The Vijayanagara Empire was based in the Deccan Plateau region in South India. It was established in 1336 by his brother Bukka Raya I of Sangama Dynasty; the empire rose to prominence as a culmination of attempts by the southern powers to ward off Islamic invasions by the end of the 13th century. It lasted until 1646, although its power declined after a major military defeat in the Battle of Talikota in 1565 by the combined armies of the Deccan sultanates; the empire is named after its capital city of Vijayanagara, whose ruins surround present day Hampi, now a World Heritage Site in Karnataka, India. The writings of medieval European travelers such as Domingo Paes, Fernão Nunes, Niccolò Da Conti, the literature in local languages provide crucial information about its history. Archaeological excavations at Vijayanagara have revealed the empire's wealth; the empire's legacy includes many monuments spread over South India, the best known of, the group at Hampi. Different temple building traditions in South and Central India came together in the Vijayanagara Architecture style.
This synthesis inspired architectural innovation in Hindu temples' construction. Efficient administration and vigorous overseas trade brought new technologies such as water management systems for irrigation; the empire's patronage enabled fine arts and literature to reach new heights in Kannada, Telugu and Sanskrit, while Carnatic music evolved into its current form. The Vijayanagara Empire created an epoch in South Indian history that transcended regionalism by promoting Hinduism as a unifying factor. Karnata Rajya was another name for the Vijayanagara Empire, used in some inscriptions and literary works of the Vijayanagara times including the Sanskrit work Jambavati Kalyanam by King Krishnadevaraya and Telugu work Vasu Charitamu. Differing theories have been proposed regarding the origins of the Vijayanagara empire. Many historians propose that Harihara I and Bukka I, the founders of the empire, were Kannadigas and commanders in the army of the Hoysala Empire stationed in the Tungabhadra region to ward off Muslim invasions from the Northern India.
Others claim that they were Telugu people, first associated with the Kakatiya Kingdom, who took control of the northern parts of the Hoysala Empire during its decline. Irrespective of their origin, historians agree the founders were supported and inspired by Vidyaranya, a saint at the Sringeri monastery to fight the Muslim invasion of South India. Writings by foreign travelers during the late medieval era combined with recent excavations in the Vijayanagara principality have uncovered much-needed information about the empire's history, scientific developments and architectural innovations. Before the early 14th-century rise of the Vijayanagara Empire, the Hindu states of the Deccan – the Yadava Empire of Devagiri, the Kakatiya dynasty of Warangal, the Pandyan Empire of Madurai had been raided and attacked by Muslims from the north, by 1336 these upper Deccan region had all been defeated by armies of Sultan Alauddin Khalji and Muhammad bin Tughluq of the Delhi Sultanate. Further south in the Deccan region, a Hoysala commander, Singeya Nayaka-III declared independence after the Muslim forces of the Delhi Sultanate defeated and captured the territories of the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri in 1294 CE.
He created the Kampili kingdom. Kampili existed near Gulbarga and Tungabhadra river in northeastern parts of the present-day Karnataka state, it ended after a defeat by the armies of Delhi Sultanate. The triumphant army led by Malik Zada sent the news of its victory, over Kampili kingdom, to Muhammad bin Tughluq in Delhi by sending a straw-stuffed severed head of the dead Hindu king. Within Kampili, on the day of certain defeat, the populace committed a jauhar in 1327/28 CE. Eight years from the ruins of the Kampili kingdom emerged the Vijayanagara Kingdom in 1336 CE. In the first two decades after the founding of the empire, Harihara I gained control over most of the area south of the Tungabhadra river and earned the title of Purvapaschima Samudradhishavara. By 1374 Bukka Raya I, successor to Harihara I, had defeated the chiefdom of Arcot, the Reddys of Kondavidu, the Sultan of Madurai and had gained control over Goa in the west and the Tungabhadra-Krishna River doab in the north; the original capital was in the principality of Anegondi on the northern banks of the Tungabhadra River in today's Karnataka.
