Skule Bårdsson or Duke Skule was a Norwegian nobleman and claimant to the royal throne against his son-in-law, King Haakon Haakonsson. Henrik Ibsen's play Kongs-Emnerne is about the dispute between King Haakon. Skule Bårdsson was born around 1189; as a son of Bård Guttormsson, he belonged to the Norwegian nobility and was a half-brother of King Inge Bårdsson who in his last years elevated Skule to be an earl. After King Inge's death in 1217, Haakon was chosen king at the age of 13, against the candidacy of Skule Bårdsson. However, Skule held much of the real power under a form of power sharing between Haakon. Skule's center of power was in Nidaros. In order to facilitate a compromise between these two rivals, Skule's elder daughter Margrete Skulesdotter was married to King Haakon in 1225. Skule thought he had too little of the power and intermittently participated in opposition against King Haakon. In 1237, as another attempt of compromise, Skule was given the first Norwegian title of duke. Skule restarted his rebellion against King Haakon.
Among others, the Icelander writer Snorre Sturlason allied with Skule in the conflict, the rebellion led to his death. Skule allowed his supporters to proclaim him king of Norway at the traditional Thing in Trøndelag during 1239. Skule tried, unsuccessfully, to win his other son-in-law, jarl Knut Haakonsson, to his side, he raised a military host against King Haakon and won a battle at Låka in Nannestad, but lost in Oslo. His party was called a reference to spring pelts of bad quality fur for poor people. In May 1240, Skule was defeated by his supporters, he sought refuge in Elgeseter Priory in Nidaros but Haakon's men burned down the monastery and killed Skule. With Skule’s death, the civil war era came to an end. Skule's rivalry for kingship was the last phase of the civil wars period of Norwegian history, which lasted from around 1130 to 1240. During that long warring period there were several interlocked conflicts of varying scale and intensity. Norway was accustomed to royal sons fighting each other.
The background for these conflicts were the unclear Norwegian succession laws, social conditions and the struggle between Church and King. There were two main parties, firstly known by varying names or no names at all, but condensed into parties of Bagler and Birkebeiner; the main sources of Sigurd's biography is a poem in Hryggjarstykki. This was incorporated into Morkinskinna and was used by Snorri Sturlasson when he wrote about Sigurd Slembe in Heimskringla. Another important source is Orkneyinga saga. Bjørgo, Narve "Skule Bårdsson" in: Norsk biografisk leksikon Finlay, Alison editor and translator Fagrskinna, a Catalogue of the Kings of Norway Hammer, K. V. "Skule Baardssön" in: Nordisk familjebok Bd. 25. Stockholm 1817. Pp. 1238–1239. Gjerset, Knut History of the Norwegian People Helle, Knut Under kirke og kongemakt, 1130-1350 Holmsen, Andreas Norges historie, fra de eldste tider til 1660 Røsoch, Henry Trondheim's History Øverland, O. A.. Kopenhagen 1926. S. 680
Philip Simonsson was a Norwegian aristocrat and from 1207 to 1217 was the Bagler party pretender to the throne of Norway during the civil war era in Norway. Philip was the son of Margrét Arnadóttir. Símon Kåresson had been a prominent opponent of King Sverre, who fought with the unsuccessful pretender Jon Kuvlung in the 1180s and was killed launching a new unsuccessful rising against Sverre in 1190. Philip was the grandson of the dowager queen of Norway. Philip's mother Margrét was the half-sister of King Inge I of Norway and full sister of Nikolás Arnason, bishop of Oslo and another prominent opponent of King Sverre and the Birkebeiner. In 1196, Bishop Nikolas and other opponents of King Sverre raised the Bagler party, with Inge Magnusson as their candidate, with the strong support of the Church; the Bagler fought Sverre until his death in 1202. Sverre was succeeded by Haakon III of Norway, who reconciled himself with the church. Deprived of its main support, the Bagler party dissolved, Inge Magnusson was killed.
