Baking is a method of preparing food that uses dry heat in an oven, but can be done in hot ashes, or on hot stones. The most common baked item is bread but many other types of foods are baked. Heat is transferred "from the surface of cakes and breads to their center; as heat travels through, it transforms batters and doughs into baked goods and more with a firm dry crust and a softer centre". Baking can be combined with grilling to produce a hybrid barbecue variant by using both methods or one after the other. Baking is related to barbecuing because the concept of the masonry oven is similar to that of a smoke pit; because of historical social and familial roles, baking has traditionally been performed at home by women for day-to-day meals and by men in bakeries and restaurants for local consumption. When production was industrialized, baking was automated by machines in large factories; the art of baking remains a fundamental skill and is important for nutrition, as baked goods breads, are a common and important food, both from an economic and cultural point of view.
A person who prepares baked goods as a profession is called a baker. All types of food can be baked. Various techniques have been developed to provide this protection. In addition to bread, baking is used to prepare cakes, pies, quiches, scones, crackers and more; these popular items are known collectively as "baked goods," and are sold at a bakery, a store that carries only baked goods, or at markets, grocery stores, farmers markets or through other venues. Meat, including cured meats, such as ham can be baked, but baking is reserved for meatloaf, smaller cuts of whole meats, or whole meats that contain stuffing or coating such as bread crumbs or buttermilk batter; some foods are surrounded with moisture during baking by placing a small amount of liquid in the bottom of a closed pan, letting it steam up around the food. Roasting is a term synonymous with baking, but traditionally denotes the cooking of whole animals or major cuts through exposure to dry heat. One roasts the whole loin or leg.
There are many exceptions to this rule of the two terms. Baking and roasting otherwise involve the same range of cooking temperatures. Another form of baking is the method known as en croûte, which protects the food from direct heat and seals the natural juices inside. Meat, game, fish or vegetables can be prepared by baking en croûte. Well-known examples include Beef Wellington; the en croûte method allows meat to be baked by burying it in the embers of a fire – a favorite method of cooking venison. Salt can be used to make a protective crust, not eaten. Another method of protecting food from the heat while it is baking is to cook it en papillote. In this method, the food is covered by baking paper to protect it; the cooked parcel of food is sometimes served unopened, allowing diners to discover the contents for themselves which adds an element of surprise. Eggs can be used in baking to produce savoury or sweet dishes. In combination with dairy products cheese, they are prepared as a dessert. For example, although a baked custard can be made using starch, the flavor of the dish is much more delicate if eggs are used as the thickening agent.
Baked custards, such as crème caramel, are among the items that need protection from an oven's direct heat, the bain-marie method serves this purpose. The cooking container is half submerged in water in another, larger one, so that the heat in the oven is more applied during the baking process. Baking a successful soufflé requires that the baking process be controlled; the oven temperature must be even and the oven space not shared with another dish. These factors, along with the theatrical effect of an air-filled dessert, have given this baked food a reputation for being a culinary achievement. A good baking technique are needed to create a baked Alaska because of the difficulty of baking hot meringue and cold ice cream at the same time. Baking can be used to prepare other foods such as pizzas, baked potatoes, baked apples, baked beans, some casseroles and pasta dishes such as lasagne; the first evidence of baking occurred when humans took wild grass grains, soaked them in water, mixed everything together, mashing it into a kind of broth-like paste.
The paste was cooked by resulting in a bread-like substance. When humans mastered fire, the paste was roasted on hot embers, which made bread-making easier, as it could now be made any time fire was created; the world's oldest oven was discovered in Croatia in 2014 dating back 6500 years ago. The Ancient Egyptians baked bread using yeast, which they had been using to brew beer. Bread baking began in Ancient Greece around 600 BC. "Ovens and worktables have been discovered in archaeological digs from Turkey to Palestine and date back to 5600 BC."Baking flourished during the Roman Empire. Beginning around 300 B. C. the pastry cook became an occupation for Romans and became a respected profession because
The Gracious Few is the debut studio album by rock supergroup The Gracious Few. Drummer Chad Gracey explained the album's sound, "We knew we wanted to be a little harder than what Live had been doing and what Candlebox had been doing. Chad Taylor comes up with a lot of the riffs that we start the songs from and he was just playing this real sort of heavy, bluesy stuff. Once we heard that we were like,'Wow, this is kind of a Led Zeppelin, throwback feel' and it just sort of happened. We didn't consciously decide...those were just the songs that started flowing."The first single released was "Honest Man". Singer Kevin Martin said, he was a World War II veteran. He believed in the American dream with all his heart, he was the honest man of his generation. Now I turn on the television and see Americans without jobs, without food and without a chance to help themselves; this song is a wake up call to the forces of the world who would dare to stand in the way of our ability to provide for ourselves."