It was moved to nearby Vijayanagara on the river's southern banks during the reign of Bukka Raya I, because it was easier to defend against the Muslim armies persistently attacking it from the northern lands. With the Vijayanagara Kingdom now imperial in stature, Harihara II, the second son of Bukka Raya I, further consolidated the kingdom beyond the Krishna River and brought the whole of South India under the Vijayanagara umbrella; the next ruler, Deva Raya I, emerged successful against the Gajapatis of Odisha and undertook important works of fortification and irrigation. Italian traveler Niccolo de Conti wrote of him as the most powerful ruler of India. Deva Raya II succeeded to the throne in 1424 and was the most capable of the Sangama Dynasty rulers, he quelled rebelling feudal lords as well as the Zamorin of Quilon in the south. He became overlord of the kings of Burma at Pegu and Tanasserim. Firuz Bahmani of Bahmani Sultanate entered into a treaty with Deva Raya I of Vijayanagara in 1407 that required the latter to pay Bahmani an annual trib
Western Chalukya Empire
The Western Chalukya Empire ruled most of the western Deccan, South India, between the 10th and 12th centuries. This Kannadiga dynasty is sometimes called the Kalyani Chalukya after its regal capital at Kalyani, today's Basavakalyan in the modern Bidar District of Karnataka state, alternatively the Later Chalukya from its theoretical relationship to the 6th-century Chalukya dynasty of Badami; the dynasty is called Western Chalukyas to differentiate from the contemporaneous Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi, a separate dynasty. Prior to the rise of these Chalukyas, the Rashtrakuta empire of Manyakheta controlled most of Deccan and Central India for over two centuries. In 973, seeing confusion in the Rashtrakuta empire after a successful invasion of their capital by the ruler of the Paramara dynasty of Malwa, Tailapa II, a feudatory of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty ruling from Bijapur region defeated his overlords and made Manyakheta his capital; the dynasty rose to power and grew into an empire under Someshvara I who moved the capital to Kalyani.
For over a century, the two empires of Southern India, the Western Chalukyas and the Chola dynasty of Tanjore fought many fierce wars to control the fertile region of Vengi. During these conflicts, the Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi, distant cousins of the Western Chalukyas but related to the Cholas by marriage took sides with the Cholas further complicating the situation. During the rule of Vikramaditya VI, in the late 11th and early 12th centuries, the Western Chalukyas convincingly contended with the Cholas and reached a peak ruling territories that spread over most of the Deccan, between the Narmada River in the north and Kaveri River in the south, his exploits were not limited to the south for as a prince, during the rule of Someshvara I, he had led successful military campaigns as far east as modern Bihar and Bengal. During this period the other major ruling families of the Deccan, the Hoysalas, the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri, the Kakatiya dynasty and the Southern Kalachuris of Kalyani, were subordinates of the Western Chalukyas and gained their independence only when the power of the Chalukya waned during the half of the 12th century.
The Western Chalukyas developed an architectural style known today as a transitional style, an architectural link between the style of the early Chalukya dynasty and that of the Hoysala empire. Most of its monuments are in the districts bordering the Tungabhadra River in central Karnataka. Well known examples are the Kasivisvesvara Temple at Lakkundi, the Mallikarjuna Temple at Kuruvatti, the Kallesvara Temple at Bagali and the Mahadeva Temple at Itagi; this was an important period in the development of fine arts in Southern India in literature as the Western Chalukya kings encouraged writers in the native language Kannada, Sanskrit. Knowledge of Western Chalukya history has come through examination of the numerous Kannada language inscriptions left by the kings, from the study of important contemporary literary documents in Western Chalukya literature such as Gada Yuddha in Kannada by Ranna and Vikramankadeva Charitam in Sanskrit by Bilhana; the earliest record is dated 957, during the rule of Tailapa II when the Western Chalukyas were still a feudatory of the Rashtrakutas and Tailapa II governed from Tardavadi in present-day Bijapur district, Karnataka.
The genealogy of the kings of this empire is still debated. One theory, based on contemporary literary and inscriptional evidence plus the finding that the Western Chalukyas employed titles and names used by the early Chalukyas, suggests that the Western Chalukya kings belonged to the same family line as the illustrious Badami Chalukya dynasty of 6th-century, while other Western Chalukya inscriptional evidence indicates they were a distinct line unrelated to the early Chalukyas; the records suggests a possible rebellion by a local Chalukya King, Chattigadeva of Banavasi-12000 province, in alliance with local Kadamba chieftains. This rebellion however was unfruitful but paved the way for his successor Tailapa II. A few years Tailapa II re-established Chalukya rule and defeated the Rashtrakutas during the reign of Karka II by timing his rebellion to coincide with the confusion caused in the Rashtrakuta capital of Manyakheta by the invading Paramaras of Central India in 973. After overpowering the Rashtrakutas, Tailapa II moved his capital to Manyakheta and consolidated the Chalukya empire in the western Deccan by subjugating the Paramara and other aggressive rivals and extending his control over the land between the Narmada River and Tungabhadra River.
