborate and exotic natural and synthetic fabrics. Not all body coverings are regarded as clothing. Articles carried rather than worn, worn on a single part of the body and removed, worn purely for adornment, or those that serve a function other than protection, are considered accessories rather than clothing, except for shoes. Clothing protects against many things. Clothes protect people from the elements, including rain, snow and other weather, as well as from the sun. However, clothing, too sheer, small, etc. offers less protection. Appropriate clothes can reduce risk during activities such as work or sport; some clothing protects from specific hazards, such as insects, noxious chemicals, weather and contact with abrasive substances. Conversely, clothing may protect the environment from the clothing wearer: for instance doctors wear medical scrubs.
Humans have been ingenious in devising clothing solutions to environmental or other hazards: such as space suits, air conditioned clothing, diving suits, bee-keeper gear, motorcycle leathers, high-visibility clothing, other pieces of protective clothing. Meanwhile, the distinction between clothing and protective equipment is not always clear-cut, since clothes designed to be fashionable have protective value and clothes designed for function consider fashion in their design; the choice of clothes has social implications. They cover parts of the body that social norms require to be covered, act as a form of adornment, serve other social purposes. Someone who lacks the means to procure reasonable clothing due to poverty or affordability, or lack of inclination, is sometimes said to be scruffy, ragged, or shabby. Serious books on clothing and its functions appear from the 19th century as imperialists dealt with new environments such as India and the tropics; some scientific research into the multiple functions of clothing in the first half of the 20th century, with publications such as J.
C. Flügel's Psychology of Clothes in 1930, Newburgh's seminal Physiology of Heat Regulation and The Science of Clothing in 1949. By 1968, the field of environmental physiology had advanced and expanded but the science of clothing in relation to environmental physiology had changed little. There has since been considerable research, the knowledge base has grown but the main concepts remain unchanged, indeed Newburgh's book is still cited by contemporary authors, including those attempting to develop thermoregulatory models of clothing development. In most cultures, gender differentiation of clothing is considered appropriate; the differences are in styles and fabrics. In Western societies, skirts and high-heeled shoes are seen as women's clothing, while neckties are seen as men's clothing. Trousers were once seen as male clothing, but can nowadays be worn by both genders. Male clothes are more practical, but a wider range of clothing styles are available for females. Males are allowed to bare their chests in a greater variety of public places.
Travel is the movement of people between distant geographical locations. Travel can be done by foot, automobile, boat, airplane, ship or other means, with or without luggage, can be one way or round trip. Travel can include short stays between successive movements; the origin of the word "travel" is most lost to history. The term "travel" may originate from the Old French word travail, which means'work'. According to the Merriam Webster dictionary, the first known use of the word travel was in the 14th century, it states that the word comes from Middle English travailen and earlier from Old French travailler. In English we still use the words "travail", which means struggle. According to Simon Winchester in his book The Best Travelers' Tales, the words "travel" and "travail" both share an more ancient root: a Roman instrument of torture called the tripalium; this link may reflect the extreme difficulty of travel in ancient times. Today, travel may or may not be much easier depending upon the destination you choose, how you plan to get there, whether you decide to "rough it".
"There's a big difference between being a tourist and being a true world traveler", notes travel writer Michael Kasum. This is, however, a contested distinction as academic work on the cultures and sociology of travel has noted. Reasons for traveling include recreation, tourism or vacationing, research travel, the gathering of information, visiting people, volunteer travel for charity, migration to begin life somewhere else, religious pilgrimages and mission trips, business travel, trade and other reasons, such as to obtain health care or waging or fleeing war or for the enjoyment of traveling. Travellers may use human-powered transport such as bicycling. Motives for travel include: Pleasure Relaxation Discovery and exploration Getting to know other cultures Taking personal time for building interpersonal relationships. Travel dates back to antiquity where wealthy Greeks and Romans would travel for leisure to their summer homes and villas in cities such as Pompeii and Baiae. While early travel tended to be slower, more dangerous, more dominated by trade and migration and technological advances over many years have tended to mean that travel has become easier and more accessible.
Mankind has come a long way in transportation since Christopher Columbus sailed to the new world from Spain in 1492, an expedition which took over 10 weeks to arrive at the final destination. Travel in the Middle Ages offered hardships and challenges, however, it was important to the economy and to society; the wholesale sector depended on merchants dealing with/through caravans or sea-voyagers, end-user retailing demanded the services of many itinerant peddlers wandering from village to hamlet and wandering friars brought theology and pastoral support to neglected areas, travelling minstrels practiced the never-ending tour, armies ranged far and wide in various crusades and in sundry other wars. Pilgrimages were common in both the European and Islamic world and involved streams of travellers both locally and internationally. In the late 16th century it became fashionable for young European aristocrats and wealthy upper class men to travel to significant European cities as part of their education in the arts and literature.
