India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Dalbergia sissoo, known as North Indian rosewood, is a fast-growing, hardy deciduous rosewood tree native to the Indian Subcontinent and Southern Iran. D. Sissoo is whitish or pink flowers. D. sissoo is a medium to large deciduous tree with a light crown which reproduces by seeds and suckers. It can grow up to a maximum of 25 m in height and 2 to 3 m in diameter, but is smaller. Trunks are crooked when grown in the open. Leaves are leathery, pinnately compound and about 15 cm long. Flowers are whitish to pink, nearly sessile, up to 1.5 cm long and in dense clusters 5–10 cm in length. Pods are oblong, thin, strap-like 4–8 cm long, 1 cm wide and light brown, they contain 1–5 flat bean-shaped seeds 8–10 mm long. They have numerous surface roots which produce suckers. Young shoots are drooping. D. Sissoo is native to the foothills of the Himalayas, it is found growing along river banks below 900 metres elevation, but can range up to 1,300 m. The temperature in its native range averages 10–40 °C, but varies from just below freezing to nearly 50 °C.
It can withstand average annual rainfall up to 2,000 droughts of 3 -- 4 months. Soils range from pure gravel to rich alluvium of river banks. Seedlings are intolerant of shade. D. Sissoo is the larval food plant of the black rajah. Shisham is the best known economic timber species of the rosewood genus sold internationally, but it is used as fuel wood and for shade and shelter. After teak, it is the most important cultivated timber tree of Bihar, the largest producer of shisham timber in India. In Bihar, the tree is planted along canals and as a shade tree for tea plantations, it is commonly planted in southern Indian cities like Bangalore as a street tree. Sheesham is dried before being used in furniture manufacturing, a process known as seasoning. Locally sheesham is left in wide open areas to dry under the sun for about six months. Commercially, sheesham is dried in closed chambers with hot air circulation for about seven to fifteen days, depending on weather conditions; the ideal moisture level is supposed to be 5-6% for thinner pieces and up to 11% for thicker ones, depending on use.
Anything lower. Sheesham is among veneer timbers, it is the wood from which'mridanga', the Rajasthani percussion instrument, is made. In addition to musical instruments, it is used for plywood, agricultural tools, as a bentwood, for turning; the heartwood is golden to dark brown. The heartwood is durable and is resistant to fungi. Dalbergia sissoo is known to contain the neoflavonoid dalbergichromene in its stem-bark and heartwood; the calorific value of both the sapwood and heartwood is'excellent', being reported to be 4,908 kcal/kg and 5,181 kcal/kg respectively. As a fuel wood it is grown on a 10 to 15-year rotation; the tree has excellent coppicing ability, although a loss of vigor after two or three rotations has been reported. Shisham wood makes excellent charcoal for cooking. Traditionally, slender tree twigs are first chewed as a toothbrush and split as a tongue cleaner; this practise has been in use in Pakistan and the Middle East for centuries. In India, sheesham have been used in Siddha medicine system for skin disorders and stomach related issues.
Many of India's 80% rural population still start their day with the teeth cleaning twig either with Salvadora persica or Azadirachta indica. In other parts of the world sheesham twigs are still collected and sold in markets for this use in rural areas. Ethanolic extract of the fruits of Dalbergia sissoo exhibited molluscicide effect against eggs of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi; the juice of this plant is a potent ingredient for a mixture of wall plaster, according to the Samarāṅgaṇa Sūtradhāra, a Sanskrit treatise dealing with Śilpaśāstra. Propagation takes place most by root suckers and by seeds; the seeds remain viable for only a few months. Seeds should be soaked in water for 48 hours before sowing and 60% – 80% germination can be expected in 1–3 weeks. Seedlings require full sun. Common names for D. sissoo are sisu, tahli or tali, irugudujava. Indian common names are biradi, sisau. Pakistani common names are'sheesham' and'tahli' in Punjab. In Afghanistan its name is shewa, in Persian, it is called jag.