However, some inscriptions indicate that Balagamve in Mysore territory may have been a power centre up to the rule of Someshvara I in 1042. The intense competition between the kingdom of the western Deccan and those of the Tamil country came to the fore in the 11th century over the acutely contested fertile river valleys in the doab region of the Krishna and Godavari River called Vengi; the Western Chalukyas and the Chola Dynasty fought many bitter wars over control of this strategic resource. The imperial Cholas gained power during the time of the famous king Rajaraja Chola I and the crown prince Rajendra Chola I; the Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi were cousins of the Western Chalukyas but became influenced by the Cholas through their marital ties with the Tamil kingdom. As this was against the interests of the Western Chalukyas, they wasted no time in involving themselves politically and militarily in Vengi; when King Satyashraya succeeded Tailapa II to the throne, he was able to protect his kingdom from Chola aggression as well as his northern territories in Konkan and Gujarat although hi
Krishnadevaraya was an emperor of the Vijayanagara Empire who reigned from 1509–1529. He is the third ruler of the Tuluva Dynasty. Presiding over the empire at its zenith, he is regarded as an icon by many Indians. Krishna Deva Raya earned the titles Andhra Bhoja and Mooru Rayara Ganda, he became the dominant ruler of the peninsula of India by defeating the Sultans of Bijapur, the Bahmani Sultanate and the Gajapatis of Odisha, was one of the most powerful Hindu rulers in India. Indeed, when the Mughal Emperor Babur was taking stock of the potentates of north India, Krishnadevaraya was rated the most powerful and had the most extensive empire in the subcontinent. Portuguese travellers Domingo Paes and Fernao Nuniz visited the Vijayanagara Empire during his reign. Krishna Deva Raya benefited from the able prime minister Timmarusu, regarded by the emperor as a father figure and was responsible for his coronation. Krishna Deva Raya was the son of Tuluva Narasa Nayaka, an army commander under Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya, who took control of the empire to prevent its disintegration and became the founder of the Tuluva Dynasty, the third Hindu Dynasty to rule Vijayanagara.
The emperor's coronation took place on the birthday of Hindu God Krishna. He built; the king was of medium height, had a cheerful disposition, was reputed to be respectful to foreign visitors, ruthless in maintaining the law, prone to fits of anger. He maintained himself to a high level of physical fitness through daily exercises. Travelogues indicate that the king was not only an able the administrator but an excellent general, leading from the front in battle and attending to the wounded; the south Indian poet Muku Timmana praised him as the destroyer of the Turkics. The rule of the king Krishna Deva Raya marks a period of much military success in Vijayanagara history. On occasion, the king was known to change battle plans abruptly and turn a losing battle into victory; the first decade of his rule was one of the long sieges, bloody conquests, victories. His main enemies were the Bahamani Sultans, the Gajapatis of Odisha, involved in constant conflict since the rule of Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya and the Portuguese, a rising maritime power which controlled much of the sea trade.
The feudal chiefs of Ummattur and Kammas of Dharanikota who rebelled against Vijayanagar rule were conquered and subdued. The annual affair of the raid and plunder of Vijayanagar towns and villages by the Deccan sultans came to an end during the Raya's rule. In 1509 Krishnadevaraya's armies clashed with the Sultan of Bijapur at Diwani and the Sultan Mahmud was injured and defeated. Yusuf Adil Khan was killed and the Raichur Doab was annexed. Taking advantage of the victory and the disunity of the Bahamani Sultans, the Raya invaded Bidar and Bijapur and earned the title "establisher of the Yavana kingdom" when he released Sultan Mahmud and made him de facto ruler; the Sultan of Golconda Sultan Quli Qutb Shah was defeated by Timmarusu, the prime minister of Sri Krishnadevaraya. He defeated many local rulers like Dharanikota Kammas who were the feudatory of Gajapati kings of Odisha and seized lands up to the Krishna river. Ganga Raja, the Ummatur chief, was defeated; the chief drowned in the Kaveri in 1512.
