Bahadur Shah Zafar

Bahadur Shah Zafar or Bahadur Shah II was the last Mughal emperor. He was the second son of and became the successor to his father, Akbar II, upon his death on 28 September 1837, he was a nominal Emperor, as the Mughal Empire existed in name only and his authority was limited only to the walled city of Old Delhi. Following his involvement in the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the British exiled him to Rangoon in British-controlled Burma, after convicting him on several charges. Zafar's father, Akbar II had been imprisoned by the British and he was not his father's preferred choice as his successor. One of Akbar Shah's queens, Mumtaz Begum, pressured him to declare her son, Mirza Jahangir, as his successor. However, The East India Company exiled Jahangir after he attacked their resident, in the Red Fort, paving the way for Zafar to assume the throne. Bahadur Shah Zafar ruled over a Mughal Empire that had by the early nineteenth century been reduced to only the city of Delhi and the surrounding territory as far as Palam.

The Maratha Empire had brought an end to the Mughal Empire in the Deccan during the 18th century and the regions of India under Mughal rule had either been absorbed by the Marathas or had declared independence and become smaller kingdoms. The Marathas installed Shah Alam II in the throne in 1772, under the protection of the Maratha general Mahadaji Shinde and maintained suzerainty over Mughal affairs in Delhi; the East India Company became the dominant political and military power in mid-nineteenth-century India. Outside the region controlled by the Company, hundreds of kingdoms and principalities, fragmented their land; the emperor was respected by the Company. The emperor permitted the Company to maintain a military force in it. Zafar never had any interest in statecraft or had any "imperial ambition". After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the British exiled him from Delhi. Bahadur Shah Zafar was a noted Urdu poet. While some part of his opus was lost or destroyed during the Indian Rebellion of 1857, a large collection did survive, was compiled into the Kulliyyat-i-Zafar.

The court that he maintained was home to several prolific Urdu writers, including Mirza Ghalib, Dagh and Zauq. After his defeat, he said: غازیوں میں بو رھےگی جب تک ایمان کی تخت لندن تک چلےگی تیغ ھندوستان کی Ghaziyoñ meñ bū rahegī jab tak imān kī Takht London tak chalegī tegh Hindostān kī; as long as there remains the scent of faith in the hearts of our Ghazis, so long shall the Talwar of Hindustan flash before the throne of London. As the Indian rebellion of 1857 spread, Sepoy regiments reached the Mughal Court at Delhi; because of Zafar's neutral views on religions, many Indian kings and regiments accepted and declared him as the Emperor of India. On 12 May 1857, Zafar held his first formal audience in several years, it was attended by several sepoys who were described as treating him "familiarly or disrespectfully". When the sepoys first arrived at Bahadur Shah Zafar's court, he asked them why they had come to him, because he had no means of maintaining them. Bahadur Shah Zafar's conduct was indecisive.

However, he yielded to the demands of the sepoys when he was told that they would not be able to win against the East India Company without him. On 16 May and palace servants killed fifty-two Europeans who were prisoners of the palace and who were discovered hiding in the city; the executions took place under a peepul tree despite Zafar's protests. The aim of the executioners who were not the supporters of Zafar was to implicate him in the killings. Once he had joined them, Bahadur Shah II took ownership for all the actions of the mutineers. Though dismayed by the looting and disorder, he gave his public support to the rebellion, it was believed that Bahadur Shah was not directly responsible for the massacre, but that he may have been able to prevent it, he was therefore considered a consenting party during his trial. The administration of the city and its new occupying army was described as "chaotic and troublesome", which functioned "haphazardly"; the Emperor nominated Mirza Mughal, as the commander in chief of his forces.

However, Mirza Mughal was rejected by the sepoys. The sepoys did not have any commander since each regiment refused to accept orders from someone other than their own officers. Mirza Mughal's administration extended no further than the city. Outside Gujjar herders began levying their own tolls on traffic, it became difficult to feed the city. During the Siege of Delhi when the victory of the British became certain, Zafar took refuge at Humayun's Tomb, in an area, at the outskirts of Delhi. Company forces led by Major William Hodson surrounded the tomb and Zafar was captured on 20 September 1857; the next day, Hodson shot his sons Mirza Mughal and Mirza Khizr Sultan, grandson Mirza Abu Bakht under his own authority at the Khooni Darwaza, near the Delhi Gate and declared Delhi to be captured. Bahadur Shah himself was taken to his wife's haveli, where he was treated disrespectfully by his captors; when brought news of the executions of his sons and grandson, the former emperor was described as being so shocked and depressed that he was unable to react.

