Snooker is a cue sport which originated among British Army officers stationed in India in the half of the 19th century. It is played on a rectangular table covered with a green cloth, or baize, with pockets at each of the four corners and in the middle of each long side. Using a cue and 22 coloured balls, players must strike the white ball to pot the remaining balls in the correct sequence, accumulating points for each pot. An individual game, or frame, is won by the player scoring the most points. A match is won. Snooker gained its own identity in 1884 when army officer Sir Neville Chamberlain, while stationed in Ooty, devised a set of rules that combined pyramid and life pool; the word "snooker" was a long-used military term used to describe inexperienced or first-year personnel. The game grew in popularity in the United Kingdom, the Billiards Association and Control Club was formed in 1919, it is now governed by the World Professional Billiards and Snooker Association. The World Snooker Championship has taken place since 1927, with Joe Davis becoming a key figure in the early growth of the sport winning the championship fifteen times from 1927 to 1946.
The "modern era" began in 1969 after the BBC commissioned the snooker television show Pot Black and began to air the World Championship in 1978, leading to the sport's new peak in popularity. Ray Reardon dominated the game in the 1970s, Steve Davis in the 1980s, Stephen Hendry in the 1990s. Since 2000, Ronnie O'Sullivan has won the most world titles, with 5. Top professional players now compete around the world and earn millions of pounds; the sport has become popular in China. The origin of snooker dates back to the latter half of the 19th century. In the 1870s, billiards was a popular activity amongst British Army officers stationed in India and several variations of the game were devised during this time. One such variation originated at the officers' mess of the 11th Devonshire Regiment in 1875, which combined the rules of two pocket billiards games and life pool; the former was played with fifteen red balls and one black positioned in a triangle, while the latter involved the potting of designated coloured balls.
The game developed its own identity in 1884 when its first set of rules was finalised by Sir Neville Chamberlain, an English officer who helped develop and popularise the game at Stone House in Ooty on a table built by Burroughes & Watts, brought over by boat. The word "snooker" was a slang term for first-year cadets and inexperienced military personnel, but Chamberlain would use it to describe the inept performance of one of his fellow officers at the table. In 1887, snooker was given its first definite reference in England in a copy of Sporting Life which caused a growth in popularity. Chamberlain came out as the game's inventor in a letter to The Field published on 19 March 1938, 63 years after the fact. Snooker grew in popularity across the Indian colonies and the United Kingdom, but it remained a game for the gentry, many gentlemen's clubs that had a billiards table would not allow non-members inside to play. To accommodate the growing interest and more open snooker-specific clubs were formed.
In 1919, the Billiards Association and the Billiards Control Board merged to form the Billiards Association and Control Club and a new, standard set of rules for snooker first became official. The game of Snooker grew in the latter half of the 19th century and the early 20th century, by 1927 the first World Snooker Championship had been organised by Joe Davis who, as a professional English billiards and snooker player, moved the game from a pastime activity into a more professional sphere. Davis won every world championship until 1946; the game went into a decline through the 1950s and 1960s with little interest generated outside of those who played. In 1959, Davis introduced a variation of the game known as "Snooker Plus" to try to improve the game's popularity by adding two extra colours, but it never caught on. A major advance occurred in 1969, when David Attenborough commissioned the snooker television series Pot Black to demonstrate the potential of colour television with the green table and multi-coloured balls being ideal for showing off the advantages of colour broadcasting.
The series was for a time the second-most popular show on BBC Two. Interest in the game increased and the 1978 World Snooker Championship was the first to be televised; the game became a mainstream game in the UK, Ireland and much of the Commonwealth and has enjoyed much success since the late 1970s, with most of the ranking tournaments being televised. In 1985 a total of 18.5 million viewers watched the concluding frame of the world championship final between Dennis Taylor and Steve Davis known as the "black ball final". The loss of tobacco sponsorship during the 2000s led to a decrease in the number of professional tournaments, although some new sponsors were sourced. By 2007, the BBC dedicated 400 hours to snooker coverage compared to just 14 minutes forty years earlier. In 2010, promoter Barry Hearn gained a controlling interest in World Snooker Ltd. the professional sport's commercial arm, pledging to revitalise the "moribund" professional game. Under his direction, the number of professional tournaments has increased, certain tournament formats have been changed in an attempt to increase their appeal, and, by 2013, total prize money had more than doubled from £3 million to more than £7 million for the tour.