Dalbergia sissoo is the state tree of India's Punjab state and the provincial tree of Pakistan's Punjab province. The wood of D. sissoo is an important commercial timber. Arid Forest Research Institute Rosewood
The Chhipa are a community or clan of people with ancestral roots tracing back to India. The word chhipa is believed to come from two Nepal Bhasa words, "chhi" and "pa". According to old Gujarati record books, referred to as Balwa Pothy, their Rajput community was founded in Nagaur and spread to Gujarat where they took up the skill of dying and printing fabrics. Ranjitkar Block printing Chhipa block printing in Rajasthan Kathari block printing from 1895
An alum is a type of chemical compound a hydrated double sulfate salt of aluminium with the general formula XAl2·12H2O, where X is a monovalent cation such as potassium or ammonium. By itself, "alum" refers to potassium alum, with the formula KAl2·12H2O. Other alums are named after the monovalent ion, such as ammonium alum; the name "alum" is used, more for salts with the same formula and structure, except that aluminium is replaced by another trivalent metal ion like chromium, and/or sulfur is replaced by other chalcogen like selenium. The most common of these analogs is chrome alum KCr2·12H2O. In most industries, the name "alum" is used to refer to aluminium sulfate Al23·nH2O, used for most industrial flocculation. In medicine, "alum" may refer to aluminium hydroxide gel used as a vaccine adjuvant; the western desert of Egypt was a major source of alum substitutes in antiquity. These evaporites were FeAl24·22H2O, MgAl24·22H2O, NaAl2·6H2O, MgSO4·7H2O and Al23·17H2O; the production of potassium alum from alunite is archaeologically attested on the island Lesbos.
This site was abandoned in the 7th century but dates back at least to the 2nd century CE. Native alumen from the island of Melos appears to have been a mixture of alunogen with potassium alum and other minor sulfates. A detailed description of a substance called. By comparing Pliny's description with the account of stupteria given by Dioscorides, it is obvious the two are identical. Pliny informs us that a form of alumen was found in the earth, calls it salsugoterrae. Pliny wrote that different substances were distinguished by the name of alumen, but they were all characterised by a certain degree of astringency, were all employed in dyeing and medicine. Pliny says that there is another kind of alum that the Greeks call schiston, which "splits into filaments of a whitish colour", From the name schiston and the mode of formation, it appears that this kind was the salt that forms spontaneously on certain salty minerals, as alum slate and bituminous shale, consists chiefly of sulfates of iron and aluminium.
One kind of alumen was a liquid, apt to be adulterated. This property seems to characterize a solution of iron sulfate in water. Contamination with iron sulfate was disliked as this darkened and dulled dye colours. In some places the iron sulfate may have been lacking, so the salt would be white and would be suitable, according to Pliny, for dyeing bright colors. Pliny describes several other types of alumen but it is not clear as to what these minerals are; the alumen of the ancients was not always potassium alum, not an alkali aluminum sulfate. Alum and green vitriol both have sweetish and astringent taste, they a had overlapping uses. Therefore, through the Middle Ages and other writers do not seem to have discriminated the two salts from each other. In the writings of the alchemists we find the words misy and chalcanthum applied to either compound. In the early 1700s, Georg Ernst Stahl claimed that reacting sulfuric acid with limestone produced a sort of alum; the error was soon corrected by Johann Pott and Andreas Marggraf, who showed that the precipitate obtained when an alkali is poured into a solution of alum, namely alumina, is quite different from lime and chalk, is one of the ingredients in common clay.
Marggraf showed that perfect crystals with properties of alum can be obtained by dissolving alumina in sulfuric acid and adding potash or ammonia to the concentrated solution. In 1767, Torbern Bergman observed the need for potassium or ammonium sulfates to convert aluminium sulfate into alum, while sodium or calcium would not work; the composition of common alum was determined by Louis Vauquelin in 1797. As soon as Martin Klaproth discovered the presence of potassium in leucite and lepidolite, Vauquelin demonstrated that common alum is a double salt, composed of sulfuric acid and potash. In the same journal volume, Jean-Antoine Chaptal published the analysis of four different kinds of alum, Roman alum, Levant alum, British alum and alum manufactured by himself, confirming Vauquelin's result; some alums occur as the most important being alunite. The most important alums – potassium and ammonium – are produced industrially. Typical recipes involve combining the sulfate monovalent cation; the aluminium sulfate is obtained by treating minerals like alum schist and cryolite with sulfuric acid.
Aluminium-based alums are named by the monovalent cation. Unlike the other alkali metals, lithium does not form alums; the most important alums are Potassium alum, KAl2·12H2O called "potash alum" or "alum". Sodium alum, NaAl2·12H2O called "soda alum" or "SAS". Ammonium alum, NH4Al2·12H2O. Aluminium-based alums have a number of common chemical properties, they are soluble in water, have a sweetish taste, react acid to litmus, crystallize in regular octahedra. In alums each metal ion is surrounded by six water molecules; when heated, they liquefy, if the heating is continued, the water of crystallization is driven off, the salt froths and swells, at last an amorphous powder remains. They are acidic. Alums crystallize in one of three different
Sindh is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country, the historical home of the Sindhi people. Sindh is the third largest province of Pakistan by area, second largest province by population after Punjab. Sindh is bordered by Balochistan province to the west, Punjab province to the north. Sindh borders the Indian states of Gujarat and Rajasthan to the east, Arabian Sea to the south. Sindh's landscape consists of alluvial plains flanking the Indus River, the Thar desert in the eastern portion of the province closest to the border with India, the Kirthar Mountains in the western part of Sindh. Sindh has Pakistan's second largest economy, while its provincial capital Karachi is Pakistan's largest city and financial hub, hosts the headquarters of several multinational banks. Sindh is home to a large portion of Pakistan's industrial sector and contains two of Pakistan's commercial seaports, Port Bin Qasim and the Karachi Port; the remainder of Sindh has an agriculture based economy, produces fruit, food consumer items, vegetables for the consumption other parts of the country.