In 1204, King Haakon III died unexpectedly, the Birkebeiner elected an infant King Guttorm, with real power in the hands of earl Haakon the Crazy. In response to this, the old Bagler united their army again, with the support of the King Valdemar II of Denmark. Bishop Nikolas attempted to have his nephew, elected king; the main body of the Bagler objected to this. Instead, Erling Stonewall, a putative son of King Magnus V of Norway was made their candidate and Philip was given the title of earl, the highest rank below that of king. Philip Simonson numbered King Harald I of Norway, the eponymous king of the Fairhair dynasty, among his ancestors, through his mother Margaret, whose mother descended from the Swedish Stenkil dynasty. According to Norse legends, their ancestor King Stenkil's mother Estrid Njalsdottir, descended from a daughter of King Harald; this descent was not sufficient for succession, as Norwegians had tended to require male-line descent from their royal dynasty, claimants with a close cognatic lineage to a recent king of Norway had been exceptions and not approved as dynastic.
Philip's Birkebeiner rival King Inge II had severe difficulties because he was only a maternal grandson of King Sigurd II. The Bagler army came to Norway in 1204. Erling was declared to be Philip earl at the Haugating, the Thing for Vestfold in Tønsberg; this action marked the start of the second Bagler war. The Bagler gained control of the Oslofjord-area, while the Birkebeiner held control of the Trøndelag-region around Nidaros. Western Norway with the city of Bergen changed hands several times; as the fighting raged on, both sides launched assaults on their opponents' strongholds, but neither side managed to achieve victory. In January 1207, the Bagler candidate Erling Steinvegg died; the Bagler first considered which son to take as their new king, but Bishop Nikolas now relaunched Philip's candidature for the title of king. He achieved the support of the free farmers against the Bagler military leaders, Philip was made the new Bagler candidate in Sarpsborg at the Thing. Philip continued the war against the Birkebeiner, capturing Sverresborg castle in Bergen in 1207, but abandoning it and enduring a successful Birkebeiner-raid on his own stronghold in Tønsberg the same year.
In 1208, with no side looking able to achieve victory, Bishop Nikolas and the other bishops managed to broker a peace deal between Bagler and Birkebeiner. The settlement was reach at Kvitsøy in Rogaland during the autumn of 1208. King Inge II of Norway recognized Philip's rule over the eastern third of the country, in return for Philip giving up the title of king and recognizing Inge as his overlord. To seal the agreement, Philip was to marry Kristín Sverrisdóttir. For the rest of his life, Philip ruled eastern Norway; the peace with the Birkebeiner held though Philip broke his promise and continued using the title of king until his death. He married Kristín in 1209, she died giving birth to their first child who died soon after. Philip never produced another heir. In April 1217, King Inge died. Philip attempted to renegotiate the peace deal, demanding to divide the kingdom half-and-half with the Birkebeiner, but the same autumn, Philip died. The next year, the new Birkebeiner candidate was recognized by the Bagler as King Haakon IV of Norway, bringing the division of the kingdom to an end.
In Norwegian civil war era it was usual that several royal sons fought against each other over power in Norway. The civil war period of Norwegian history lasted from 1130 to 1240. During this period there were several interlocked conflicts of intensity; the background for these conflicts were the unclear Norwegian succession laws, social conditions and the struggle between Church and King. There were two main parties, firstly known by varying names or no names at all, but condensed into parties of Bagler and Birkebeiner; the rallying point was a royal son, set up as the head figure of the party in question, to oppose the rule of king from the contesting party. The main source to the life and reign of Philip is the Bagler sagas; the oldest Norwegian royal letter to have been preserved was issued by Philip. Finn Hødnebø & Hallvard Magerøy. Soga om baglarar og birkebeinar. Det Norske Samlaget, Oslo. ISBN 82-521-0891-1 Norwegian
Sigurd II of Norway
Sigurd II redirects here. There was a Sigurd II Digri. Sigurd II Haraldsson was king of Norway from 1136 to 1155, he was king of Norway and his mistress Tora Guttormsdotter. He served as co-ruler with Inge Haraldsson and Eystein Haraldsson, his epithet Munn means "the Mouth" in Old Norse. He was killed in the power-struggle against his brother, Inge, in an early stage of the civil war era in Norway. Sigurd was fostered by Sådegyrd Bårdsson in Trøndelag; when his father was murdered by the pretender Sigurd Slembe in 1136, Sigurd was made king at the thing of Eyrathing. At the same time, his brothers Inge and Magnus were made kings and co-rulers, their respective guardians joined forces against Sigurd Slembe and his ally, the former king Magnus the Blind. The battles against these pretenders dominated the early years of Sigurd's reign. In 1139, they were defeated and slain at the Battle of Holmengrå. After this followed a period of peace. During the minority of the brothers, Sigurd and Magnus, the Norwegian nobility cooperated to rule the kingdom and advise the kings.