The objective of
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibers. Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool, cotton, hemp, or other materials to produce long strands. Textiles are formed by weaving, crocheting, knotting or tatting, felting, or braiding; the related words "fabric" and "cloth" and "material" are used in textile assembly trades as synonyms for textile. However, there are subtle differences in these terms in specialized usage. A textile is any material made of interlacing fibres, including carpeting and geotextiles. A fabric is a material made through weaving, spreading, crocheting, or bonding that may be used in production of further goods. Cloth may be used synonymously with fabric but is a piece of fabric, processed; the word'textile' is from Latin, from the adjective textilis, meaning'woven', from textus, the past participle of the verb texere,'to weave'. The word'fabric' derives from Latin, most from the Middle French fabrique, or'building, thing made', earlier as the Latin fabrica'workshop.
The word'cloth' derives from the Old English clað, meaning a cloth, woven or felted material to wrap around one, from Proto-Germanic kalithaz. The first clothes, worn at least 70,000 years ago and much earlier, were made of animal skins and helped protect early humans from the ice ages. At some point people learned to weave plant fibers into textiles; the discovery of dyed flax fibres in a cave in the Republic of Georgia dated to 34,000 BCE suggests textile-like materials were made in prehistoric times. The production of textiles is a craft whose speed and scale of production has been altered beyond recognition by industrialization and the introduction of modern manufacturing techniques. However, for the main types of textiles, plain weave, twill, or satin weave, there is little difference between the ancient and modern methods. Textiles have an assortment of uses, the most common of which are for clothing and for containers such as bags and baskets. In the household they are used in carpeting, upholstered furnishings, window shades, coverings for tables and other flat surfaces, in art.
In the workplace they are used in scientific processes such as filtering. Miscellaneous uses include flags, tents, handkerchiefs, cleaning rags, transportation devices such as balloons, kites and parachutes. Textiles are used in many traditional crafts such as sewing and embroidery. Textiles for industrial purposes, chosen for characteristics other than their appearance, are referred to as technical textiles. Technical textiles include textile structures for automotive applications, medical textiles, agrotextiles, protective clothing. In all these applications stringent performance requirements must be met. Woven of threads coated with zinc oxide nanowires, laboratory fabric has been shown capable of "self-powering nanosystems" using vibrations created by everyday actions like wind or body movements. Textiles are made from many materials, with four main sources: animal, plant and synthetic; the first three are natural. In the 20th century, they were supplemented by artificial fibres made from petroleum.
Textiles are made in various strengths and degrees of durability, from the finest microfibre made of strands thinner than one denier to the sturdiest canvas. Textile manufacturing terminology has a wealth of descriptive terms, from light gauze-like gossamer to heavy grosgrain cloth and beyond. Animal textiles are made from hair, skin or silk. Wool refers to the hair of the domestic sheep or goat, distinguished from other types of animal hair in that the individual strands are coated with scales and crimped, the wool as a whole is coated with a wax mixture known as lanolin, waterproof and dirtproof. Woollen refers to a bulkier yarn produced from carded, non-parallel fibre, while worsted refers to a finer yarn spun from longer fibres which have been combed to be parallel. Wool is used for warm clothing. Cashmere, the hair of the Indian cashmere goat, mohair, the hair of the North African angora goat, are types of wool known for their softness. Other animal textiles which are made from hair or fur are alpaca wool, vicuña wool, llama wool, camel hair used in the production of coats, ponchos and other warm coverings.