The region was made a part of the Srirangapatna province. In 1516-1517, he pushed beyond the Godavari river; the Surya Vamsi Gajapatis of Odisha ruled a vast land comprising Odisha. Krishna Deva Raya's success at Ummatur provided the necessary impetus to carry his campaign into Coastal Andhra region, in control of Gajapati Prataparudra Deva; the Vijayanagar army laid siege to the Udayagiri fort in 1512. The campaign lasted for a year. Krishna Deva Raya offered prayers at Tirupati thereafter along with his wives Tirumala Devi and Chinnama Devi; the Gajapati army was met at Kondaviduraju where the armies of Vijayanagara, after establishing a siege for a few months and heavy with initial defeats began to retreat, until Timmarusu upon discovering a secret entrance to the unguarded eastern gate of the fort launched a night attack culminating with the capture of the fort and the imprisonment of the greatest swordsman of his time, Prince Virabhadra, the son of Gajapati Emperor of Kalinga-Utkal, Gajapati Prataprudra Deva.
Saluva Timmarasa took over as governor of Kondavidu thereafter. The Vijayanagar army accosted the Adapa Kamma dynasty army allies to Gajapatis at Kondapalli area and laid another siege. Krishnadevaraya planned for an invasion of mainland Kalinga-Utkal but the Gajapati Emperor, privy of this plan had built up a strategy to rout the Vijayanagara army and along with it its king, Krishnadevaraya; the confrontation was to happen at the fort of Kalinganagar. But the wily Timmarusu secured the information by bribing a Telugu deserter under the service of the mighty Prataprudra deva. Prataprudra was driven to Cuttack, the capital of the Gajapati empire and surrendered to Vijaynagar, giving his daughter Princess Annapurna Devi in marriage to Sri Krishna Deva Raya; as per treaty, the Krishna river became boundary of Odisha Kingdom. Krishna Deva Raya established friendly relations with the Portuguese, who set up the Portuguese Dominion of India in Goa in 1510; the Emperor obtained Arabian horses from the Portuguese merchants.
He utilized Portuguese expertise in
Sultan is a position with several historical meanings. It was an Arabic abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", "rulership", derived from the verbal noun سلطة sulṭah, meaning "authority" or "power", it came to be used as the title of certain rulers who claimed full sovereignty in practical terms, albeit without claiming the overall caliphate, or to refer to a powerful governor of a province within the caliphate. The adjective form of the word is "sultanic", the dynasty and lands ruled by a sultan are referred to as a sultanate; the term is distinct from king, despite both referring to a sovereign ruler. The use of "sultan" is restricted to Muslim countries, where the title carries religious significance, contrasting the more secular king, used in both Muslim and non-Muslim countries. A feminine form of sultan, used by Westerners, is Sultana or Sultanah and this title has been used for some Muslim women monarchs and sultan's mothers and chief consorts; however and Ottoman Turkish uses sultan for imperial lady, as Turkish grammar—which is influenced by Persian grammar—uses the same words for both women and men.
However, this styling misconstrues the roles of wives of sultans. In a similar usage, the wife of a German field marshal might be styled Frau Feldmarschall; the female leaders in Muslim history are known as "sultanas". However, the wife of the sultan in the Sultanate of Sulu is styled as the "panguian" while the sultan's chief wife in many sultanates of Indonesia and Malaysia are known as "permaisuri", "Tunku Ampuan", "Raja Perempuan", or "Tengku Ampuan"; the queen consort in Brunei is known as Raja Isteri with the title of Pengiran Anak suffixed, should the queen consort be a royal princess. In recent years, "sultan" has been replaced by "king" by contemporary hereditary rulers who wish to emphasize their secular authority under the rule of law. A notable example is Morocco, whose monarch changed his title from sultan to king in 1957; these are secondary titles, either lofty'poetry' or with a message, e.g.: Mani Sultan = Manney Sultan - a subsidiary title, part of the full style of the Maharaja of Travancore Sultan of Sultans - the sultanic equivalent of the style King of Kings Certain secondary titles have a devout Islamic connotation.