Sindh is known for its distinct culture, influenced by Sufism, an important marker of Sindhi identity for both Hindus and Muslims in the province. Several important Sufi shrines are located throughout the province which attract millions of annual devotees. Sindh's capital, Karachi, is Pakistan's most ethnically diverse city, with Muhajirs, or descendants of those who migrated to Pakistan from India after 1947 and throughout the 1950s and 1960s, making up the majority of the population. Karachi and other urban centres of Sindh have seen ethnic tensions between the native Sindhis and the Muhajirs boil over into violence on several occasions. Sindh is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites – the Historical Monuments at Makli, the Archaeological Ruins at Moenjodaro; the word Sindh is derived from the Sanskrit term Sindhu, a reference to Indus River. The official spelling "Sind" was discontinued in 1988 by an amendment passed in Sindh Assembly; the Greeks who conquered Sindh in 325 BC under the command of Alexander the Great rendered it as Indós, hence the modern Indus.
The ancient Iranians referred to everything east of the river Indus as hind. Sindh's first known village settlements date as far back as 7000 BCE. Permanent settlements at Mehrgarh in Balochistan, to the west expanded into Sindh; this culture blossomed over several millennia and gave rise to the Indus Valley Civilization around 3000 BCE. The Indus Valley Civilization rivalled the contemporary civilizations of Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia in size and scope, numbering nearly half a million inhabitants at its height with well-planned grid cities and sewer systems; the primitive village communities in Balochistan were still struggling against a difficult highland environment, a cultured people were trying to assert themselves at Kot Diji. This was one of the most developed urban civilizations of the ancient world, it flourished between the 25th century BCE and 1500 BCE in the Indus valley sites of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa. The people had a high standard of art and craftsmanship and a well-developed system of quasi-pictographic writing which remains un-deciphered.
The ruins of the well planned towns, the brick buildings of the common people, public baths and the covered drainage system suggest a organized community. According to some accounts, there is no evidence of large palaces or burial grounds for the elite; the grand and holy site might have been the great bath, built upon an artificially created elevation. This indigenous civilization collapsed around 1700 BCE; the cause may have been a massive earthquake, which dried up the Ghaggar River. Skeletons discovered in the ruins of Moan Jo Daro were thought to indicate that the city was attacked and the population was wiped out, but further examinations showed that the marks on the skeletons were due to erosion and not of violence; the ancient city of Roruka, identified with modern Aror/Rohri, was capital of the Sauvira Kingdom, finds mentioned early Buddhist literature as a major trading center. Sindh finds mention in the Hindu epic Mahabharata as being part of Bharatvarsha. Sindh was conquered by the Persian Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century BC.
In the late 4th century BC, Sindh was conquered by a mixed army led by Macedonian Greeks under Alexander the Great. Alexander described his encounters with these trans-Indus tribes of Sindh: "I am involved in the land of lions and brave people, where every foot of the ground is like a well of steel, confronting my soldier. You have brought only one son into the world, but everyone in this land can be called an Alexander." The region remained under control of Greek satraps for only a few decades. After Alexander's death, there was a brief period of Seleucid rule, before Sindh was traded to the Mauryan Empire led by Chandragupta in 305 BC. During the rule of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka, the Buddhist religion spread to Sindh. Mauryan rule ended in 185 BC with the overthrow of the last king by the Shunga Dynasty. In the disorder that followed, Greek rule returned when Demetrius I of Bactria led a Greco-Bactrian invasion of India and annexed most of the northwestern lands, including Sindh. Demetrius was defeated and killed by a usurper, but his descendants continued to rule Sindh and other lands as the Indo-Greek Kingdom.