Kevin Martin: lead vocals Sean Hennesy: lead guitar, backing vocals Chad Taylor: rhythm guitar, backing vocals Patrick Dahlheimer: bass Chad Gracey: drums Allmusic gave the album 3.5 stars out of 5, in a positive review. They hinted at the difficulty in creating a'classic rock' album without sounding'dated' by saying that the band, "Have crafted a note of fondness to'70s hard rock that has enough post-grunge radio polish on it to keep things in perspective." A glowing review from Type 3 Media said the album contained, "An impressive collection of heavy brooding groove-laden tunes" and praised the band for, "Exploring sounds and styles they may not have been able to lay down in a studio previously."Alternative Addiction said that, "When you throw in Live, classic rock and Jerry Harrison doing some decent production you get a great album by The Gracious Few." In a favourable review they expressed a preference for the album's heavier songs, claiming that, "The band is at its best on the edgier songs where Martin is belting out vocals, when they’re not taking advantage of that some boredom can set in."
A Tiger Team is a term used for a team of specialists formed to work on specific goals. A 1964 paper entitled Program Management in Design and Development used the term tiger teams and defined it as "a team of undomesticated and uninhibited technical specialists, selected for their experience and imagination, assigned to track down relentlessly every possible source of failure in a spacecraft subsystem or simulation"; the paper consists of anecdotes and answers to questions from a panel on improving issues in program management concerning testing and quality assurance in aerospace vehicle development and production. One of the authors was Walter C. Williams, an engineer at the Manned Spacecraft Center and part of the Edwards Air Force Base National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. Williams suggests that tiger teams are an effective and useful method for advancing the reliability of systems and subsystems in the context of actual flight environments. Jane Goodall, among others, has noted that tigers are not cooperative animals and has suggested referring to chimpanzee teams because of the intense cooperation that occurs in chimpanzee social groups.
A tiger team was crucial to the Apollo 13 lunar landing mission in 1970. During the mission, part of the Apollo 13 Service Module exploded. A team of specialists was formed to fix the issue and bring the astronauts back to earth safely, led by NASA Flight and Mission Operations Director Gene Kranz. Kranz and the members of his "White Team" designated the "Tiger Team", received the Presidential Medal of Freedom for their efforts in the Apollo 13 mission. In security work, a tiger team is a group that tests an organization's ability to protect its assets by attempting to defeat its physical or information security. In this context, the tiger team is a permanent team as security is an ongoing priority. For example, one implementation of an information security tiger team approach divides the team into two co-operating groups: one for vulnerability research, which finds and researches the technical aspects of a vulnerability, one for vulnerability management, which manages communication and feedback between the team and the organization, as well as ensuring each discovered vulnerability is tracked throughout its life-cycle and resolved.
An initiative involving tiger teams was implemented by the United States Department of Energy under then-Secretary James D. Watkins. From 1989 through 1992 the DOE formed tiger teams to assess 35 DOE facilities for compliance with environment and health requirements. Beginning in October 1991 smaller tiger teams were formed to perform more detailed follow up assessments to focus on the most pressing issues; the NASA Engineering and Safety Center puts together "tiger teams" of engineers and scientists from multiple NASA centers to assist solving complex problems when requested by a project or program. Penetration test Red team "All About Tiger Team"This article is based on material taken from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing prior to 1 November 2008 and incorporated under the "relicensing" terms of the GFDL, version 1.3 or later