In 1142, their brother Eystein came to Norway from Scotland. His parentage was accepted. Eystein thus became co-ruler together with Sigurd and Inge. Magnus, of whom little more is known, died of natural causes at some point in the 1140s. In 1152, Norway was visited by the papal legate Nicholas Breakspear. During his visit, the church in Norway was organised into a separate archbishopric, with its seat at Nidaros; as they grew up, their old advisors died, hostility began to grow among the brothers. In 1155, all three of them were set to meet in Bergen in an effort to keep the peace. Inge accused Eystein of planning to have him dethroned. Sigurd denied the accusations, but a few days one of Inge's guards was killed by one of Sigurd's. At the advice of his mother Ingrid and his senior advisor, Gregorius Dagsson, Inge ordered his men to assault the house where Sigurd was residing. Sigurd had but few men, no mercy was given. King Sigurd fell on 6 February 1155, he was buried by the old cathedral of Bergen, in what is today Bergenhus Fortress This cathedral was demolished and replaced by a larger cathedral soon after.
King Eystein was late in arriving for the meeting, only approached the city after Sigurd was dead. An uneasy settlement was reached between Inge and Eystein; as it turned out, the killing of king Sigurd started the second phase of the Norwegian civil war era, with fighting continuing with only short let-ups until 1208. The reasons for the fighting in Bergen remain disputed. According to the sagas and Sigurd had plotted to strip Inge of his royal title and divide his share of the kingdom between them; some modern historians doubt this version, seeing it as Inge’s excuse for his own aggressive actions. During the following civil wars, several royal pretenders claimed to be the son of King Sigurd. For some, this was mostly a political statement, as royal lineage was necessary to be a candidate for the throne. Sverre Sigurdsson was the most successful by far of these claimants, succeeded in becoming king of Norway. Sigurd never married; the sagas draw a rather negative picture of both Sigurd and his brother Eystein choosing to portray Inge as the just ruler of the three brothers.
Heimskringla writes of Sigurd: When King Sigurd grew up he was a ungovernable, restless man in every way. King Sigurd was a strong man, of a brisk appearance, he was polite in his conversation beyond any man, was expert in all exercises. Haakon II Sigurdsson, known as Haakon the Broadshouldered. Made king by Sigurd and Eystein's supporters after Eystein's fall in 1157, in opposition to Inge Haraldsson. Killed in battle against Inge's old supporters and their new king Magnus Erlingsson. Mother: Tora. Sigurd Sigurdsson Markusfostre, known as Sigurd Markusfostre. Proclaimed king by Haakon the Broadshouldered's followers in 1162, captured and decapitated by king Magnus' supporters in 1163. Harald. Captured and executed by king Magnus' supporters, because his parentage made him a potential threat to Magnus' rule. Mother: Kristin Sigurdsdotter. Cecilia. Married Folkvid the Lawspeaker, marriage annulled. Mother of Haakon the Crazy. Remarried Bård Guttormsson Sverre Sigurdsson. Ruled as king of Norway from 1184 until his death.
