Sudurpashchim Pradesh is one of the seven provinces established by the new constitution of Nepal, adopted on 20 September 2015. It borders the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north, Karnali Pradesh and Province No. 5 to the east, the Indian states of Uttarakhand to the west and Uttar Pradesh to the south. Known as Province No. 7, the newly elected Provincial Assembly adopted Sudurpashchim Pradesh as the permanent name for the province in September 2018. As per a 28 September 2018 Assembly voting, the city of Godawari has been declared the capital of the Province; the province is coterminous with Nepal. Doti was an ancient kingdom in far western region of Kumaon, formed after the disintegration of the Katyuri Kingdom of Kumaon around the 13th century. Doti was one of eight different princely states Katyuri Kingdom was divided into eight for their eight prince's and became different independent kingdoms. On, the whole land between Ramganga on the west and the Karnali on the east, came under the Raikas after the origin of Raikas of Katyuris in Doti.
"Brahma Dev Mandi" at Kanchanpur District of Mahakali Zone was established by Katyuri king Brahma Dev. Before announcement of new provinces in Nepal, the area of this province was known as Far-Western development region of Nepal. There was no changes made in this province. Niranjan Malla Dev was the founder of Doti Kingdom around the 13th century after the fall of the Katyuri Kingdom, he was the son of Last Katyuris of united Katyuris kingdom. Kings of Doti were called Raikas. On Raikas, after defeating the Khas Malla of Karnali Zone, were able to establish a strong Raikas Kingdom in Far Western Region and Kumaun, Doti. During the period of Akbar's rule in the 16th century, the Mughals had attacked the Raikas of Doti, they invaded capital of the Raika Kingdom. Ajemeru is now in Dadeldhura District of far western region of Nepal. Hussain Khan, army chief of Akbar residing in Lucknow had led the attack. According to `Abd al-Qadir Bada'uni, Indo-Persian historian during Mughal Empire, Mughal Army chief of Lukhnow, Hussian Khan, lured by the wealth and treasures of the kingdom of the Raikas, wanted to plunder the state, this being the motive behind the assault.
The historic place of war between the Doti Kingdom and Nepal during the period of Gorkha Expansion in 1790, according to the history of Nepal, is Nari-Dang, on the bank of the Seti River. The Dumrakot was the base of Doti Kingdom for fighting against the Gorkhalis. Raja Deep Shahi was expelled from Nepal in 1790 A. D and on arriving to Terai of Oudh he established Khairgarh-Singhai State in Khairigarh under British India. Kanchanpur Praganna was the parts of his State or Zamindari, he succeeded in defeating the Banjaras rural of Khairigarh and establishing himself not only in that Pargana but in parts of Bhur. His state was merged with India In 1947 after Indian Independence; the Governor acts as the head of the province while the Chief Minister is the head of the provincial government. The Chief Judge of the Dipayal High Court is the head of the judiciary; the present Governor, Chief Minister and Chief Judge are Mohan Raj Malla, Trilochan Bhatta and Yagya Prasad Basyal. The province has 53 provincial assembly constituencies and 16 House of Representative constituencies.
Sudurpashchim Pradesh has a unicameral legislature, like all of the other provinces in Nepal. The term length of provincial assembly is five years; the Provincial Assembly of Sudurpashchim is temporarily housed at the District Coordination Committee Hall in Dhangadhi. The province is divided into nine districts. A district is administrated by the head of the District Coordination Committee and the District Administration Officer; the districts are further dived to rural municipalities. The municipalities include one sub-metropolitan city and 33 municipalities. There are 54 rural municipalities in the province. Achham District Baitadi District Bajhang District Bajura District Dadeldhura District Darchula District Doti District Kailali District Kanchanpur District The province has a population of 2,552,517, 9.63% of the total population of Nepal. The population density is about 130 persons per square kilometre; the province has a population growth rate of 1.53%. The sex ratio is 912 males for 1000 females, with a total of 1,217,887 males and 1,334,630 females recorded in 2011.