Angora refers to the long, soft hair of the angora rabbit. Qiviut is the fine inner wool of the muskox. Wadmal is a coarse cloth made of wool, produced in Scandinavia 1000~1500 CE. Sea silk is an fine and valuable fabric, made from the silky filaments or byssus secreted by a gland in the foot of pen shells. Silk is an animal textile made from the fibres of the cocoon of the Chinese silkworm, spun into a smooth fabric prized for its softness. There are two main ty
Hessian, burlap in the US and Canada, or crocus in Jamaica, is a woven fabric made from skin of the jute plant or sisal fibres, which may be combined with other vegetable fibres to make rope and similar products. Gunny is similar in construction. Hessian, a dense woven fabric, has been produced as a coarse fabric, but more it is being used in a refined state known as jute as an eco-friendly material for bags and other products; the name "hessian" is attributed to the historic use of the fabric as part of the uniform of soldiers from the former Landgraviate of Hesse and its successors, including the current German state of Hesse, who were called "Hessians". The origin of the word burlap is unknown, though its earliest known appearance is in the late 17th century, its etymology is speculated to derive from the Middle English borel, the Old French burel and/or the Dutch boeren, in the latter case interfused with boer; the second element is the English word lap, "piece of cloth". Hessian was first exported from India in the early 19th century.
It was traditionally used as backing for linoleum and carpet. In Jamaica and certain parts of the Caribbean, many labourers who used to work on the plantations were not given pleasant materials with which to make clothes; some had access to cotton, spun, woven and sewn into serviceable clothing whilst others had to make do with clothing fashioned from hewn sacking. Labourers used their resourcefulness to recycle discarded sacking and fashion them into garments that although uncomfortable by all accounts provided protection from the heat and dust. A traditional costume of Jamaican Maroons uses fabric similar to this material as a way of drawing an affinity and pay homage to the resourcefulness and creativity of their labourers who gained freedom. For the rest of the population, it was used to make bags for carrying loads of coffee and other items, edible or not. Hessian is used to make gunny sacks, to ship goods like coffee beans and rooibos tea, it is associated spoilage of contents. It is durable enough to withstand rough handling in transit.
Hessian is commonly used to make effective sandbags. Hessian is often used for the transportation of unprocessed dry tobacco; this material is used for much the same reasons. Hessian sacks in the tobacco industry hold up to 200 kg of tobacco, due to hessian's toughness, a hessian sack can have a useful life of up to three years. Hessian is used to wrap the exposed roots of trees and shrubs when transplanting and for erosion control on steep slopes. One major advantage of hessian jute fabric is that, because it is made from natural vegetable fibers, it is biodegradable; this property makes it useful in landscaping and agricultural uses that require incorporating fabric support into outdoor projects. Landscape designs that include tree transplantation rely on hessian jute to ensure that young trees arrive at the planting venue intact and unharmed; this is achieved by wrapping hessian jute fabric around the roots and soil of a tree shortly after digging it from its original location. The breathability of the fabric allows sufficient aeration of the soil, the hessian's moisture-resistant properties prevent excess water from accumulating and allowing the growth of mold, mildew, or other types of rot.
Once planted, young trees may require protection from hessian jute to ward off mice and other rodents that might otherwise eat their bark and compromise their structure. To keep rodents at bay, landscapers wrap swathes of hessian jute around the trunks of young trees of all varieties. In addition to protecting from animals, hessian jute has the capacity to protect trees from excessive sun and wind. By building windbreaks from hessian jute, landscapers can exert some control over the environment in which young trees grow, thus maximizing their chances of growing to maturity so that they can withstand more intense weather conditions. For planting grass, on areas that have steep slopes or high levels of soil erosion, a layer of hessian jute tacked on over grass seeds can prevent seeds from being moved by rain, runoff, or wind. Landscapers can use this fabric for many uses due to its strength, moisture resistance, protective properties; the transportation of agricultural products involves bags made from hessian jute fabric.