This was known as the Grand Tour, it included cities such as London, Venice and Rome. However, The French revolution brought with it the end of the Grand Tour. Travel by water provided more comfort and speed than land-travel, at least until the advent of a network of railways in the 19th century. Travel for the purpose of tourism is reported to have started around this time when people began to travel for fun as travel was no longer a hard and challenging task; this was capitalised on by people like Thomas Cook selling tourism packages where trains and hotels were booked together. Airships and airplanes took over much of the role of long-distance surface travel in the 20th century, notably after the second World War where there was a surplus of both aircraft and pilots. Travel may be local, national or international. In some countries, non-local internal travel may require an internal passport, while international travel requires a passport and visa. A trip may be part of a round-trip, a particular type of travel whereby a person moves from one location to another and returns.
Authorities emphasize the importance of taking precautions to ensure travel safety. When traveling abroad, the odds favor a safe and incident-free trip, travelers can be subject to difficulties and violence; some safety considerations include being aware of one's surroundings, avoiding being the target of a crime, leaving copies of one's passport and itinerary information with trusted people, obtaining medical insurance valid in the country being visited and registering with one's national embassy when arriving in a foreign country. Many countries do not recognize drivers' licenses from other countries. Automobile insurance policies issued in one's own country are invalid in foreign countries, it is a requirement to obtain temporary auto insurance valid in the coun
A suitcase is a form of luggage. It is a somewhat flat, rectangular-shaped bag with rounded square corners, either metal, hard plastic or made of cloth, vinyl or leather that more or less retains its shape, it has a carrying handle on one side and is used for transporting clothes and other possessions during trips. It opens on hinges like a door. Suitcases lock with a combination. Suitcases were made of wool or linen. Leather became a popular material for suitcases, it was used to cover wood suitcases or just on its own for collapsible suitcases. It is difficult to document all the materials. Like all produced consumer goods, the materials chosen to construct suitcases are a product of their time. Wool, leather, plastic, fiber composite - recycled materials are all common suitcase materials. During covered wagon times, trunks were a popular form of transporting goods; the ride was rough, so the luggage had to be strong. The theme of suitcases becoming less cumbersome over time could be directly related to the advancement of better transportation.
As transportation changed, soft sided suitcases manufactured from polyester prevailed. The original'Halliburton' aluminum travel cases were handmade for Erle P. Halliburton's personal use in 1938. In 1950 Rimowa introduced the mass market aluminum suitcase based on the Junkers Ju 52 airplane shortly followed by Zero Halliburton. Nylon suitcases prevailed afterwards. Wheeled luggage was first patented by Bernard Sadow in 1972 though the first commercially-available wheeled suitcase, the Rollaboard, only emerged in 1987. In the mid 1980s, Andiamo was the first company to incorporate ballistic nylon into luggage; the first suitcases made of polycarbonate were made in 2000 by the German luggage maker Rimowa. Most luggage manufacturers have made some suitcases from the material. There are many grades of polycarbonate. Both acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, cheaper than polycarbonate, polypropylene, lighter than polycarbonate were introduced shortly after polycarbonate. Spinner style wheeled suitcases were introduced in 2004.
The most sturdy suitcases are constructed from polymers such as nylon and have a covering that resists gouging and liquid from entering into the interior. The seams can be stitched with strong nylon thread; the stitched-together suitcases hold up over time as compared to the glued construction and have a lock or latch. Many modern suitcases have built-in small wheels enabling them to be pulled along on hard flat surfaces by a fixed or extendable handle or by a retractable or stowable leash. Suitcases are a type of luggage. A smaller, firmer suitcase, used for transporting papers and office supplies, is known as a briefcase; some cases are made from proprietary materials such as Tegris. Some suitcases that include a telescopic handle and wheels are known as trolley cases or a roll along. Trolley cases/roll alongs have two fixed wheels on one end with the handle located on the opposite for vertical movement. Powered and smart suitcases are getting more popular. Smart suitcases can be controlled via a smartphone application and have features like GPS, smart lock, auto follow and other.