The urban population of the region is 1,504,279 and the rural population is 1,048,238. List of provinces of Nepal List of districts of Nepal
Gaunpalika or gaupalika is the newly formed lower administrative division in Nepal. The Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Development dissolved the existing village development committees and announced the establishment of this new local body. There are 460 rural municipalities; the main purpose of a gaunpalika is similar to that of a village development committee. Besides this, this division has the authority to collect various taxes like entertainment tax, business tax and residential tax at the local level; the Village Development Committee was dissolved on 10 March 2017. Panchayat was dissolved and turned into VDC by the Constitution of Nepal 1990. According to the English translation of the Constitution of Nepal, the term "gaunpalika" has been used as "village body". However, the Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Development explained that the term "rural municipality" was coined after opinions from experts and diverse sources; the chief is the head of a rural municipality. A total of 744 chiefs were selected by the government in 10 March 2017.
The rural municipalities will have an annual budget of at least Rs 10 million. Village development committees of Nepal topics
Dasharathchand is a municipality and the district headquarter of Baitadi District in Province No. 7 of Nepal. It is a hill station above Mahakali River close to the Indian border. At the time of the 2011 Nepal census it had a population of 34,575 people living in 7,257 individual households. To Promote local culture Dasharathchanda has Two FM radio station Saugat F. M. - 103.6 MHZ, rado sunsher 106.6 and Radio Nwedeu Which is a Community radio Station. Mahakali Highway links Dasharathchand to Dhangadhi in the South and Api Municipality in the North
Champawat is a town and a Nagar Palika Parishad in Champawat district in the state of Uttarakhand, India. It is the administrative headquarters of Champawat district; the town was the former capital of the Kumaon Kingdom. Champawat is believed to be the place; these days there is a temple called Kranteshwar Mandir, dedicated to lord Shiva. It is believed that the head of'Ghatotkacha fell here after he died in battle the of Mahabharata; the Gahtku Mandir is the temple dedicated to Ghatotkacha. Champawat was the capital of the Chand dynasty rulers of Kumaon; the Baleshwar Temple built by the Chand rulers in the 12th century is an excellent monument with marvelous stone carving works. There is a Famous Temple Shaani Mandir in Maurari Village. Champawat lies in the southeast of the North Indian state of Uttarakhand, it is in the eastern part of the Kumaon Himalayas at an average elevation of 1,615 metres. It is located at 29.33°N 80.10°E / 29.33. The city of Champawat lies in the Champawat district of Uttarakhand, carved out from the Pithoragarh district by the Government of Uttar Pradesh in 1997.
Champawat has a Humid subtropical climate with distinct dry seasons. Due to its high elevation, Champawat enjoys a more moderate climate throughout the year; the average temperature for the year in Champawat is 24.6 °C. The warmest month, on average, is June with an average temperature of 32.1 °C. The coolest month on average is January, with an average temperature of 14.3 °C. The average amount of precipitation for the year in Champawat is 1,239.5 millimetres. The month with the most precipitation on average is July with 358.1 millimetres of precipitation. The month with the least precipitation on average is November with an average of 2.5 millimetres. There are an average of 43.8 days of precipitation, with the most precipitation occurring in August with 10.9 days and the least precipitation occurring in November with 0.6 days. Due to its cooler temperatures Champawat is a popular conduit for tourists visiting Pithoragarh, Dharchula and other mountain towns; the long winding sealed roads leading up to Champawat through Tanakpur are a popular route for motorcycle enthusiasts.
Champawat has multiple guesthouses for individuals visiting the town. Bal Mithai of Champawat is famous for its unique taste. Champawat had a population of 4801 in 2011 within its administrative limits on a land area of 5 km2, 21.3% up from 3958 in 2001. Out of the total Population, 2,543 are males while 2,258 are females as per report released by Census India 2011. Population of Children with age of 0–6 is 554, 11.54% of total population of Champawat. In Champawat, Female Sex Ratio is of 888 against state average of 963. Moreover Child Sex Ratio in Champawat is around 748 compared to Uttarakhand state average of 890. Literacy rate of Champawat city is 91.69% higher than state average of 78.82%. The Male literacy is around 95.91% while female literacy rate is 87.04%. Schedule Caste constitutes 18.60 %. Out of total population, 1,356 were engaged in business activity. Of this 1,103 were males. Of total 1356 working population, 95.28% were engaged in Main Work while 4.72% of total workers were engaged in Marginal Work.
