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Bagrationi dynasty

The Bagrationi dynasty is a royal dynasty which reigned in Georgia from the Middle Ages until the early 19th century, being among the oldest extant Christian ruling dynasties in the world. In modern usage, the name of the dynasty is sometimes Hellenized and referred to as the Georgian Bagratids known in English as the Bagrations. Historian Cyril Toumanoff claims a common origin with the Armenian Bagratuni dynasty. However, other sources claim. Early Georgian Bagratids through dynastic marriage gained the Principality of Iberia after succeeding the Chosroid dynasty at the end of the 8th century. In 888 Adarnase IV of Iberia restored the Georgian monarchy; this period of time the reigns of David IV the Builder and of his great-granddaughter Tamar the Great inaugurated the Georgian Golden Age in the history of Georgia. After fragmentation of the unified Kingdom of Georgia in the late 15th century, the branches of the Bagrationi dynasty ruled the three breakaway Georgian kingdoms, the Kingdom of Kartli, the Kingdom of Kakheti, the Kingdom of Imereti, until Russian annexation in the early-19th century.

While the 3rd article of the 1783 Treaty of Georgievsk guaranteed continued sovereignty for the Bagrationi dynasty and their continued presence on the Georgian Throne, the Russian Imperial Crown broke the terms of the treaty, the Russian protectorate became an illegal annexation. The dynasty persisted within the Russian Empire as an Imperial Russian noble family until the 1917 February Revolution; the establishment of Soviet rule in Georgia in 1921 forced some members of the family to accept demoted status and loss of property in Georgia. Other members relocated to Western Europe, but some Bagrations repatriated after Georgian regained independence in 1991; the earliest Georgian forms of the dynastic name are Bagratoniani and Bagratovani, changed subsequently into Bagrationi. These names as well as the Armenian Bagratuni and the modern designation Bagratid mean "the children of Bagrat" or "the house of/established by Bagrat". According to a tradition first recorded in the work of the 11th-century Georgian chronicler Sumbat Davitis-Dze, repeated much by Prince Vakhushti Bagrationi the dynasty claimed descent from the biblical king and prophet David and came from Israel around 530 AD.

The tradition had it that of seven refugee brothers of the Davidic line, three of them settled in Armenia and the other four arrived in Kartli, where they intermarried with the local ruling houses and acquired some lands in hereditary possession, with one of the four brothers, founding a line subsequently called Bagrationi after his son Bagrat. A successor, was installed as a presiding prince of Iberia under the Byzantine protectorate, receiving on this occasion the Byzantine court title of Kouropalates in 575. Thus, according to this version, began the dynasty of the Bagratids, who ruled until 1801; this tradition enjoyed a general acceptance until the early 20th century. The Jewish origin, let alone the biblical descent, of the Bagratids has been discounted by modern scholarship. Cyril Toumanoff's research concluded that the Georgian Bagratids branched out of the Armenian Bagratid dynasty in the person of Adarnase, whose father Vasak passed to Kartli following an abortive uprising against Arab rule in 775.

Adarnase’s son, Ashot I, acquired the Principality of Iberia in 813 and thus founded the last royal house of Georgia. Accordingly, the legend of the Davidic origin of the Georgian Bagratids was a further development of the earlier claim entertained by the Armenian dynasty, as given in the work of the Armenian author Moses of Khorene. Once the Georgian branch, which had acculturated in the new environment, assumed royal power, the myth of their biblical origin helped to assert their legitimacy and became a major ideological pillar of the millennium-long Bagrationi rule in Georgia. Although certain, the generation-by-generation history of the Bagrationi dynasty begins only in the late 8th century. Toumanoff claimed that the first Georgian branch of the Bagratids may be traced as far back as the 2nd century AD, when they were said to rule over the princedom of Odzrkhe in what is now southern Georgia; the Odzrkhe line, known in the medieval annals as the Bivritianis, lasted until the 5th century AD.

