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Baiyue

The Baiyue, Hundred Yue or Yue were various indigenous non-Chinese peoples who inhabited the regions of Southern China to Northern Vietnam between the first millennium BC and the first millennium AD. In the Warring States period, the word "Yue" referred to the State of Yue in Zhejiang; the kingdoms of Minyue in Fujian and Nanyue in Guangdong were both considered Yue states. Meacham notes that, during the Zhou and Han dynasties, the Yue lived in a vast territory from Jiangsu to Yunnan, while Barlow indicates that the Luoyue occupied the southwest Guangxi and northern Vietnam; the Han shu describes the lands of Yue as stretching from the regions of Kuaiji to Jiaozhi. The Yue tribes were displaced or assimilated into Chinese culture as the Han empire expanded into what is now Southern China and Northern Vietnam during the first half of the first millennium AD. Many modern southern Chinese dialects bear traces of substrate languages spoken by the ancient Yue. Variations of the name are still used for the name of modern Vietnam, in Zhejiang-related names including Yue opera, the Yue Chinese language, in the abbreviation for Guangdong.

The modern term "Yue" comes from Old Chinese *ɢʷat. It was first written using the pictograph "戉" for an axe, in oracle bone and bronze inscriptions of the late Shang dynasty, as "越". At that time it referred to chieftain to the northwest of the Shang. In the early 8th century BC, a tribe on the middle Yangtze were called the Yángyuè, a term used for peoples further south. Between the 7th and 4th centuries BC "Yue" referred to the State of Yue in the lower Yangtze basin and its people; the term "Hundred Yue" first appears in the book Lüshi Chunqiu compiled around 239 BC. It was used as a collective term for many non-Huaxia/Han Chinese populations of south and southwest China and northern Vietnam. Ancient texts mention a number of Yue groups. Most of these names survived into early imperial times: In the 5th millennium BC, the lower Yangtze area was a major population centre, occupied by the Hemudu and Majiabang cultures, who were among the earliest cultivators of rice paddy fields in the fecund delta areas.

By the 3rd millennium BC, the successor Liangzhu culture shows some influence from the Longshan-era cultures due to trade and commerce. However, Y-chromosome DNA from Liangzhu culture sites shows a high frequency of haplogroup O-M119, common among modern Taiwanese aborigines and speakers of Kra–Dai languages in southwest China. Wucheng culture sites had a quite different profile, featuring haplogroups O1b1 and O-M122, which are found in several modern populations in east and southeast Asia in Austroasiatic speakers. Mitsuru Sakitani suggests that haplogroup O1b1 and O1b2, common in today Austroasiatic speakers, Koreans and some Manchu, are one of the carriers of Yangtze civilization; as the Yangtze civilization declined several tribes crossed westward and northerly, to the Shandong peninsula, the Korean Peninsula and the Japanese archipelago. Another study calls the haplogroup O1b1 as the major Austroasiatic paternal lineage and the haplogroup O1b2 as the "para-Austroasiatic" paternal lineage.

From the 9th century BC, two northern Yue tribes, the Gou-Wu and Yu-Yue, were influenced by their Chinese neighbours to their north. These two states were based in the areas of what is now southern Jiangsu and northern Zhejiang, respectively. Traditional accounts attribute the cultural change to Taibo, a Zhou prince who had self-exiled to the south; the marshy lands of the south gave Yu-Yue unique characteristics. According to Robert Marks, the Yue lived in what is now Fujian province gained their livelihood from fishing and practiced some kind of swidden rice farming. Prior to Han Chinese migration from the north, the Yue tribes cultivated wet rice, practiced fishing and slash and burn agriculture, domesticated water buffalo, built stilt houses, tattooed their faces and dominated the coastal regions from shores all the way to the fertile valleys in the interior mountains. Water transport was paramount in the south, so the two states became advanced in shipbuilding and developed maritime warfare technology mapping trade routes to Eastern coasts of China and Southeast Asia.

They were known for their fine swords. In the Spring and Autumn period, the two states, now called Wu and Yue, were becoming involved in Chinese politics. In 512 BC, Wu launched a large expedition against the large state of Chu, based in the Middle Yangtze River. A similar campaign in 506 succeeded in sacking the Chu capital Ying. In that year, war broke out between Wu and Yue and continued with breaks for the next three decades. In 473 BC, Goujian conquered Wu and was acknowledged by the northern states of Qi and Jin. In 333 BC, Yue was in turn conquered by Chu. After the fall of Yue, the ruling family moved south to what is now Fujian and established the Minyue kingdom. What set the Yue apart from other Sinitic states of the time was their possession of a navy. Yue culture was distinct from the Chinese in its practice of naming boats and swords. A Chinese text described the Yue as a people who used boats as their carriages and oars as their horses; the Yayoi people, the ancient people of Wa, in Japan are genetically and archeologically linked to the early people of the Yangtze-river and share several cultural aspects with them.

After the unification of China by Qin Shi Huang, the former Wu and Yue states were a

Sängerfest

Sängerfest Sängerbund-Fest, Sängerfeste, or Saengerfest, meaning singer festival, is a competition of Sängerbunds, or singer groups, with prizes for the best group or groups. Such public events are known as a Liederfest, or song festival. Participants number in the hundreds and thousands, the fest is accompanied by a parade and other celebratory events; the sängerfest is most associated with the Germanic culture. Its origins can be traced back to 19th century Europe. Swiss composer Hans Georg Nägeli and educator Carl Friedrich Zelter, both protégés of Swiss educator Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, established sängerbunds to help foster social change throughout Germany and Prussia. University students began to choose the art form as an avenue for political statements; as the sängerfest concept gained popularity and spread around the world, it was adapted by Christian churches for spiritual worship services. European immigrants brought the tradition in a non-political form to the North American continent.