Advaita Ashrama Champawat Tiger Gurudwara Reetha Sahib Champawat city, Official website Champwat website from Government of India Portal
Nepal the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas but includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. With an estimated population of 26.4 million, it is 48th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by area. It borders China in the north and India in the south and west while Bangladesh is located within only 27 km of its southeastern tip and Bhutan is separated from it by the Indian state of Sikkim. Nepal has a diverse geography, including fertile plains, subalpine forested hills, eight of the world's ten tallest mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth. Kathmandu is largest city. Nepal is a multiethnic nation with Nepali as the official language; the name "Nepal" is first recorded in texts from the Vedic period of the Indian subcontinent, the era in ancient India when Hinduism was founded, the predominant religion of the country. In the middle of the first millennium BCE, Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, was born in Lumbini in southern Nepal.
Parts of northern Nepal were intertwined with the culture of Tibet. The centrally located Kathmandu Valley is intertwined with the culture of Indo-Aryans, was the seat of the prosperous Newar confederacy known as Nepal Mandala; the Himalayan branch of the ancient Silk Road was dominated by the valley's traders. The cosmopolitan region developed distinct traditional architecture. By the 18th century, the Gorkha Kingdom achieved the unification of Nepal; the Shah dynasty established the Kingdom of Nepal and formed an alliance with the British Empire, under its Rajput Rana dynasty of premiers. The country was never colonized but served as a buffer state between Imperial China and British India. Parliamentary democracy was introduced in 1951, but was twice suspended by Nepalese monarchs, in 1960 and 2005; the Nepalese Civil War in the 1990s and early 2000s resulted in the proclamation of a secular republic in 2008, ending the world's last Hindu monarchy. The Constitution of Nepal, adopted in 2015, establishes Nepal as a federal secular parliamentary republic divided into seven provinces.
Nepal was admitted to the United Nations in 1955, friendship treaties were signed with India in 1950 and the People's Republic of China in 1960. Nepal hosts the permanent secretariat of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, of which it is a founding member. Nepal is a member of the Non Aligned Movement and the Bay of Bengal Initiative; the military of Nepal is the fifth largest in South Asia. Local legends have it that a Hindu sage named "Ne" established himself in the valley of Kathmandu in prehistoric times, that the word "Nepal" came into existence as the place was protected by the sage "Nemi", it is mentioned in Vedic texts. According to the Skanda Purana, a rishi called. In the Pashupati Purana, he is mentioned as a protector, he is said to have taught there. The name of the country is identical in origin to the name of the Newar people; the terms "Nepāl", "Newār", "Newāl" and "Nepār" are phonetically different forms of the same word, instances of the various forms appear in texts in different times in history.
Nepal is the learned Sanskrit form and Newar is the colloquial Prakrit form. A Sanskrit inscription dated 512 CE found in Tistung, a valley to the west of Kathmandu, contains the phrase "greetings to the Nepals" indicating that the term "Nepal" was used to refer to both the country and the people, it has been suggested that "Nepal" may be a Sanskritization of "Newar", or "Newar" may be a form of "Nepal". According to another explanation, the words "Newar" and "Newari" are vulgarisms arising from the mutation of P to V, L to R. Neolithic tools found in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people have been living in the Himalayan region for at least eleven thousand years. Nepal is first mentioned in the late Vedic Atharvaveda Pariśiṣṭa as a place exporting blankets, in the post-Vedic Atharvashirsha Upanishad. In Samudragupta's Allahabad Pillar it is mentioned as a border country; the Skanda Purana has a separate chapter, known as "Nepal Mahatmya", with more details. Nepal is mentioned in Hindu texts such as the Narayana Puja.
Legends and ancient texts that mention the region now known as Nepal reach back to the 30th century BC. The Gopal Bansa were one of the earliest inhabitants of Kathmandu valley; the earliest rulers of Nepal were the Kiratas, peoples mentioned in Hindu texts, who ruled Nepal for many centuries. Various sources mention up to 32 Kirati kings. Around 500 BCE, small kingdoms and confederations of clans arose in the southern regions of Nepal. From one of these, the Shakya polity, arose a prince who renounced his status to lead an ascetic life, founded Buddhism, came to be known as Gautama Buddha. By 250 BCE, the southern regions had come under the influence of the Maurya Empire of North India and became a vassal state under the Gupta Empire in the 4th century CE. There is a quite detailed description of the kingdom of Nepal in the account of the renowned Chinese Buddhist pilgrim monk Xuanzang, dating from about 645 CE. Stone inscriptions in the Kathmandu Valley are important sources for the history of Nepal.