Hessian jute bags are used to ship wool and cotton, as well as foodstuffs such as coffee, flour and grains. Hessian jute's ability to allow the contents of bags to breathe makes it excellent for preventing or minimizing rotting due to trapped moisture. In some cases, hessian can be specially treated to avoid specific kinds of rot and decay. Due to its coarse texture, it is not used in modern apparel. However, this roughness gave it a use in a religious context for mortification of the flesh, where individuals may wear an abrasive shirt called a cilice or "hair shirt" and in the wearing of "sackcloth" on Ash Wednesday. Owing to its durability, open weave non-shiny refraction and fuzzy texture, ghillie suits for 3D camouflage are made of hessian, it was a popular material for camouflage scrim on co
Barathea, sometimes spelled barrathea, is a soft fabric, with a hopsack twill weave giving a surface, pebbled or ribbed. The yarns used cover various combinations of wool and cotton. Worsted barathea is used for evening coats, such as dress coats, dinner jackets, military uniforms, in black and midnight blue. Silk barathea, either all silk, or using cotton weft and silken warp, is used in the necktie industry
Glossary of cue sports terms
The following is a glossary of traditional English-language terms used in the three overarching cue sports disciplines: carom billiards referring to the various carom games played on a billiard table without pockets. There are hybrid pocket/carom games such as English billiards; the term "billiards" is sometimes used to refer to all of the cue sports, to a specific class of them, or to specific ones such as English billiards. The labels "British" and "UK" as applied to entries in this glossary refer to terms originating in the UK and used in countries that were recently part of the British Empire and/or are part of the Commonwealth of Nations, as opposed to US terminology; the terms "American" or "US" as applied here refer to North American usage. However, due to the predominance of US-originating terminology in most internationally competitive pool, US terms are common in the pool context in other countries in which English is at least a minority language, US terms predominate in carom billiards.
British terms predominate in the world of snooker, English billiards and blackball, regardless of the players' nationalities. The term "blackball" is used in this glossary to refer to both blackball and eight-ball pool as played in the Commonwealth, as a shorthand. Blackball was chosen because it is less ambiguous, blackball is globally standardized by an International Olympic Committee-recognized governing body, the World Pool-Billiard Association. Foreign-language terms are not within the scope of this list, unless they have become an integral part of billiards terminology in English, or they are crucial to meaningful discussion of a game not known in the English-speaking world. 1-cushion See the Straight rail billiards main article for the game sometimes called "one-cushion". 1-pocket See the One-pocket main article for the game. 3-ball See the Three-ball main article for the game. 3-cushion See the Three-cushion billiards main article for the game. 4-ball See the Yotsudama main article for the modern Asian game called "four-ball".
See the American four-ball billiards main article for the nineteenth-century game. 5-pins See the Five-pin billiards main article for the Italian, now internationally standardized game, or Danish pin billiards for the five-pin traditional game of Denmark. 6-ball See the Nine-ball#Six-ball sub-article for the game. 8-ball See the Eight-ball main article for the game. See the 8 ball entry, under the "E" section below, for the ball. See 8 ball for derivative uses. 9-ball See the Nine-ball main article for the game. See the 9 ball entry, under the "N" section below, for the ball. 9-pins See the Goriziana main article for the game sometimes called nine-pins. 10-ball See the Ten-ball main article for the game. Above Used in snooker in reference to the position of the cue ball, it is above the object ball if it is off-straight on the baulk cushion side of the imaginary line for a straight pot. It is common to use the term high instead. Action 1. Gambling or the potential for gambling. 2. Lively results on a ball the cue ball, from the application of spin.
3. Short for cue action. Added Used with an amount to signify money added to a tournament prize fund in addition to the amount accumulated from entry fees. Ahead race Also ahead session. A match format in which a player has to establish a lead of an agreed number of frames in order to win. Contrast race. Aiming line An imaginary line drawn from the desired path an object ball is to be sent and the center of the object ball. Anchor To freeze a ball to a cushion; this term is obsolete balkline billiards jargon. Anchor nurse A type of nurse shot used in carom billiards games. With one object ball being anchored to a cushion and the second object ball just away from the cushion, the cue ball is grazed across the face of both balls, freezing the away ball to the rail and moving the frozen ball away the same distance its partner was in an identical but reversed configuration, in position to be struck again by the cue ball from the opposite side to repeat this pattern and forth. Compare cradle cannon. Anchor space A 7-inch square box drawn on the table in balkline billiards, from the termination of a balkline with the cushion, thus defining a restricted space in which only 3 points may be scored before one ball must be driven from the area.
