A Bailey bridge is a type of portable, pre-fabricated, truss bridge. It was developed in 1940-1941 by the British for military use during the Second World War and saw extensive use by British, Canadian and US military engineering units. A Bailey bridge has the advantages of requiring no special tools or heavy equipment to assemble; the wood and steel bridge elements were small and light enough to be carried in trucks and lifted into place by hand, without the use of a crane. The bridges were strong enough to carry tanks. Bailey bridges continue to be used extensively in civil engineering construction projects and to provide temporary crossings for pedestrian and vehicle traffic; the success of the Bailey bridge was due to the simplicity of the fabrication and assembly of its modular components, combined with the ability to erect and deploy sections with a minimum of assistance from heavy equipment. Many previous designs for military bridges required cranes to lift the pre-assembled bridge and lower it into place.
The Bailey parts were made of standard steel alloys, were simple enough that parts made at a number of different factories were interchangeable. Each individual part could be carried by a small number of men, enabling army engineers to move more and in preparing the way for troops and matériel advancing behind them; the modular design allowed engineers to build each bridge to be as long and as strong as needed, doubling or tripling the supportive side panels, or on the roadbed sections. The basic bridge consists of three main parts; the bridge's strength is provided by the panels on the sides. The panels are 10-foot-long, 5-foot-high, cross-braced rectangles that each weigh 570 pounds, can be lifted by six men; the panel was constructed of welded steel. The top and bottom chord of each panel had interlocking male and female lugs into which engineers could inset panel connecting pins; the floor of the bridge consists of a number of 19-foot-wide transoms that run across the bridge, with 10-foot-long stringers running between them on the bottom, forming a square.
Transoms rest on the lower chord of the panels, clamps hold them together. Stringers are placed atop the completed structural frame, wood planking is placed atop the stringers to provide a roadbed. Ribands bolt the planking to the stringers. In the war, the wooden planking was covered by steel plates, which were more resistant to damage of tank tracks; each unit constructed in this fashion creates a single 10-foot-long section of bridge, with a 12-foot-wide roadbed. After one section is complete it is pushed forward over rollers on the bridgehead, another section built behind it; the two are connected together with pins pounded into holes in the corners of the panels. For added strength up to three panels can be bolted on either side of the bridge. Another solution is to stack the panels vertically. With three panels across and two high, the Bailey Bridge can support tanks over a 200-foot span. Footways can be installed on the outside of the side-panels; the side-panels form an effective barrier between foot and vehicle traffic, allowing pedestrians to safely use the bridge.
A useful feature of the Bailey bridge is its ability to be launched from one side of a gap. In this system the front-most portion of the bridge is angled up with wedges into a "launching nose" and most of the bridge is left without the roadbed and ribands; the bridge is placed on rollers and pushed across the gap, using manpower or a truck or tracked vehicle, at which point the roller is removed and the ribands and roadbed installed, along with any additional panels and transoms that might be needed. During WWII, Bailey bridge parts were made by companies with little experience of this kind of engineering. Although the parts were simple, they had to be manufactured to fit so they were assembled into a test bridge at the factory to verify this. To do this efficiently, newly manufactured parts would be continuously added to the test bridge, while at the same time the far end of the test bridge was continuously dismantled and the parts dispatched to the end-users. Donald Bailey was a civil servant in the British War Office who tinkered with model bridges as a hobby.
He had proposed an early prototype for a Bailey bridge before the war in 1936, but the idea was not acted upon. Bailey drew an original proposal for the bridge on the back of an envelope in 1940. On 14 February 1941, the Ministry of Supply requested that Bailey have a full-scale prototype completed by 1 May. Work on the bridge was completed with particular support from Ralph Freeman; the design was tested at the Experimental Bridging Establishment, in Christchurch, with several parts from Braithwaite & Co. beginning in December 1940 and ending in 1941. The first prototype was tested in 1941. For early tests, the bridge was laid across a field, about 2 feet above the ground, several Mark V tanks were filled with pig iron and stacked upon each other; the prototype of this was used to span Mother Siller's Channel, which cuts through the nearby Stanpit Marshes, an area of marshland at the confluence of the River Avon and the River Stour. It remains there as a functioning bridge. Full production began in July 1941.
Thousands of workers and over 650 firms, including Littlewoods, were engaged in making the bridge, with production rising to 25,000 bridge panels a month. The first Bailey bridges were in military service by December 1941, Bridges in the other formats were built, temporarily, to cross the Avon and Stour in the meadows nearby. After successful development and testing, the bridge was taken into service by the Corps of Royal Engineers and firs
The Centre Bridge–Stockton Bridge is a free bridge over the Delaware River owned and operated by the Delaware River Joint Toll Bridge Commission. The bridge connects CR 523 and NJ 29 in Stockton, in Hunterdon County, New Jersey to PA 263 in Centre Bridge, Solebury Township, Bucks County, United States. For many years, the route was called Old York Road, as it was the principal route from Philadelphia to New York City; the Centre Bridge–Stockton Bridge was a covered toll bridge of wood construction was located at the former site of Reading's Ferry. First built in 1814 as a covered bridge with six spans and a total length of 821 feet built under contract by Capt. Pelig Kingsley and Benjamin Lord; the construction was faulty and the contractors were penalized $1,200. One of the piers had to be rebuilt. In 1830, the entire bridge was reconstructed by a contractor Amos Campbell, the father of Henry Roe Campbell. At that time the Raritan feeder on the New Jersey side, the Delaware Division canal on the Pennsylvania side had not been dug.