Baggage Personal robot Shoulder straps Trunk Wheel Media related to Suitcases at Wikimedia Commons
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
A caster is a wheeled device mounted to a larger object that enables easy rolling movement of the object. Casters are housings, that include a wheel and a mounting to install the caster to objects. Casters are found everywhere, from office desk chairs to shipyards, from hospital beds to automotive factories, they range in size from the small furniture casters to massive industrial casters, individual load capacities span 100 pounds or less to 100,000 pounds. Wheel materials include cast iron, rubber, polyolefin, thermoplastic rubber, forged steel, stainless steel and more. Casters come in two main categories: a swivel caster pivots around a kingpin to allow it to rotate and roll; the rigid caster has its wheel mounted in a fixed frame and it only rolls forward and backward. This type of caster allows for movement in all directions, they can have two sets of raceways that allow the caster to swivel 360-degrees under a load. Because of displacement of wheel axis from steering axis, in spite of their zero caster angle, the point at which the wheel touches the floor trails behind the steering axis, keeping the wheel oriented in the direction of travel.
The different types of swivel casters include: Locking casters: There are several devices that can be added to casters to prevent the wheel from rotating or the swivel assembly from turning. Brakes types are total lock, central locking, or add-on butterfly brake. Kingpin-less casters: This caster does not have a bolt and nut kingpin; the raceways are a one-piece construction forged together. This design is durable and can be used in abusive applications and shock load applications where kingpin type casters may fail. Hollow Kingpin casters: This type of caster has a tubular rivet that holds the caster together; the hole in the rivet can accept a customized stem for any type of mounting requirement. Plate casters: This is the most common type of means to mount a caster to a unit and is sometimes called the top plate. Most mounting plates contain four holes used to bolt the caster to the unit. Top plates are offered with various hole patterns to match numerous types of mounting requirements. Stem casters: This type caster can have various stem styles to be used to mount the caster to a unit.
Some common types of stems are threaded, round or square with mounting holes, grip-ring, expandable stems. This style of caster backward movement. Rigid casters tend to be stronger than swivel casters, they can be made as a one-piece or two-piece construction, riveted or welded. The key dimensions to consider when determining the proper type of caster and caster size for a particular type of equipment and application are its overall height, swivel radius, swivel offset; the key elements of a caster include the following: Mount: Casters mount to equipment or carts in three common manners. A caster top plate allows the caster to be bolted to the underside of the equipment. A caster stem may screw into place or ‘snap’ into place. Casters may have a bracket allowing the caster to be mounted to vertical panels. Swivel head: A rigid caster allows single back and forth direction. A swivel caster allows for 360 degree directional movement; the swivel action of a caster depends on bearings and lubrication.
Bearing designs include ball bearings and raceway bearings. Grease fittings serve to inject grease into caster raceways and wheels. Grease fittings may be known as "zerks." Yoke: The part of a swivel or rigid caster and can be considered a frame. The caster yoke serves to hold the wheel in place; the yoke, working with a swivel head allows the caster wheel to operate in a 360 degree manner. The yoke is known as the fork, rig or housing. Spring mechanism: Certain casters serve a shock absorbing or vibration dampening function so there needs to be a spring mechanism in the caster design; the typical spring mechanism is a coiled steel spring. There are hydraulic and elastomeric springs. Wheel: Caster wheel materials include elastomers, phenolic and steel. There are numerous grades of all of these materials; the proper wheel selection is dependent on application factors such as floor conditions, rollability and climate. Wheel bearings: Most caster applications require the wheel to function with a bearing.
There are numerous bearing options depending on the wheel design and the application being considered. Common bearings used for caster wheels include: roller bearings, tapered roller bearings, ball bearings, precision ball bearings and self-lubricating sleeves. Axle bolt and nut: The axle bolt locates the wheel into the caster yoke; the nut secures the axle to the yoke. In some applications the axle bolt and nut may be hardened or zinc plated for corrosion resistance. Stainless steel may be used. Casters are available in a large selection of various rigs and yokes, wheel materials, swivel offsets, wheel configurations. In many cases, it can become difficult to choose the right caster for the application. In order to help the user to determine the right caster to use, it's important to take a couple of factors into consideration, which include: Load capacity The number of casters to be used on the equipment Floor type Floor co
A luggage scale called suitcase scale is used to weigh luggage before going to an airport to avoid luggage being overweight
Louis Vuitton Malletier referred to as Louis Vuitton, or shortened to LV, is a French fashion house and luxury retail company founded in 1854 by Louis Vuitton. The label's LV monogram appears on most of its products, ranging from luxury trunks and leather goods to ready-to-wear, watches, accessories and books. Louis Vuitton is one of the world's leading international fashion houses. For six consecutive years, Louis Vuitton was named the world's most valuable luxury brand, its 2012 valuation was US$25.9 billion. The 2013 valuation of the brand was US$28.4 billion with revenue of US$9.4 billion. The company operates in 50 countries with more than 460 stores worldwide; the Louis Vuitton label was founded by Vuitton in 1854 on Rue Neuve des Capucines in France. Louis Vuitton had observed that the HJ Cave Osilite trunk could be stacked. In 1858, Vuitton introduced his flat-topped trunks with trianon canvas, making them lightweight and airtight. Before the introduction of Vuitton's trunks, rounded-top trunks were used to promote water runoff, thus could not be stacked.