It developed to curtail the effectiveness of the chuck nurse, which in turn had been invented to thwart the effectiveness of Parker's box in stopping lo
Craps is a dice game in which the players make wagers on the outcome of the roll, or a series of rolls, of a pair of dice. Players may wager money against a bank; because it requires little equipment, "street craps" can be played in informal settings. While shooting craps, players may use slang terminology to place actions. Craps developed in the United States from a simplification of the western European game of hazard; the origins of hazard may date to the Crusades. Hazard was brought from London to New Orleans in 1807 by the returning Bernard Xavier Philippe de Marigny de Mandeville, the young gambler and scion of a family of wealthy colonial Louisiana landowners. Although in hazard the dice shooter may choose any number from five to nine to be the main number, de Marigny simplified the game such that the main number is always seven, the optimal choice among knowledgeable hazard players. Both hazard and its new offshoot were unfamiliar and rejected by Americans of his social class, leading de Marigny to introduce his novelty to the local underclass.
Fieldhands taught their friends, deckhands carried the new game up the Mississippi River. Celebrating the popular success of his novelty, de Marigny gave the name craps to a street in his New Orleans real estate development; the central game, called "pass", from the French word for "pace" or "step", has been supplemented over the decades by many companion games which can be played simultaneously. The entire collection of over one hundred separate and independent possible games is called craps; the name craps was a Louisiana mispronunciation of the word crabs, which in London had been the joint epithet for the numbers two and three, which in hazard are the only permanent instant losing numbers for wagers on Pass. For a century after its invention, craps was abused by casinos using unfair dice. To remedy the problem, in 1907, a Philadelphia dice maker named John H. Winn introduced a layout which featured bets on both Pass and Don't Pass. Most modern casinos use his innovation. Craps exploded in popularity during World War II, which brought most young American men of every social class into the military.
The street version of craps was popular among soldiers, who played it using a blanket as a shooting surface. Their military memories led to craps becoming the dominant game in postwar Las Vegas. Bank craps or casino craps is played by one or more players betting against the casino rather than each other. Both the players and the dealers stand around a large rectangular craps table. Sitting is discouraged by most casinos. Players use casino checks rather than cash to bet on the Craps "layout," a fabric surface which displays the various bets; the bets vary somewhat among casinos in availability and payouts. The tables resemble bathtubs and come in various sizes. Against one long side is the casino's table bank: as many as two thousand casino checks in stacks of 20; the opposite long side is a long mirror. The U-shaped ends of the table have duplicate layouts and standing room for eight players. In the center of the layout is an additional group of bets which are used by players from both ends; the vertical walls at each end are covered with a rubberized target surface covered with small pyramid shapes to randomize the dice which strike them.
The top edges of the table walls have one or two horizontal grooves in which players may store their reserve checks. The table is run by up to four casino employees: a boxman seated behind the casino's bank, who manages the chips, supervises the dealers, handles "coloring up" players; each employee watches for mistakes by the others because of the sometimes large number of bets and frantic pace of the game. In smaller casinos or at quiet times of day, one or more of these employees may be missing, have their job covered by another, or cause player capacity to be reduced; some smaller casinos have introduced "mini-craps" tables. Responsibility of the dealers is adjusted: the stickman continuing to handle the center bets, the base dealer handling the other bets as well as cash and chip exchanges. By contrast, in "street craps", there is no marked table and the game is played with no back-stop against which the dice are to hit; the wagers are made in cash, never in chips, are thrown down onto the ground or floor by the players.