Sultanic Highness - a rare, hybrid western-Islamic honorific style used by the son, daughter-in-law and daughters of Sultan Hussein Kamel of Egypt, who bore it with their primary titles of Prince or Princess, after 11 October 1917. They enjoyed these titles for life after the Royal Rescript regulating the styles and titles of the Royal House following Egypt's independence in 1922, when the sons and daughters of the newly styled king were granted the title Sahib us-Sumuw al-Malaki, or Royal Highness. Ghaznavid Sultanate. Sultans of Great Seljuk Seljuk Sultanate of Rum Sultans of the Ottoman Empire, the Osmanli Elisu Sultanate and a few others. A Sultan ranked below a Khan. in Syria: Ayyubid Sultans Mamluk Sultans in present-day Yemen, various small sultanates of the former British Aden Protectorate and South Arabia: Audhali, Haushabi, Lahej, Lower Aulaqi, Lower Yafa, Mahra, Qu'aiti, Upper Aulaqi, Upper Yafa and the Wahidi sultanates in present-day Saudi Arabia: Sultans of Nejd Sultans of the Hejaz Oman – Sultan of Oman, on the southern coast of the Arabian peninsula, still an independent sultanate, since 1744 in Algeria: sultanate of Tuggurt in Egypt: Ayyubid Sultans Mamluk Sultans in Morocco, until Mohammed V changed the style to Malik on 14 August 1957, maintaining the subsidiary style Amir al-Mu´minin in Sudan: Darfur Dar al-Masalit Dar Qimr Funj Sultanate of Sinnar Kordofan in Chad: Bagirmi Wada'i, successor state to Birgu Dar Sila Ajuran Sultanate, in southern Somalia and eastern Ethiopia Adal Sultanate, in northwestern Somalia, southern Djibouti, the Somali, Oromia and Afar regions of Ethiopia Majeerteen Sultanate, in northern Somalia Isaaq Sultanate, in northern Somalia Sultanate of the Geledi, in southern Somalia Sultanate of Aussa, in northeastern Ethiopia Sultanate of Harar, in eastern Ethiopia Sultanate of Hobyo, in central Somalia Sultanate of Ifat, in northern Somalia and eastern Ethiopia Sultanate of Mogadishu, in south-central Somalia Sultanate of Showa, in central Ethiopia Warsangali Sultanate, in northern Somalia Bimaal Sultanate, in south eastern Somalia centred in Merka Angoche Sultanate, on the Mozambiquan coast various sultans on the Comoros.
Sultanate of Zanzibar: two incumbents since the de
Gulbarga known as Kalaburagi, is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka, India. It is the administrative headquarters of the Gulbarga district and a major city of the North Karnataka region. Gulbarga is 623 km north of 220 km from Hyderabad, it was part of Hyderabad State and incorporated into a newly formed Mysore State through the States Reorganisation Act in 1956. Gulbarga city is in Gulbarga Urban Region, it is called one of the Sufi cities having famous religious places, like Khwaja Banda Nawaz Dargah, Sharana Basaveshwara Temple, Ladle Mashak and Buddha Vihar. It has a fort built during Bahmani rule. Has many domes like Shor Gumbad. Gulbarga has a few architectural marvels built during the Bahamani Kingdom rule, including the Jama Masjid sited in the Gulbarga Fort; the history of Gulbarga dates to the 6th century. The Rashtrakutas gained control over the region, but the Chalukyas regained their domain within a short period and reigned supreme for over 200 years; the Kalyani Kalachuris who succeeded them ruled until the 12th century.
Around the end of the 12th century, the Yadavas of Devagiri and the Hoysalas of Dwarasamadra destroyed the supremacy of the Chalukyas and Kalachuris of Kalyani. Around the same period, the Kakatiya kings of Warangal came into prominence and the present Gulbarga and Raichur districts formed part of their domain; the Kakatiya power was subdued in 1321 AD and the entire Deccan, including the district of Gulbarga, passed under the control of the Delhi Sultanate. The revolt of the officers appointed from Delhi resulted in the founding of the Bahmani Sultanate in 1347 CE by Zafar Khan Alauddin Hasan Gangu, who chose Gulbarga to be the capital; when the Bahamani dynasty came to an end in 1527, the kingdom broke up into five independent Sultanates, Bidar, Berar and Golconda. The present Gulbarga/Gulbarga district came under Bidar and under Bijapur; the last of these sultanates, Golconda fell to Aurangzeb in 1687. With the conquest of the Deccan by Aurangezeb in the 17th century, Gulbarga passed under the Mughal Empire.