They cannot, however, be considered the direct ancestors of the Bagratids who restored Georgian royal authority. According to the Georgian historian Niko Berdzenishvili, the illustrious dynasty of the Bagrationi originates in the most ancient Georgian districtSperi. Through their farsighted, flexible policies, the Bagrationi achieved great influence from the 6th through 8th centuries. One of their branches moved out to Armenia, the other to Iberia, both won for themselves the dominant position among the other rulers of Transcaucasia; the Bagrationi family had grown in prominence by the time the Georgian monarchy fell to the Sassanid Persian Empire in the 6th century, the leading local princely families were exhausted by Arab attacks. The rise of the new dynasty was made possible by the extinction of the Guaramids and the near-extinction of the Chosroids, the two earlier dynasties of Iberia with whom the Bagratids extensively intermarried, by the Abbasid preoccupation with their own civil wars and conflict with the Byzantine Empire.

Although Arab rule did not allow them a foothold in the ancient capital of Tbilisi and eastern Kartli, the Bagr

Article 58 (RSFSR Penal Code)

Article 58 of the Russian SFSR Penal Code was put in force on 25 February 1927 to arrest those suspected of counter-revolutionary activities. It was revised several times. In particular, its Article 58-1 was updated by the listed sub-articles and put in force on 8 June 1934; this article introduced the formal notion of the enemy of workers: those subject to articles 58-2 — 58-13. Penal codes of other republics of the Soviet Union had articles of similar nature. Note: In this section, the phraseology of article 58 is given in quotes; the article covered the following offenses. 58-1: Definition of counter-revolutionary activity:A counter-revolutionary action is any action aimed at overthrowing, undermining or weakening of the power of workers' and peasants' Soviets... and governments of the USSR and Soviet and autonomous republics, or at the undermining or weakening of the external security of the USSR and main economical and national achievements of the proletarial revolution It was not limited to anti-Soviet acts: by "international solidarity of workers", any other "worker's state" was protected by this article.

58-1а. Treason: death sentence or 10 years of prison, both cases with property confiscation. 58-1б. Treason by military personnel: death sentence with property confiscation. 58-1в. In the case of flight of the offender in treason subject to 58-1б, his relatives were subject to 5–10 years of imprisonment with confiscation or 5 years of Siberia exile, depending on the circumstances: either they helped or knew and didn't report or lived with the offender. 58-1г. Non-reporting of a treason by a military man: 10 years of imprisonment. Non-reporting by others: offense by Article 58-12. 58-2. Armed uprising or intervention with the goal to seize the power: up to death with confiscation, including formal recognition as "enemy of workers". 58-3. Contacts with foreigners "with counter-revolutionary purposes" are subject to Article 58-2. 58-4. Any kind of help to "international bourgeoisie" which, not recognizing the equality of communist political system, strives to overthrow it: punishment similar to 58-2. 58-5.

Urging any foreign entity to declaration of war, military intervention, capture of state property, breaking diplomatic relations, breaking international treaties, other aggressive actions against USSR: similar to 58-2. 58-6. Espionage. Punishment: similar to 58-2. 58-7. Undermining of state industry, monetary circulation or credit system, as well as of cooperative societies and organizations, with counter-revolutionary purpose by means of the corresponding usage of the state institutions, as well as by opposing their normal functioning: same as 58-2. Note: the offense according to this article was known as wrecking and the offenders were called "wreckers". 58-8. Terrorist acts against representatives of Soviet power or of workers and peasants organisations: same as 58-2. 58-9. Damage of transport, water supply and other buildings or state and communal property with counter-revolutionary purpose: same as 58-2. 58-10. Anti-Soviet and counter-revolutionary propaganda and agitation: at least 6 months of imprisonment.