The kings of the Lichhavi dynasty have been found to have r
In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, have the capability of interbreeding. The area of a sexual population is the area where inter-breeding is possible between any pair within the area, where the probability of interbreeding is greater than the probability of cross-breeding with individuals from other areas. In sociology, population refers to a collection of humans. Demography is a social science. Population in simpler terms is the number of people in a city or town, country or world. In population genetics a sex population is a set of organisms in which any pair of members can breed together; this means that they can exchange gametes to produce normally-fertile offspring, such a breeding group is known therefore as a Gamo deme. This implies that all members belong to the same species. If the Gamo deme is large, all gene alleles are uniformly distributed by the gametes within it, the Gamo deme is said to be panmictic.
Under this state, allele frequencies can be converted to genotype frequencies by expanding an appropriate quadratic equation, as shown by Sir Ronald Fisher in his establishment of quantitative genetics. This occurs in Nature: localization of gamete exchange – through dispersal limitations, preferential mating, cataclysm, or other cause – may lead to small actual Gamo demes which exchange gametes reasonably uniformly within themselves but are separated from their neighboring Gamo demes. However, there may be low frequencies of exchange with these neighbors; this may be viewed as the breaking up of a large sexual population into smaller overlapping sexual populations. This failure of panmixia leads to two important changes in overall population structure: the component Gamo demos vary in their allele frequencies when compared with each other and with the theoretical panmictic original; the overall rise in homozygosity is quantified by the inbreeding coefficient. Note that all homozygotes are increased in frequency – both the deleterious and the desirable.
The mean phenotype of the Gamo demes collection is lower than that of the panmictic original –, known as inbreeding depression. It is most important to note, that some dispersion lines will be superior to the panmictic original, while some will be about the same, some will be inferior; the probabilities of each can be estimated from those binomial equations. In plant and animal breeding, procedures have been developed which deliberately utilize the effects of dispersion, it can be shown that dispersion-assisted selection leads to the greatest genetic advance, is much more powerful than selection acting without attendant dispersion. This is so for both autogamous Gamo demes. In ecology, the population of a certain species in a certain area can be estimated using the Lincoln Index. According to the United States Census Bureau the world's population was about 7.55 billion in 2019 and that the 7 billion number was surpassed on 12 March 2012. According to a separate estimate by the United Nations, Earth’s population exceeded seven billion in October 2011, a milestone that offers unprecedented challenges and opportunities to all of humanity, according to UNFPA, the United Nations Population Fund.
According to papers published by the United States Census Bureau, the world population hit 6.5 billion on 24 February 2006. The United Nations Population Fund designated 12 October 1999 as the approximate day on which world population reached 6 billion; this was about 12 years after world population reached 5 billion in 1987, 6 years after world population reached 5.5 billion in 1993. The population of countries such as Nigeria, is not known to the nearest million, so there is a considerable margin of error in such estimates. Researcher Carl Haub calculated that a total of over 100 billion people have been born in the last 2000 years. Population growth increased as the Industrial Revolution gathered pace from 1700 onwards; the last 50 years have seen a yet more rapid increase in the rate of population growth due to medical advances and substantial increases in agricultural productivity beginning in the 1960s, made by the Green Revolution. In 2017 the United Nations Population Division projected that the world's population will reach about 9.8 billion in 2050 and 11.2 billion in 2100.
In the future, the world's population is expected to peak, after which it will decline due to economic reasons, health concerns, land exhaustion and environmental hazards. According to one report, it is likely that the world's population will stop growing before the end of the 21st century. Further, there is some likelihood that population will decline before 2100. Population has declined in the last decade or two in Eastern Europe, the Baltics and in the Commonwealth of Independent States; the population pattern of less-developed regions of the world in recent years has been marked by increasing birth rates. These followed an earlier sharp reduction in death rates; this transition from high birth and death rates to low birth
Uttarakhand known as Uttaranchal, is a state in the northern part of India. It is referred to as the Devabhumi due to a large number of Hindu temples and pilgrimage centres found throughout the state. Uttarakhand is known for the natural environment of the Bhabhar and the Terai. On 9 November 2000, Uttarakhand became the 27th state of the Republic of India, being created from the Himalayan districts of Uttar Pradesh, it borders Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north. The state is divided into two divisions and Kumaon, with a total of 13 districts; the interim capital of Uttarakhand is Dehradun, the largest city of the state, a railhead. The High Court of the state is located in Nainital. Archaeological evidence supports the existence of humans in the region since prehistoric times; the region formed a part of the Uttara Kuru Kingdom during the Vedic age of Ancient India. Among the first major dynasties of Kumaon were the Kunindas in the 2nd century BCE who practised an early form of Shaivism.