In the early part of the 18th century, with the decline of the Mughal Empire, Asaf Jha, one of Aurangzeb's generals, formed the Hyderabad State, in which a major part of the Gulbarga area was included. In 1948, Hyderabad State became a part of the Indian Union, in 1956, excluding two talukas which were annexed to Andhra Pradesh, Gulbarga district became part of new Mysore State. Gulbarga was renamed Kalaburagi ) effective 1 November 2014; the largest collection of Islamic art is seen only at the domed ceiling and walls are adorned with painting containing calligraphy designs and floral and plants and geometric patterns inside the 14th century tomb of Sufi saint Syed Shah Qhabulullah Husayni with natural colours. By religious restrictions the artist was prohibited from depicting living beings in the interior of tomb, his imagination was therefore employed either in inventing new designs for religious texts or in adding further delicacy and subtleness to the geometric and floral devices by making the drawings more and more intricate.
A small tomb beside the said. Another vacant Shore Gumbad outside the city has delicate designs on its domed ceiling; the walls and ceiling of the tomb of Sultan Firuz Shah Bahmani can be appreciated which, although in monotone, represents faithfully the creepers and floral patterns, the numerous geometric devices and calligraphic styles. The most notable building, however, of this period is Jama Masjid of Gulbarga fort, built by Persian architect named Rafi in 1367 during the reign of Muhammad Shah Bahmani I; the glory of the towns in north Karnataka waned with the decline of Bahmani dynasty, although Barid Shahi and Adil Shahi kings kept up its beauty during their chequered rule. It suffers from pollution through lead, it has affected the mental health of people. Royal patronage played an important role in the making of Islamic art, as it has in the arts of other culture. From 14th century onwards in the eastern lands, the books of art provide the best documentation of the courtly patronage.
The entire district is on the Deccan Plateau, the elevation ranges from 300 to 750 m above MSL. Two main rivers, the Krishna and Bhima, flow through the district; the predominant soil type is black soil. The district has many tanks; the Upper Krishna Project is a major irrigation venture in the district of Jowar. The main crops are groundnuts and pulses. Gulbarga is the largest producer of pigeon peas, in Karnataka. Gulbarga is an industrially backward district but is showing signs of growth in the cement, textile and chemical industries. Gulbarga has a university with Engineering Colleges. Central University of Karnataka is located in Aland Taluk of Gulbarga; the geographical area of the city is 64 square kilometres. The climate of the district is dry, with temperatures ranging from 8 °C to 45 °C and an annual rainfall of about 750 mm; the year in Gulbarga is divided into three main seasons. The summer lasts from late February to mid-June, it is followed by the southwest monsoon. This is followed by dry winter weather until mid-January.
As of the 2011 Indian census, Gulbarga city has a population of 543,000. Males constitute 55% of the population and females 45%. Gulbarga has an average literacy rate of 67%, higher than the national av
Nayakas of Keladi
Nayakas of Keladi known as Nayakas of Bednore and Kings of Ikkeri, were an Indian dynasty based from Keladi in Shimoga district, India. They were an important ruling dynasty in post-medieval Karnataka, they ruled as a vassal of the famous Vijayanagar Empire. After the fall of the empire in 1565, they gained independence and ruled significant parts of Malnad region of the Western Ghats in present-day Karnataka, most areas in the coastal regions of Karnataka, parts of northern Kerala and the central plains along the Tungabhadra river. In 1763 AD, with their defeat to Hyder Ali, they were absorbed into the Kingdom of Mysore, they played an important part in the history of Karnataka, during a time of confusion and fragmentation that prevailed in South India after the fall of the Vijayanagar Empire. The Keladi rulers were Lingayats but they were tolerant towards followers of other faiths; the Haleri Kings of Kodagu who ruled over Coorg between 1600 A. D and 1834 A. D. were an offshoot of Keladi Nayaka dynasty.
Chaudappa Nayaka Chauda Gowda, was from a village called Pallibailu near Keladi. He was the son of Basavamambe, who were into farming, he was the earliest chieftain to rule the area surrounding Shimoga, rose through self capability and acumen and was a feudatory of Vijayanagara Empire. Sadashiva Nayaka was an important chieftain in the Vijayanagar Empire and earned the title Kotekolahala from emperor Aliya Rama Raya for his heroics in the battle of Kalyani; the coastal provinces of Karnataka came under his direct rule. He moved the capital to Ikkeri some 20 km. from Keladi. Sankanna Nayaka, succeeded Sadashiva Nayaka. Chikka Sankanna Nayaka was an opportunistic ruler who took advantage of the confusion in the Vijayanagar Empire following its defeat at Tallikota and grabbed a few provinces in Uttara Kannada district. Rama Raja Nayaka Hiriya Venkatappa Nayaka is considered by scholars as ablest monarch of the clan, he freed himself from the overlordship of the relocated Vijayanagar rulers of Penugonda.