In the conditions of unrest or war: same as 58.2. 58-11. Any kind of organisational or support actions related to the preparation or execution of the above crimes is equated to the corresponding offenses and prosecuted by the corresponding articles. 58-12. Non-reporting of a "counter-revolutionary activity": at least 6 months of imprisonment. 58-13. Active struggle against revolutionary movement of tsarist personnel and members of "counter-revolutionary governments" during the civil war, same as 58-2. 58-14 "Counter-revolutionary sabotage", i.e. conscious non-execution or deliberately careless execution of "defined duties", aimed at the weakening of the power of the government and of the functioning of the state apparatus is subject to at least one year of freedom deprivation, under aggravating circumstances, up to the highest measure of social protection: execution by shooting with confiscation of property. The article was used for the imprisonment and execution of many prominent people, as well as multitudes of nonnotable innocents.

Sentences were long, up to 25 years, extended indefinitely without trial or consultation. Inmates under Article 58 were known as "politichesky", as opposed to common criminals, "ugolovnik". Upon release, the prisoner would be sent into an exile within Russia without the right to settle within 100 km of large cities. Section 10 of Article 58 made "propaganda and agitation against the Soviet Union" a triable offence, whilst section 12 allowed for onlookers to be prosecuted for not reporting instances of section 10. In effect, Article 58 was carte blanche for the secret police to arrest and imprison anyone deemed suspicious, making for its use as a political weapon. A person could be framed: the latter would arrange an "anti-Soviet" incident in the person's presence and try the person for it. If the person pleaded innocence, not having reported the incident would make them liable to imprisonment. During and after World War II, Article 58 was used to imprison some of the returned Soviet prisoners of war on the grounds that their capture and detainment by the Axis Powers during the war was proof that they did not fight to the death and were therefore anti-Soviet.

Article 58 was applied outside the USSR as well. In the Soviet occupation zone of Germany people were interned as "spies" for suspected opposition to the Stalinist regime, e.g. for contacts with orga

Kenny Finn

Kenny Finn is an Irish former soccer player and Gaelic footballer. He spent four seasons in the League of Ireland before moving to the United States, he played in the German American Soccer League as well as with the New York Gaelic football team. He earned two caps with the U. S. national soccer team. He is the Aztec Soccer Club Director of Coaching. Faced with the choice between Gaelic football and soccer, Finn chose soccer and signed as an apprentice with Dundalk when he turned fifteen, he became a first team starter at left back a year later. In 1958, Dundalk won the FAI Cup over Shamrock Rovers, never conceding a goal during the competition. In 1959, he left both Dundalk and Ireland when he emigrated to the USA; when Finn arrived in the U. S. he settled in New York City, signing with the German-Hungarians of the German American Soccer League. He remained with the German-Hungarians for over a decade before retiring from playing professionally. Finn began his international soccer career as an Irish youth international.

He played at least one game, as team captain, in 1955. Once he gained his U. S. citizenship, he was called into the senior U. S. national team. Finn earned his first caps with the U. S. national soccer team in a 2-0 World Cup qualification loss to Mexico on November 13, 1960. On February 5, 1961, he began his second national team game, as a defender. With the U. S. down two goals to none, the U. S. goalkeeper, Helmut Michel, was injured. Finn kept a clean sheet from that point on. After retiring from playing professionally, Finn entered the coaching ranks and coached his two sons and Kenny in youth soccer which included the U19 NJ State Cup championship in 1983. Finn guided the Freehold Falcons to a state cup victory over the Kearny Scotts which included Tab Ramos, John Harkes, Chris Pete, Peter Gaynor. Both of Finn's son's went on to play college soccer at Virginia Tech. Kenny's Granddaughter, Lauren Burford played Basketball for Villanovo and his Grandson Brian Finn plays soccer for the University of Notre Dame.

Finn had played football as a lad, earning an invitation to play with Louth GAA, but gave it up when he signed a contract with Dundalk F. C. an Irish soccer club. When Finn arrived in New York City in 1959, he joined a local football club which played in Gaelic Park. In 1967, he was part of one of the sport's great upsets when the team representing New York defeated the 1967 National Football League champions Galway in a two-game final. In the first game, played May 14, 1967, New York defeated Galway 3-5 to 1-6 in New York. A week they won again, 4-3 to 0-10 in Ireland. Finn played a total of sixteen years with New York. 2006 Irish Abroad article