Ashokan edicts at Kalsi show the early presence of Buddhism in this region. During the medieval period, the region was consolidated under the Kumaon Kingdom and Garhwal Kingdom. In 1816, most of modern Uttarakhand was ceded to the British as part of the Treaty of Sugauli. Although the erstwhile hill kingdoms of Garhwal and Kumaon were traditional rivals, the proximity of different neighboring ethnic groups and the inseparable and complementary nature of their geography, culture and traditions created strong bonds between the two regions which further strengthened during the Uttarakhand movement for statehood in the 1990s; the natives of the state are called Uttarakhandi, or more either Garhwali or Kumaoni by their region of origin. According to the 2011 Census of India, Uttarakhand has a population of 10,086,292, making it the 20th most populous state in India. Uttarakhand's name is derived from the Sanskrit words uttara meaning'north', khaṇḍa meaning'land', altogether meaning'Northern Land'.
The name finds mention in early Hindu scriptures as the combined region of "Kedarkhand" and "Manaskhand". Uttarakhand was the ancient Puranic term for the central stretch of the Indian Himalayas. However, the region was given the name Uttaranchal by the Bharatiya Janata Party led central government and Uttar Pradesh state government when they started a new round of state reorganisation in 1998. Chosen for its less separatist connotations, the name change generated enormous controversy among many activists for a separate state who saw it as a political act; the name Uttarakhand remained popular in the region while Uttaranchal was promulgated through official usage. In August 2006, Union Cabinet of India assented to the demands of the Uttaranchal Legislative Assembly and leading members of the Uttarakhand statehood movement to rename Uttaranchal state as Uttarakhand. Legislation to that effect was passed by the Uttaranchal Legislative Assembly in October 2006, the Union Cabinet brought in the bill in the winter session of Parliament.
The bill was passed by Parliament and signed into law by President A. P. J. Abdul Kalam in December 2006, since January 1, 2007 the state has been known as Uttarakhand. Ancient rock paintings, rock shelters, paleolithic stone tools, megaliths provide evidence that the mountains of the region have been inhabited since prehistoric times. There are archaeological remains which show the existence of early Vedic practices in the area; the Pauravas, Mauryans, Kunindas, Gurjara-Pratihara, Raikas, Karkotas, Parmars or Panwars, the British have ruled Uttarakhand in turns. It is believed. Among the first major dynasties of Garhwal and Kumaon were the Kunindas in the 2nd century BCE who practised an early form of Shaivism and traded salt with Western Tibet, it is evident from the Ashokan edict at Kalsi in Western Garhwal that Buddhism made inroads in this region. Folk shamanic practices deviating from Hindu orthodoxy persisted here; however and Kumaon were restored to nominal Hindu rule due to the travels of Shankaracharya and the arrival of migrants from the plains.
Between the 4th and 14th centuries, the Katyuri dynasty dominated lands of varying extent from the Katyur valley in Kumaon. The significant temples at Jageshwar are believed to have been built by the Katyuris and remodelled by the Chands. Other peoples of the Tibeto-Burman group known as Kirata are thought to have settled in the northern highlands as well as in pockets throughout the region, are believed to be ancestors of the modern day Bhotiya, Raji and Tharu people. By the medieval period, the region was consolidated under the Garhwal Kingdom in the west and the Kumaon Kingdom in the east. During this period and new forms of painting developed. Modern-day Garhwal was unified under the rule of Parmars who, along with many Brahmins and Rajputs arrived from the plains. In 1791, the expanding Gorkha Empire of Nepal overran the seat of the Kumaon Kingdom, it was annexed to Kingdom of Nepal by Amar Singh Thapa. In 1803, the Garhwal Kingdom fell to the Gurkhas. After the Anglo-Nepalese War, this region was ceded to the British as part of the Treaty of Sugauli.
The Garhwal Kingdom was re-established from a smaller region in Tehri. Af