Mother: Gunnhild. Whether he was in fact a son of Sigurd is dubious. Sverris saga, the saga of Sigurd's alleged son draws a somewhat unfavourable picture of Sigurd, contrasting him with the positive qualities of Sverre. Eirik?. Made jarl by king Sverre. Poisoned. Whether he was in fact a son of Sigurd is unknown; the main sources to Sigurd’s reign are the kings’ sagas Heimskringla, Morkinskinna and Ágrip. The three former base at least part of their account on the older saga Hryggjarstykki, written some time between 1150 and 1170, was thus a near-contemporary source; this saga. Matthew James Driscoll. Agrip Af Noregskonungasogum. Viking Society for Northern Research. ISBN 0-903521-27-X Kari Ellen Gade & Theodore Murdock Andersson.
Inge I of Norway
Inge Haraldsson was king of Norway from 1136 to 1161. Inge’s reign fell within the start of the period known in Norwegian history as the civil war era, he was never the sole ruler of the country. He is known as Inge the Hunchback, because of his physical disability. However, this epithet does not appear in medieval sources. Inge was the only legitimate son of king Harald Gille by Ingiríðr Ragnvaldsdóttir. At the time, legitimate birth was not an important factor in determining succession to the throne. Inge was fostered by Ámund Gyrðarson in eastern Norway, his father, was murdered in 1136 by the pretender Sigurd Slembe. The one-year-old Inge was named king at the thing of Borgarting near Sarpsborg, his two half-brothers infants and Sigurd, were named king at other things. Their respective guardians joined forces against Sigurd Slembe and his ally, the former king Magnus the Blind. In 1139, they were defeated and killed at the Battle of Holmengrå. According to the sagas Morkinskinna and Heimskringla, Inge’s infirmity stemmed from having been carried into battle by one of his guardians during a battle in 1137: “...his back was knotted into a hump, the one foot was shorter than the other.
The Danish chronicler Saxo Grammaticus offers the alternative explanation that he became a hunchback after having been dropped on the floor by a maid during infancy. During the minority of Inge and Magnus, the country was ruled in peace by their guardians, prominent among whom was Inge’s mother, queen Ingiriðr. Magnus, of whom little more is known, died at some point in the 1140s. In 1142, a fourth, older brother, came to Norway from Scotland, where he had grown up. Harald Gille had acknowledged Eystein as a son before his death, Eystein was therefore given a share of the kingdom; the division of the kingdom does not seem to have been territorial, all brothers seem to have held equal regal status over all parts of the country. According to the sagas, relations between the brothers were peaceful as long as their guardians were alive; this period of their reign saw the establishment of an independent Norwegian Archiepiscopacy in Nidaros in 1152. As their guardians died, the brothers grew up, conflict broke out.
In 1155, a meeting between the brothers in Bergen resulted in fighting breaking out between the men of king Inge and king Sigurd, in which king Sigurd was killed. King Eystein was late in arriving for the meeting, only approached the city after Sigurd was dead. An uneasy settlement was reached between Eystein; the reasons for the fighting in Bergen remain disputed. According to the sagas and Sigurd had plotted to strip Inge of his royal title and divide his share of the kingdom between them; some modern historians doubt this version, seeing it as Inge’s excuse for his own aggressive actions. In any event, peace between Inge and Eystein did not hold for long after the events of 1155. In 1157, both sides gathered their forces for a confrontation. Inge’s forces outnumbered Eystein’s, when they met, on the west coast near Moster, Eystein’s forces melted away. Eystein was forced to flee, he was caught and killed in Bohuslän the same year. Inge was now the last remaining brother. However, the supporters of Sigurd and Eystein united behind a son of Sigurd, Haakon the Broadshouldered.