Italian traveller Pietro Della Valle, who visited his kingdom in 1623, called him an able soldier and administrator. In his reign the kingdom expanded so that it covered coastal regions, Malnad regions, some regions to the east of the western Ghats of present-day Karnataka, he is known to have defeated the Adilshahis of Bijapur in Hanagal. Though a Virashaiva by faith, he built many temples for Vaishnavas and Jains and a mosque for Muslims, he defeated the Portuguese in 1618 and 1619. Virabhadra Nayaka faced many troubles from the start, including competition from rival Jain chieftains of Malenad for the throne of Ikkeri and invasion by the Sultanate armies of Bijapur. Ikkeri was plundered by the Bijapur army during his time. Shivappa Nayaka is considered as the ablest and greatest of the Keladi rulers, he was the uncle of Virabhadra Nayaka. Shivappa deposed his nephew to gain the throne of Keladi, he was not only an able administrator. His successful campaigns against the Bijapur sultans, the Mysore kings, the Portuguese, other Nayakas of the neighbouring territories east of the western ghats helped expand the kingdom to its greatest extent, covering large areas of present-day Karnataka.
He gave importance to agriculture and developed new schemes for collection of taxes and revenues which earned him much praise from British officials. A statue of him and the palace built by him containing many artifacts of his times are reminders of the respect he has earned from the present generation of people of the region, he destroyed the Portuguese political power in the Kanara region by capturing all the Portuguese forts of the coastal region. Chikka Venkatappa Nayaka, ruled for a short span of time after Shivappa Nayaka. Bhadrappa Nayaka, succeeded Chikka Venkatappa Nayaka. Somashekara Nayaka I The King, once a good administrator, gave up his interest in administration after his associastion with a dancer named Kalavati. Bharame Mavuta, a relative of Kalavati slow poisoned the king which led to his death. Keladi Chennamma She was an able ruler who some scholars claim was allied with the Maratha Shivaji and his son Sambhaji to defeat all rival claimants to the throne, she gave shelter to Chhatrapathi Rajaram.
Chennamma of Keladi is well remembered by local people through tales of her bravery. Basavappa Nayaka He was a brave ruler and was adopted by Rani Chennammaji from their relative Markappa Shetty of BedanurSomashekara Nayaka II Kiriya Basavappa Nayaka Chenna Basappa Nayaka Queen Virammaji was defeated by Hyder Ali who merged the Keladi kingdom with the Kingdom of Mysore; the queen was captured by Hyder Ali and was kept in confinement along with her son in the fort of Madugiri. They were however rescued in 1767 when Madhavrao I of the Maratha Empire defeated Hyder Ali in the battle of Madugiri, they were sent to Pune the capital of the Maratha Empire for protection. For more than two hundred years the kingdom controlled the coastal and malnad regions of present-day Karnataka and fostered a rich tradition of trade with the English, the Portuguese, the Dutch. However, in the period of gloom brought about by the fall of the last great Hindu empire, the Vijayanagar empire, constant wars—campaigns against local chieftains and the Mysore Kingdom and the harassment of the Marathas drained the treasury and resulted in the end of the kingdom.
Keladinripavijayam by Linganna Shivagita by Tirumalabhatta Shivatattvaratnakara by King Basavappa Tattv
Ahmednagar is a city in Ahmednagar district in the state of Maharashtra, about 120 km northeast of Pune and 114 km from Aurangabad. Ahmednagar takes its name from Ahmad Nizam Shah I, who founded the town in 1494 on the site of a battlefield where he won a battle against superior Bahamani forces, it was close to the site of the village of Bhingar. With the breakup of the Bahmani Sultanate, Ahmad established a new sultanate in Ahmednagar known as Nizam Shahi dynasty. Ahmednagar has several dozen sites from the Nizam Shahi period. Ahmednagar Fort, once considered impregnable, was used by the British to house Jawaharlal Nehru and other Indian Nationalists before Indian independence. A few rooms there have been converted to a museum. During his confinement by the British at Ahmednagar Fort in 1944, Nehru wrote the famous book The Discovery of India. Ahmednagar is home to the Indian Armoured Corps Centre & School, the Mechanised Infantry Regimental Centre, the Vehicle Research and Development Establishment and the Controllerate of Quality Assurance Vehicles.