There are no attendants, so the progress of the game, fairness of the throws, the way that the payouts are made for winning bets are self-policed by the players. Each casino may set which bets are offered and different payouts for them, though a core set of bets and payouts is typical. Players take turns rolling two dice and whoever is throwing the dice is called the "shooter". Players can bet on th
Blackjack is the American variant of a globally popular banking game known as Twenty-One, whose relatives include Pontoon and Vingt-et-Un. It is a comparing card game between several players and a dealer, where each player in turn competes against the dealer, but players do not play against each other, it is played with one or more decks of 52 cards, is the most played casino banking game in the world. The objective of the game is to beat the dealer in one of the following ways: Get 21 points on the player's first two cards, without a dealer blackjack. Players are each dealt two cards, face up or down depending on the casino and the table at which you sit. In the U. S. the dealer is dealt two cards one up and one down. In most other countries, the dealer receives one card face up; the value of cards two through ten is their pip value. Face cards are all worth ten. Aces can be worth eleven. A hand's value is the sum of the card values. Players are allowed to draw additional cards to improve their hands.
A hand with an ace valued as 11 is called "soft", meaning that the hand will not bust by taking an additional card. Otherwise, the hand is "hard". Once all the players have completed their hands, it is the dealer’s turn; the dealer hand will not be completed if all players have either received blackjacks. The dealer reveals the hidden card and must hit until the cards total 17 or more points. Players win by not busting and having a total higher than the dealer, or not busting and having the dealer bust, or getting a blackjack without the dealer getting a blackjack. If the player and dealer have the same total, this is called a "push", the player does not win or lose money on that hand. Otherwise, the dealer wins. Blackjack has many rule variations. Since the 1960s, blackjack has been a high-profile target of advantage players card counters, who track the profile of cards that have been dealt and adapt their wagers and playing strategies accordingly. Blackjack has inspired other casino games, including pontoon.
Blackjack's precursor was a game of unknown origin. The first written reference is found in a book by the Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes, most famous for writing Don Quixote. Cervantes was a gambler, the main characters of his tale "Rinconete y Cortadillo", from Novelas Ejemplares, are a couple of cheats working in Seville, they are proficient at cheating at veintiuna, state that the object of the game is to reach 21 points without going over and that the ace values 1 or 11. The game is played with the Spanish baraja deck; this short story was written between 1601 and 1602, implying that ventiuna was played in Castile since the beginning of the 17th century or earlier. References to this game are found in France and Spain; when twenty-one was introduced in the United States, gambling houses offered bonus payouts to stimulate players' interest. One such bonus was a ten-to-one payout if the player's hand consisted of the ace of spades and a black jack; this hand was called a "blackjack", the name stuck to the game though the ten-to-one bonus was soon withdrawn.
In the modern game, a blackjack refers to any hand of an ace plus a ten or face card regardless of suits or colors. The first scientific and mathematically sound attempt to devise an optimal blackjack playing strategy was revealed in September 1956. Roger Baldwin, Wilbert Cantey, Herbert Maisel and James McDermott published a paper titled The Optimum Strategy in Blackjack in the Journal of the American Statistical Association; this paper would become the foundation of all future sound efforts to beat the game of blackjack. Ed Thorp would use Baldwin’s hand calculations to verify the basic strategy and publish his famous book Beat the Dealer. At a casino blackjack table, the dealer faces five to seven playing positions from behind a semicircular table. Between one and eight standard 52-card decks are shuffled together. At the beginning of each round, up to three players can place their bets in the "betting box" at each position in play; that is, there could be up to three players at each position at a table in jurisdictions that allow back betting.
The player whose bet is at the front of the betting box is deemed to have control over the position, the dealer will consult the controlling player for playing decisions regarding the hand. Any player is allowed to control or bet in as many boxes as desired at a single table, but it is prohibited for an individual to play on more than one table at a time or to place multiple bets within a single box. In many U. S. casinos, players are limited to playing two or three positions at a table and only one person is allowed to bet on each position. The dealer deals cards from his/her left to his/her far right; each box is dealt an initial hand of two cards visible to the people playing on it, to any other players. The dealer's hand receives its first card face up, in "hole card" games receives its second card face down, which the dealer peeks at but does not reveal unless it makes the dealer's hand