Under the reign of Menander I, many Indo-Greeks converted to Buddhism. In the late 2nd century BC, Scythian tribes shattered the Greco-Bactrian empire and invaded the Indo-Greek lands. Unable to take the P
Jaipur is the capital and the largest city of the Indian state of Rajasthan. It was founded on 18 November 1727 by Jai Singh II, the ruler of Amer, after whom the city is named; as of 2011, the city had a population of 3.1 million, making it the tenth most populous city in the country. Jaipur is known as the Pink City, due to the dominant color scheme of its buildings, it is located 268 km from the national capital New Delhi. Jaipur is a popular tourist destination in India and forms a part of the west Golden Triangle tourist circuit along with Delhi and Agra, it serves as a gateway to other tourist destinations in Rajasthan such as Jodhpur, Jaisalmer Udaipur and Mount Abu. Jaipur is located 616 km from Shimla. Jaipur is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Amer Fort; the city of Jaipur was founded in 1727 by Jai Singh II, the Raja of Amer who ruled from 1699 to 1743. He planned to shift his capital from Amer, 11 kilometres from Jaipur to accommodate the growing population and increasing scarcity of water.
Jai Singh consulted several books on architecture and architects while planning the layout of Jaipur. Under the architectural guidance of Vidyadhar Bhattacharya, Jaipur was planned based on the principles of Vastu shastra and Shilpa Shastra; the construction of the city began in 1726 and took four years to complete the major roads and palaces. The city was divided into nine blocks, two of which contained the state buildings and palaces, with the remaining seven allotted to the public. Huge ramparts were pierced by seven fortified gates. Jaipur is a standout amongst the most rich legacy urban areas in India. Established in the year 1727, the city is named after Maharaja Jai Singh II, the primary organizer of this city, he was a Kachhwaha Rajput and ruled the region in the vicinity of 1699 and 1744. During the rule of Sawai Ram Singh I, the city was painted pink to welcome H. R. H. Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, in 1876. Many of the avenues remained painted in pink, giving Jaipur a distinctive appearance and the epithet Pink city.
In the 19th century, the city grew and by 1900 it had a population of 160,000. The wide boulevards were paved and its chief industries were the working of metals and marble, fostered by a school of art founded in 1868; the city had three colleges, including a Sanskrit college and a girls' school opened during the reign of the Maharaja Ram Singh II. Large areas of the city including the airport were flooded in August 1981, resulting in the death of eight people and much damage to the city's Dravyavati River; the floods were caused by three days of cloud burst. Jaipur has a hot semi-arid climate under Koppen's climate classification, it receives over 63 cm of rainfall annually. But most rains occur in the monsoon months between September. Temperatures remain high during summer from April to early July having average daily temperatures of around 27.6' C. During the monsoon there are frequent, heavy rains and thunderstorms; the winter months of November to February are mild and pleasant, with average temperatures ranging from 18' C and with high humidity, but with occasional cold waves.
Jaipur is a high urban heat island zone with surrounding rural temperatures falling below freezing in winters. According to provisional report of 2011 census, Jaipur city had a population of 3,073,350; the overall literacy rate for the city is 84.34%. 90.61% males and 77.41% females were literate. The sex ratio was 898 females per 1,000 males; the child sex ratio stood at 854. According to the 2011 census, Hindus form the majority religious group comprising 77.9% of the city's population, followed by Muslims and others. Jaipur Municipal Corporation is responsible for maintaining the city's civic infrastructure and carrying out associated administrative duties; the Municipal Corporation is headed by a mayor. There are 91 wards and each ward is represented by an elected member. Jaipur Development Authority is the nodal government agency responsible for the planning and development of Jaipur. Jaipur consists of two parliamentary constituencies Jaipur Rural. In January 2019 Vishnu Laata was elected Mayor of Jaipur.
Jaipur is a major tourist destination in India forming a part of the Golden Triangle. In the 2008 Conde Nast Traveller Readers Choice Survey, Jaipur was ranked the 7th best place to visit in Asia. According to TripAdvisor's 2015 Traveller's Choice Awards for Destination, Jaipur ranked 1st among the Indian destinations for the year; the Presidential Suite at the Raj Palace Hotel, billed at US$45,000 per night, was listed in second place on CNN's World's 15 most expensive hotel suites in 2012. Jaipur Exhibition & Convention Centre is exhibition centre, it is famous for organising events such as Vastara, Jaipur Jewellery Show, Stonemart 2015 and Resurgent Rajasthan Partnership Summit 2015. Visitor attractions include the Hawa Mahal, Jal Mahal, City Palace, Amer Fort, Jantar Mantar, Nahargarh Fort, Jaigarh Fort, Birla Mandir, Govind Dev Ji Temple, Garh Ganesh Temple, Moti Dungri Ganesh Temple, Royal Gaitor cenotaphs, Sanghiji Jain temple and the Jaipur Zoo; the Jantar Mantar observatory and Amer Fort are one of the World Heritage Sites.
Hawa Mahal is a five-storey pyramidal shaped monument with 953 windows that rises 15 metres from its high base. Sisodiya Rani Bagh and Kanak Vrindavan are the major parks in Jaipur. Raj Mandir is a notable cinema hall in Jaipur. J