The trial was a consequence of the Sepoy Mutiny and lasted for 41 days, had 19 hearings, 21 witnesses and over a hundred documents in Persian and Urdu, with their English translations, were produced in the court. At first the trial was suggested to be held at Calcutta, the place where Directors of East India company used to their sittings in connection with thei


Magika is a 2010 Malaysian film directed by Edry Abdul Halim. Ayu and Malik, two siblings are going through their darkest moments of lives when their beloved mother just died. Malik feels so depressed believing. During one of the evenings after a fight with his sister, Malik left to take a stroll in the forest. On and on he went until he realised he was lost and the next moment, he appeared in another dimension called Magika. Not only had he gotten himself lost, he was captured by a Nenek Kebayan and her follower, Awang Kenit, he is now subjected to be used as an experiment by the Nenek Kebayan to produce Essence of Youth made of human child's tears. Upon hearing Malik's cries for help, Ayu rushed to help her brother and she too is sucked in the Magika mystical land. Ayu had to endure various types of challenges and obstacles to find and save her brother in her journey in the Magika world, and so begins the encounters of both the siblings with famous Malay heroes and myths like Badang, Dragon of Chini Lake, Nenek Kebayan, Puteri Bunian, Pak Pandir, Hang Tuah and the Warriors of Malacca, Mount Ledang Princess, Bawang Putih and a lot more characters, all of whom communicate with each other in song.

Diana Danielle as Ayu Mawi as Bad Shafimie Saedon as Malik Ziana Zain as Nenek Kebayan Ning Baizura as Puteri Gunung Ledang Maya Karin as Bunian Raja Azura as Mak Andeh Norman Abdul Halim as Pokok Bersaudara 1 Edry Abdul Halim as Pokok Bersaudara 2 Yusry Abdul Halim as Pokok Bersaudara 3 Aznil Nawawi as Pak Pandir M. Nasir as the Chini Lake dragon Jalaluddin Hasan as Murad Ogy Ahmad Daud as Ija Sharifah Amani as Bawang Putih Sharifah Aleya as Bawang Merah Adibah Noor as Makcik Halia Ruminah Sidek as Tok Wan Sabri Yunus as the Bendahara Saiful Apek as Hang Tuah Mazlan Pet Pet as Hang Jebat Azlee Senario as Hang Kasturi Hamdan Ramli as Hang Lekir Illya Buang as Hang Lekiu Vanidah Imran as Mahsuri Norman Hakim as Awang Lembing Ahmad Nabil Ahmad as Orang Minyak Zaibo as Pak Belalang Hadziq as Belalang Marsha Milan Londoh as Puteri Santubong Azhari Mohd Zain as the Doctor Magika on IMDb

Outlook (radio programme)

Outlook is a radio programme on BBC World Service that broadcasts human interest stories from across the globe. It broadcasts from Monday to Thursday from 1206 to 1259 GMT. A shorter edition, Outlook Weekend, airs on Saturdays from 2332 to 2359 GMT. First broadcast on 4 July 1966, it began as a straightforward magazine programme and was presented for more than thirty years by John Tidmarsh. More it has been praised for a consistent ability to uncover fascinating stories, it was credited with bringing solace to Terry Waite after his abduction by Islamic extremists in Beirut in 1987. Corruption of any kind is a favourite topic on the show and it has achieved recognition for its high production values alongside other BBC radio programmes; the first presenters were John Tidmarsh and Colin Hamilton. Other regular presenters have included John McCarthy, Barbara Myers, John Waite, Mike Bullen, Janet Trewin, Frank Partridge, Caroline Wyatt, Frederick Dove, Heather Payton, George Arney, Lucy Ash, Rajan Datar and Matthew Bannister.

It is presented by Jo Fidgen and Emily Webb from BBC Broadcasting House in London. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s its theme music was "The Hellraisers" by Syd Dale. BBC Outlook