At first, the canal companies maintained the bridges over their respective ditches. The flood of January 8, 1841, carried away three spans, two piers and the stone toll-house all on the New Jersey side, it was only one of many bridges between Easton and Trenton, New Jersey, destroyed in the flood. However, the Centre Bridge–Stockton Bridge was rebuilt well enough to be one of the few bridges not washed away by the flood of October 10, 1903. In 1923, the bridge was twice damaged by fire and on July 22, 1923, lightning struck the bridge and the resulting fire destroyed the structure. For two years after the disaster, the Centre Bridge–Stockton Bridge saw no repairs; the Delaware River Joint Toll Bridge Commission gained control of the remnants of the bridge, began rebuilding upon the same piers and abutments on which the first bridge had stood. Having been built higher than before, it escaped damage in the flood of 1955, which damaged many other bridges along the Delaware River; the current steel truss bridge was completed in 1926 and opened to traffic in 1927.
In September 2006, the Delaware River Joint Toll Bridge Commission awarded Road-Con an $8.4 million contract for the rehabilitation of the Centre Bridge–Stockton Bridge. For five months, the bridge was closed from 6 a.m. to 5 p.m. Mondays through Fridays, remaining open only on weekends. Work done on the bridge included blast cleaning and painting the bridge truss, rehabilitating the roadway deck and sidewalk, making structural repairs, improving road signs and lighting; as of the middle of May, the total cost of the project was estimated to be $9.4 million. The fire of 1923 was depicted in a famous painting by Edward Willis Redfield who in 1898 had purchased and lived in a farm just north of the bridge. New Jersey composer Frances White has written two compositions about the bridge: Centre Bridge and Centre Bridge. Both were inspired by the sounds of traffic on the metal grating, both feature recordings of the bridge and river. List of crossings of the Delaware River
The final of the 2013 ICC Champions Trophy was played on 23 June 2013 between the England and India at the Edgbaston Cricket Ground, Birmingham. This was the 7th ICC Champions Trophy. India won the match by 5 runs England qualified into the final by defeating South Africa in the first semi-final at The Oval, London on 19 June 2013. India made their way into the final after defeating Sri Lanka in the second semi-final played at SWALEC Stadium, Cardiff on 20 June 2013; the match was delayed six hours for rain and started at 16:20 local time. But the match was reduced to 20 overs per innings. So all the rules of this match were the same as a Twenty20 game, it was India's 2nd ICC Champions Trophy championship after the 2002 ICC Champions Trophy. But they had to share the honour with Sri Lanka. So this was the first time. In addition India became the second team after Australia to win the ICC Champions Trophy more than one time. Ravindra Jadeja earned the man of the match award for his performance in the match.
Shikhar Dhawan was named the man of the series for scoring 363 runs in the tournament. In the stadium, the match was watched by 24,867 spectators. Prior to this match England and India played 86 times against each other in ODIs, where India had the upper hand with 46 wins and England won in 35 matches. 2 matches were tied and 3 match were ended as No Result. Their latest meeting resulted a six wickets win for England in a bilateral series in India at 2013; these teams met thrice in the ICC Champions Trophy history. India had dominated the tournament from the first match to semi final match, they beat South Africa, West Indies and Pakistan in assertive wins to be the group champions of Group B. They brought their strong performance to the semi final match too where they beat Sri Lanka by 8 wickets to reach the final for the third time after 2000 and 2002. 2 century & 1 half century from Shikhar Dhawan powered the Indian batting line up. Ravindra Jadeja was the leader from the front of the Indian bowling line up.
India didn't lose a single match since the start of the tournament with winning both of their practice matches too. England's qualified for the semi finals as the group champions of Group A In the first match of their tournament they won against Australia by 48 runs but lost to Sri Lanka in the next match, but they beat New Zealand in the last match to qualify for the semi final. In the semi final they beat South Africa with Jonathan Trott scoring an unbeaten 82 run innings, England won the match by 7 wickets, it was the second time after 2004 that England made the final but lost the final of ICC Champions Trophy. The on-field umpires were Kumar Dharmasena of Sri Lanka and Rod Tucker of Australia, with Bruce Oxenford being the third umpire. Aleem Dar was the fourth umpire. Ranjan Madugalle was the match referee. England's captain Alastair Cook chose to field first. Official website ICC Champions Trophy 2013