In the early part of the 20th century, sängerfest celebrations drew devotees in the tens of thousands, included some United States presidents among their audiences. Sängerbunds are still active in American communities with Germanic heritage. Students of Swiss educator Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, a proponent of social reform, applied his teachings when founding some singing groups as an instrument for cultural change. One of his students was Carl Friedrich Zelter, who helped establish the sängerbund movement throughout Prussia in 1809. Pestalozzi's protégé Hans Georg Nägeli was a composer, music teacher and songbook publisher who made numerous journeys across Germany from 1819 to encourage the formation of male singing groups for social reform. Nägeli established several sängerbunds in Switzerland, which became the inspiration for the 1824 establishment of the Stuttgarter Liederkranz. Following the 1819 Carlsbad Decrees in Germany, male-only choral celebrations with hundreds or thousands of vocalists were popular with the masses and part of political events.

Composer Friedrich Silcher was directly influenced by Nägeli. He began using large choirs to express political viewpoints at least as early as 1824 when he and a group of Tübingen University students performed La Marseillaise to commemorate the storming of the Bastille. In 1827 at Plochingen, Baden-Württemberg, several male-voiced choirs combined for a regional liederfest. Sängerfests were part of the Hambach Festival of 1832. Christian church organizations known as Christlicher sängerbunds adapted the sängerfest for religious gatherings and helped spread its popularity throughout Europe, North America and Australia, they became popular in late 19th century Russia among Mennonite congregations. On 30 May 1893, a sängerfest of seven choirs was held in Rückenau in Ukraine. On Sunday, 29 May 1894, the all-day Russische Saengervereinigung was held in Rückenau under the direction of Polish conductor Friedrich Schweige with assistance from Aron Gerhard Sawatsky, director of the Andreasfeld Mennonite Brethren Church.

Beginning on 3 May, Schweiger traveled across Russia rehearsing choirs. On 29 May there were breakfasts for attendees, an estimated 50 vocal presentations by individual choirs, prayer services and sermons, lunch for 2,000 people and afternoon snacks. Mennonites established the northwest Philadelphia section of Germantown in 1683; the Philadelphia Männerchor founded by German immigrant Phillip Matthias Wohlseiffer in 1835 was the first German-American singing society organized in the United States where the sängerfest began to evolve as a form of civic entertainment. In 1836, Wohlseiffer founded the Baltimore Liederkranz, which became the first to accept women members. In 1846, the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and the Baltimore, group performed together at a public sängerfest; the "Brooklyn Daily Eagle Almanac" of 1891 listed numerous sängerbunds in the Brooklyn, New York area. On 21 June 1901, the Nord-Amerikanischer Sängerbund presented a sängerfest in Buffalo, New York, at the famous Pan-American Exposition.

A group in Buffalo hoped to help pay the expenses of the fest by forming the Buffalo Sängerfest Company, selling 1,600 shares of stock at $25 each. In 1838, the Cincinnati Deutscher Gesangverein was formed in Ohio, followed by the Cincinnati Deutsch Liedertafel in 1844; the Gesang und Bildungsverein Deutscher Arbeiter formed in 1846 and was the first Cincinnati group that allowed women. Groups from Ohio, Kentucky and Indiana created the Nord-Amerikanischer Sängerbund in 1849 for a sängerfest hosted by Cincinnati, featuring the music of German composers. By 1908, it was estimated that 250,000 German Americans belonged to musical organizations, 50,000 of those belonged to the Nord-Amerikanischer Sängerbund; the first post-Civil War sängerfest in Columbus, took place 29 August – 1 September 1865 at Schreiner's Hall and the Opera House. Each arriving sängerbund was escorted to the hall by the Eighteenth regiment of the United States Infantry. There were an estimated 400 singers entertaining 12,000 to 15,000 attendees.

The closing day was celebrated with circumstance. The first sängerfest in Texas was held in 1853 in New Braunfels, was held annually until 1860 when conflicting loyalties about, participation in, the American Civil War caused a 10-year gap in the events; the San Antonio Männergesang-Verein was formed in 1847, the New Braunfels Gesangverein Germania formed in 1850, the Austin Männerchor formed in 1852. On 4 July 1853 in San Antonio, the San Antonio Männergesang-Verein sponsored an Independence Day celebration attended by the New Braunfels Gesangverein and the Austin Männerchor; the Ne

Central Pacific Railroad Depot (Lovelock, Nevada)

The Central Pacific Railroad Depot in Lovelock, Nevada was built in 1880 in the Stick style or Eastlake style, functioning as the principal point of access to the town in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The building was located on the northeast corner of West Broadway Avenue and Main Street, but was moved by the town in 1999 to its present site across Broadway Avenue; the building consists of two wood frame sections. Both portions are extensively detailed with finials, braces and flat board trim; the depot was built to the Central Pacific Railroad's "Combination Depot #2" design, the only example of its type in Nevada, but one of six built on the Central Pacific system. None of the other five examples is known to have survived; the station was a regular stop for transcontinental train traffic, was expanded in 1917. The station operated until the early 1990s; when what was now the Union Pacific Railroad announced plans to tear the depot down in 1998 the City of Lovelock expressed interest in the building.

The same year the railroad signed over the building and a $42,500 donation, the projected cost of demolition. The town moved it from railroad property, completing a restoration in 2000, with help from prison labor, it was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2004. The depot is leased to private retail businesses. Sanders, Craig. Amtrak in the Heartland. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. ISBN 9780253027931. Railroad Depot, City of Lovelock