It was Vuitton's gray Trianon canvas flat trunk that allowed the ability to stack with ease for voyages. Many other luggage makers imitated LV's design; the company participated in the 1867 Universal Exhibition in Paris. In 1871, Ōyama Iwao became the first recorded Japanese customer, ordering a set of luggage while in Paris as a military observer during the Franco-Prussian War. To protect against the duplication of his look, Vuitton changed the Trianon design to a beige and brown stripes design in 1876. By 1885, the company opened its first store in London on Oxford Street. Soon thereafter, due to the continuing imitation of his look, in 1888, Vuitton created the Damier Canvas pattern, which bore a logo that reads "marque L. Vuitton déposée", which translates into "L. Vuitton registered trademark". In 1892, Louis Vuitton died, the company's management passed to his son. After the death of his father, Georges Vuitton began a campaign to build the company into a worldwide corporation, exhibiting the company's products at the Chicago World's Fair in 1893.
In 1896, the company made the worldwide patents on it. Its graphic symbols, including quatrefoils and flowers, were based on the trend of using Japanese Mon designs in the late Victorian era; the patents proved to be successful in stopping counterfeiting. In this same year, Georges traveled to the United States, where he toured cities such as New York and Chicago, selling Vuitton products. In 1901, the Louis Vuitton Company introduced the Steamer Bag, a smaller piece of luggage designed to be kept inside Vuitton luggage trunks. By 1913, the Louis Vuitton Building opened on the Champs-Elysees, it was the largest travel-goods store in the world at the time. Stores opened in New York, Washington, London and Buenos Aires as World War I began. Afterwards, in 1930, the Keepall bag was introduced. During 1932, LV introduced the Noé bag; this bag was made for champagne vintners to transport bottles. Soon thereafter, the Louis Vuitton Speedy bag was introduced. In 1936 Georges Vuitton died, his son, Gaston-Louis Vuitton, assumed control of the company.
During World War II, Louis Vuitton collaborated with the Nazis during the German occupation of France. The French book Louis Vuitton, A French Saga, authored by French journalist Stephanie Bonvicini and published by Paris-based Editions Fayard tells how members of the Vuitton family aided the puppet government led by Marshal Philippe Pétain and increased their wealth from their business affairs with the Germans; the family set up a factory dedicated to producing artifacts glorifying Pétain, including more than 2,500 busts. Caroline Babulle, a spokeswoman for the publisher, said: "They have not contested anything in the book, but they are trying to bury it by pretending it doesn't exist." Responding to the book's release in 2004, a spokesman for LVMH said: "This is ancient history. The book covers a period when it was family-run and long before it became part of LVMH. We are diverse and all the things a modern company should be." An LVMH spokesman told the satirical magazine Le Canard Enchaîné: "We don't deny the facts, but regrettably the author has exaggerated the Vichy episode.
We haven't put any pressure on anyone. If the journalists want to censor themselves that suits us fine." That publication was the only French periodical to mention the book, LVMH is the country's biggest advertiser in the press. During this period, Louis Vuitton began to incorporate leather into most of its products, which ranged from small purses and wallets to larger pieces of luggage. In order to broaden its line, the company revamped its signature Monogram Canvas in 1959 to make it more supple, allowing it to be used for purses and wallets, it is believed that in the 1920s, counterfeiting returned as a greater issue to continue on into the 21st century. In 1966, the Papillon was launched. By 1977 with annual revenue up to 70 million Francs. A year the label opened its first stores in Japan: in Tokyo and Osaka. In 1983, the company joined with America's Cup to form the Louis Vuitton Cup, a preliminary competition for the yacht race. Louis Vuitton expanded its presence in Asia with the opening of a store in Taipei, Taiwan in 1983 and Seoul, South Korea in 1984.
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