They renewed the fight against Inge. Heimskringla notes that Inge was popular among the “chieftains” – the lendmenn – because he allowed them a great say in the running of the kingdom. Foremost among his advisors was the lendmann Gregorius Dagsson, another prominent supporter was Erling Skakke; the king’s mother, who survived her son appears to have remained influential throughout his reign. 7 January 1161, Gregorius was killed in a skirmish with king Haakon’s forces. On 3 February the same year, Inge was defeated and killed, leading his men into battle against King Haakon near Oslo, after many of his men, led by his vassal Guðrøðr Óláfsson, the exiled King of the Isles, defected to King Haakon’s side, he was buried in St. Hallvard’s church in Oslo; the period of peace during the minority of king Inge and his brothers – from 1129 until 1155 - was the longest peaceful period Norway was to see until 1240, as the dispute between the brothers ushered in the Norwegian civil war era. Heimskringla describes Inge thus: King Inge was the handsomest among them in countenance.
He had yellow but rather thin hair, much curled. His stature was small, he was of cheerful conversation, friendly towards his friends. He was popular, with the public. After Inge’s fall, his supporters rallied behind the lendmann Erling Skakke and his son, king Magnus Erlingsson; this party is sometimes referred to as the lendmann-party. The sagas of king Inge do not mention any offspring, but one of the pretenders against king Sverre, Jon Kuvlung, claimed to be Inge’s son; the main sources to Inge’s reign are the kings’ sagas Heimskringla, Morkinskinna and Ágrip. The three former base at least part of their account on the older saga Hryggjarstykki, written some time between 1150 and 1170, was thus a nea
Oslo is the capital and most populous city of Norway. It constitutes both a municipality. Founded in the year 1040 as Ánslo, established as a kaupstad or trading place in 1048 by Harald Hardrada, the city was elevated to a bishopric in 1070 and a capital under Haakon V of Norway around 1300. Personal unions with Denmark from 1397 to 1523 and again from 1536 to 1814 reduced its influence, with Sweden from 1814 to 1905 it functioned as a co-official capital. After being destroyed by a fire in 1624, during the reign of King Christian IV, a new city was built closer to Akershus Fortress and named Christiania in the king's honour, it was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838. The city's name was spelled Kristiania between 1897 by state and municipal authorities. In 1925 the city was renamed Oslo. Oslo is the governmental centre of Norway; the city is a hub of Norwegian trade, banking and shipping. It is maritime trade in Europe; the city is home to many companies within the maritime sector, some of which are among the world's largest shipping companies and maritime insurance brokers.
Oslo is a pilot city of the Council of Europe and the European Commission intercultural cities programme. Oslo is considered a global city and was ranked "Beta World City" in studies carried out by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network in 2008, it was ranked number one in terms of quality of life among European large cities in the European Cities of the Future 2012 report by fDi magazine. A survey conducted by ECA International in 2011 placed Oslo as the second most expensive city in the world for living expenses after Tokyo. In 2013 Oslo tied with the Australian city of Melbourne as the fourth most expensive city in the world, according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's Worldwide Cost of Living study; as of 1 July 2017, the municipality of Oslo had a population of 672,061, while the population of the city's urban area of 3 December 2018 was 1,000,467. The metropolitan area had an estimated population of 1.71 million. The population was increasing at record rates during the early 2000s, making it the fastest growing major city in Europe at the time.
This growth stems for the most part from international immigration and related high birth rates, but from intra-national migration. The immigrant population in the city is growing somewhat faster than the Norwegian population, in the city proper this is now more than 25% of the total population if immigrant parents are included; as of 1 January 2016, the municipality of Oslo had a population of 658,390. The urban area extends beyond the boundaries of the municipality into the surrounding county of Akershus; the city centre is situated at the end of the Oslofjord, from which point the city sprawls out in three distinct "corridors"—inland north-eastwards, southwards along both sides of the fjord—which gives the urbanized area a shape reminiscent of an upside-down reclining "Y". To the north and east, wide forested hills rise above the city giving the location the shape of a giant amphitheatre; the urban municipality of Oslo and county of Oslo are two parts of the same entity, making Oslo the only city in Norway where two administrative levels are integrated.