Training and recruitment for the Indian Army Armoured Corps takes place at the ACC&S. Ahmednagar is a small town and shows less development than the nearby western Maharashtra cities of Mumbai and Pune. Ahmednagar is home to 19 sugar factories and is the birthplace of the cooperative movement. Due to scarce rainfall, Ahmednagar suffers from drought. Marathi is the primary language for daily-life communication. Ahmednagar has published a plan of developing the city by year 2031; the town Ahmednagar was founded in 1490 by Ahmad Nizam Shah I on the site of a more ancient city, Bhingar. With the breakup of the Bahmani Sultanate, Ahmad established a new sultanate in Ahmednagar known as Nizam Shahi dynasty, it was one of the Deccan sultanates, which lasted until its conquest by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in 1636. Aurangzeb, the last Mughal emperor, who spent the latter years of his reign, 1681–1707, in the Deccan, died in Ahmednagar and his burial at near Aurangabad in 1707, a small monument marks the site.
In 1759, the Peshwa of the Marathas obtained possession of the place from Nizam of Hyderabad and in 1795 it was ceded by the Peshwa to the Maratha chief Daulat Rao Sindhia. Ahmednagar was captured, it was afterwards restored to the Marathas, but again came into the possession of the British in 1817, according to the terms of the Treaty of Poona. Ahmednagar is home to the Indian Armoured Corps Centre & School, the Mechanised Infantry Regimental Centre, the Vehicle Research and Development Establishment and the Controllerate of Quality Assurance Vehicles. Training and recruitment for the Indian Army Armoured Corps takes place at the ACC&S. Formerly, the city was the Indian base of the British Army's Royal Tank Corps / Indian Armoured Corps, amongst other units; the town houses the second-largest display of largest in Asia. Situated in the rain-shadow region of the Western Ghats, Ahmednagar experiences hot and dry climate through November to mid June; as of 2011 Indian census, Ahmednagar had a population of 347,549.
Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Ahmednagar has an average literacy rate of 84%, higher than the national urban average of 79.9%. 10% of the population is under 6 years of age. Sant Dnyaneshwar, Marathi sant, wrote a discourse on the Bhagavad Gita. Sai Baba of Shirdi, spiritual master Anand Rishiji, Jain saint Meher Baba, spiritual leader Chand Bibi, Nizamshahi princess, defended Ahmednagar Fort against the Mughal forces of Emperor Akbar Anna Hazare and social activist Shahu Modak, film actor Sadashiv Amrapurkar, noted film and theater actor Michael J. S. Dewar, theoretical chemist Anna Leonowens, feminist, author of The English Governess at the Siamese Court Pramod Kamble and sculptor Zaheer Khan, cricketer Ajinkya Rahane, cricketer Spike Milligan, 1918-2002, comedian and author Cynthia Farrar, American missionary Chand Bibi Palace - Actually the tomb of Salabat Khan, this is a solid three-storey stone structure situated on the crest of a hill 13 km from Ahmednagar city.
Meherabad, where the samadhi of the spiritual master Meher Baba is a place of pilgrimage, visited by thousands each year on the anniversary of his death, Amartithi. His residence was at Meherazad nine miles north of Ahmednagar. Ahmednagar Fort - Built by Ahmed Nizam Shah in 1490, this is one of the best-designed and most impregnable forts in India; as of 2013, it is under the control of the military command of India. Oval in shape, with 18-metre-high walls and 24 citadels, its defence system includes a moat 30 metres wide and 4 to 6 metres deep. Two entrances to the fort are accessed by drawbridges. A target of countless invasions, the Ahmednagar Fort has taken many blows and come out unscathed, it has changed hands many times over from the time of Mughal rule, was used as a royal prison a number of times. The entire Congress Working Committee was detained there during the Quit India Movement of 1942. Jawaharlal Nehru to be India's first prime minister, wrote his book The Discovery of India during his imprisonment from 1942-1945.
Some rooms in the fort have been converted into a museum in commemoration of Nehru and other freedom fighters. Cavalry Tank Museum - The Armoured Corps Centre and School has created a museum with an extensive collection of 20th-century armoured fighting vehicles. Vishal Ganpati Mandir - Ganeshji Big temple in the Maliwada area of Ahmednagar City. Renuka/Durga Goddess Temple