Of Oslo's total area, 130 km2 is built-up and 7 km2. The open areas within the built-up zone amount to 22 km2; the city of Oslo was established as a municipality on 3 January 1838. It was separated from the county of Akershus to become a county of its own in 1842; the rural municipality of Aker was merged with Oslo on 1 January 1948. Furthermore, Oslo shares several important functions with Akershus county; as defined in January 2004 by the city council ^ The definition has since been revised in the 2015 census. After being destroyed by a fire in 1624, during the reign of King Christian IV, a new city was built closer to Akershus Fortress and named Christiania in the king's honour; the old site east of the Aker river was not abandoned however and the village of Oslo remained as a suburb outside the city gates. The suburb called Oslo was included in the city proper. In 1925 the name of the suburb was transferred to the whole city, while the suburb was renamed "Gamlebyen" to avoid confusion; the Old Town is an area within the administrative district Gamle Oslo.
The previous names are reflected in street names like Oslo Oslo hospital. The origin of the name Oslo has been the subject of much debate, it is derived from Old Norse and was — in all probability — the name of a large farm at Bjørvika, but the meaning of that name is disputed. Modern linguists interpret the original Óslo, Áslo or Ánslo as either "Meadow at the Foot of a Hill" or "Meadow Consecrated to the Gods", with both considered likely. Erroneously, it was once assumed that "Oslo" meant "the mouth of the Lo river", a supposed previous name for the river Alna. However, not only has no evidence been found of a river "Lo" predating the work where Peder Claussøn Friis first proposed this etymology, but the name is ungrammatical in Norwegian: the correct form would have been Loaros; the name Lo is now believed to be a back-formation arrived at by Friis in support of his etymology
Legitimacy (family law)
Legitimacy, in traditional Western common law, is the status of a child born to parents who are married to each other, of a child conceived before the parents obtain a legal divorce. Conversely, illegitimacy has been the status of a child born outside marriage, such a child being known as a bastard, or love child, when such a distinction has been made from other children. In Scots law, the terminology of natural son or natural daughter has the same implications; the prefix "Fitz-" added to a surname sometimes denoted that the child's parents were not married at the time of birth. Depending on local legislation, legitimacy can affect a child's rights of inheritance to the putative father's estate and the child's right to bear the father's surname or hereditary title. Illegitimacy has had consequences for the mother's and child's right to support from the putative father; the importance of legitimacy has decreased in Western countries with the increasing economic independence of women, the sexual revolution of the 1960s and 1970s, the fall of totalitarian regimes, declining influence of Christian churches on family life.
Births outside marriage represent the majority in many countries in Western Europe and in former European colonies. In many Western-derived cultures, stigma based on parents' marital status, use of the word "bastard", are now considered offensive. England's Statute of Merton stated, regarding illegitimacy: "He is a bastard, born before the marriage of his parents." This definition applied to situations when a child's parents could not marry, as when one or both were married or when the relationship was incestuous. The Poor Law of 1576 formed the basis of English bastardy law, its purpose was to punish a bastard child's mother and putative father, to relieve the parish from the cost of supporting mother and child. "By an act of 1576, it was ordered that bastards should be supported by their putative fathers, though bastardy orders in the quarter sessions date from before this date. If the genitor could be found he was put under great pressure to accept responsibility and to maintain the child."Under English law, a bastard could not inherit real property and could not be legitimized by the subsequent marriage of father to mother.
There was one exception: when his father subsequently married his mother, an older illegitimate son took possession of his father's lands after his death, he would pass the land on to his own heirs on his death, as if his possession of the land had been retroactively converted into true ownership. A younger non-bastard brother would have no claim to the land. There were many "natural children" of Scotland's monarchy granted positions which founded prominent families. In the 14th century, Robert II of Scotland gifted one his illegitimate sons estates in Bute, founding the Stewarts of Bute, a natural son of Robert III of Scotland was ancestral to the Shaw Stewarts of Greenock. In Scots law an illegitimate child, a "natural son" or "natural daughter", would be legitimated by the subsequent marriage of his parents, provided they were free to marry at the date of the conception; the Legitimation Act 1968 extended legitimation by the subsequent marriage of the parents to children conceived when their parents were not free to marry, but this was repealed in 2006 by the amendment of section 1 of the Law Reform Act 1986 which abolished the status of illegitimacy stating that " No person whose status is governed by Scots law shall be illegitimate...".
The Legitimacy Act 1926 of England and Wales legitimized the birth of a child if the parents subsequently married each other, provided that they had not been married to someone else in the meantime. The Legitimacy Act 1959 extended the legitimization if the parents had married others in the meantime and applied it to putative marriages which the parents incorrectly believed were valid. Neither the 1926 nor 1959 Acts changed the laws of succession to the British throne and succession to peerage and baronetcy titles. In Scotland children legitimated by the subsequent marriage of their parents have always been entitled to succeed to peerages and baronetcies and The Legitimation Act 1968 extended this right to children conceived when their parents were not free to marry; the Family Law Reform Act 1969 allowed a bastard to inherit on the intestacy of his parents. In canon and in civil law, the offspring of putative marriages have been considered legitimate. Since 2003 in England and Wales, 2002 in Northern Ireland and 2006 in Scotland, an unmarried father has parental responsibility if he is listed on the birth certificate.
In the United States, in the early 1970s a series of Supreme Court decisions held that most common-law disabilities imposed upon illegitimacy were invalid as violations of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. Still, children born out of wedlock may not be eligible for certain federal benefits unless the child has been legitimized in the appropriate jurisdiction. Many other countries have legislatively abolished any legal disabilities of a child born out of wedlock. In France, legal reforms regarding illegitimacy began in the 1970s, but it was only in the 21st century that the principle of equality was upheld. In 2001, France was forced by the European Court of Human Rights to change several laws that were deemed discriminato
Inge Magnusson or Inge Baglar-king was from 1196 to 1202 the Bagler candidate for pretender to the Norwegian throne during the Civil war era in Norway. In 1197, a serious challenge to the reign of King Sverre of Norway arose. Several prominent opponents of Sverre, including bishop Nikolas Arnesson of Oslo, a halfbrother of King Inge I of Norway and exiled archbishop Erik Ivarsson met at the marketplace of Halör in Skåne part of Denmark, they took purported son of King Magnus V of Norway as their figurehead-king. Their party was called the Bagler, from an Old Norse word meaning crosier; the war between the Bagler, with the open support of the Church, the Birkebeiner, was to last for the rest of the reign of King Sverre. Inge Magnusson was with the Bagler party when they took Nidaros in January 1198, they stayed through the spring, Inge was given the royal title at the Thing. The Baglers established themselves in the Viken area, both the bishopric of Nikolas Arnesson and the former power base of King Magnus V.
On 18 June 1199, the two fleets met at the naval Battle of Strindafjord. Here Sverre won the surviving Baglers fled. From January 1200, Inge is described as one of Bagler leaders. Inge died during the same year as his rival King Sverre. After the death of King Sverre during March 1202, Inge had lost the support of the church. Archbishop Eirik and bishops who had followed Baglers, now reconciled with King Håkon III of Norway, the son of King Sverre. Inge was killed by some of his own men at Storøya outside Fagernes. In the Norwegian Civil War several royal sons fought against each other for power in Norway; the civil wars period of Norwegian history lasted from 1130 to 1240. After these two parties were reconciled in 1217, a more ordered system of government centered around the king was able to bring an end to the frequent risings. During this period there were several interlocked conflicts of intensity; the background for these conflicts were the unclear Norwegian succession laws, social conditions and the struggle between Church and King.
There were two main parties, firstly known by varying names or no names at all, but condensed into parties of Bagler and Birkebeiner. The rallying point was a royal son, set up as the head figure of the party in question, to oppose the rule of the king from the contesting party; the failed rising of duke Skule Bårdsson in 1240 was the final event of the civil war era Helle, Knut Omkring Boglungasogur Orning, Hans Jacob Unpredictability and Presence: Norwegian Kingship in the High Middle Ages ISBN 9789004166615 Bagge, Sverre From Viking Stronghold to Christian Kingdom: State Formation in Norway, c. 900-1350 ISBN 9788763507912