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Balalaika

The balalaika is a Russian stringed musical instrument with a characteristic triangular wooden, hollow body, fretted neck and three strings. Two strings are tuned to the same note and the third string is a perfect fourth higher; the higher-pitched balalaikas are used to play chords. The instrument has a short sustain, necessitating rapid strumming or plucking when it is used to play melodies. Balalaikas are used for Russian folk music and dancing; the balalaika family of instruments includes instruments of various sizes, from the highest-pitched to the lowest: the piccolo balalaika, prima balalaika, secunda balalaika, alto balalaika, bass balalaika, contrabass balalaika. There are balalaika orchestras which consist of different balalaikas; the prima balalaika is the most common. There have been descant and tenor balalaikas, but these are considered obsolete. All have three-sided bodies; the prima balalaika and alto are played either with the fingers or a plectrum, depending on the music being played, the bass and contrabass are played with leather plectra.

The rare piccolo instrument is played with a pick. The earliest mention of the term balalaika dates back to a 1688 Russian document. Another appearance of the word is registered in a document from Verkhotursky district of Russia, dated October 1700, it mentioned in a document signed by Peter the Great dated 1714 regarding wedding celebrations of N. M. Zotov in Saint Petersburg. In Ukrainian language the word was first documented in the 18th century as "balabaika", this form is present in South Russian dialects and Belorussian language, as well in Siberian Russia, it first appeared in "Elysei", a 1771 poem by V. Maykov. "Balalaika" appears in Nikolai Gogol's Dead Souls, written between 1837 and 1842. The most common solo instrument is the prima, tuned E4–E4–A4. Sometimes the balalaika is tuned "guitar style" by folk musicians to G3–B3–D4, whereby it is easier to play for Russian guitar players, although classically trained balalaika purists avoid this tuning, it can be tuned to E4–A4–D5, like its cousin, the domra, to make it easier for those trained on the domra to play the instrument, still have a balalaika sound.

The folk tunings D4–F♯4–A4 and C4–E4–G4 were popular, as this makes it easier to play certain riffs. The balalaika has been made the following sizes: Factory-made six-string prima balalaikas with three sets of double courses are common; these have three double courses similar to the stringing of the mandolin and use a "guitar" tuning. Four string alto balalaikas are encountered and are used in the orchestra of the Piatnistky Folk Choir; the piccolo, prima, d secunda balalaikas were strung with gut with the thinnest melody string made of stainless steel. Today, nylon strings are used in place of gut. Amateur and/or souvenir-style prima balalaikas have a total of 16 frets, while in professional orchestra-like ones that number raises to 24. An important part of balalaika technique is the use of the left thumb to fret notes on the lower string on the prima, where it is used to form chords. Traditionally, the side of the index finger of the right hand is used to sound notes on the prima, while a plectrum is used on the larger sizes.

Because of the large size of the contrabass's strings, it is not uncommon to see players using plectra made from a leather shoe or boot heel. The bass balalaika and contrabass balalaika rest on the ground, on a wooden or metal pin, drilled into one of its corners, it is possible that the emergence and evolutionary of balalaika was a product of interaction with Asian-Oriental cultures too. In addition to European culture, early Russian states called Rus' or Rusi, were influenced by Oriental-Asian cultures; some theories say that the instrument descended from an instrument from the East Slavs. In the Caucasus, similar instruments such as the Mongolian topshur, used in Kalmykia, the Panduri used in Georgia are played, it is similar to the Kazakh dombra, which has two strings Early representations of the balalaika show it with anywhere from two to six strings, which resembles certain Central Asian instruments. Frets on earlier balalaikas were made of animal gut and tied to the neck so that they could be moved around by the player at will.

The first known document mentioning the instrument dates back to 1688. A guard's logbook from the Moscow Kremlin records that two commoners were stopped from playing the Balalika whilst drunk. Further documents from 1700 and 1714 mention the instrument. In the early 18th century the term appeared in Ukrainian documents, where it sounded like "Balabaika". Balalaika appeared in "Elysei" by V. Maikov. In the 19th century, the balalaika evolved into a triangular instrument with a neck, shorter than that of its Asian counterparts, it was popular as a village instrument for centuries with the skomorokhs, sort of free-lance musical jesters whose tunes ridiculed the Tsar, the Russian Orthodox Church, Russian society in general. In the 1880s, Vasily Vasilievich Andreyev, a professional violinist in the music salons of St

National Highway 49 (India, old numbering)

National Highway 49 was a National Highway in southern India under former numbering system.. It traversed coast-to-coast linking Kochi in Kerala with Dhanushkodi in Tamil Nadu, it crosses the famous Pamban Bridge before crossing into Rameswaram island. The total length runs up to 440 km; the 5 km road between Mukundarayar Chathiram and Dhanuskodi was destroyed during the 1963 cyclone and was rebuilt. Government of India has announced that the destroyed stretch will be rebuilt at a cost of INR 250 million; the road between Madurai and Ramanathapuram is soon to be converted from the present single road to a four-lane highway. Union minister for road transport and shipping Nitin Gadkari was participated in the foundation stone-laying ceremony for the Rs 1,387-crore project in Madurai on 17 July 2015. An initial outlay of Rs 900 crore was made and now the project has been sanctioned Rs 1,387 crore; the 75 km stretch from Madurai to Paramakudi will be converted into a four-lane road, while the remaining 39 km stretch from Paramakudi to Ramanathapuram widened to form a two-lane road with paved shoulders.

Falling under the NH-49, this project is one of the largest to be implemented in Tamil Nadu by the NHAI in the recent times. NH 55 starts from the junction of NH 47 at Kundannoor in Kochi and terminates at Muguntharayar Chattram between Rameswaram and Dhanushkodi. Kerala: Kochi Metropolitan Area, Muvattupuzha, Neriamangalam, Munnar and Poopara, Bodimettu Tamil Nadu: Bodinayakkanur, Andipatti, Madurai, Manamadurai, Paramakudi, Mandapam, Pamban and Mukundarayar Chathiram. List of National Highways in India National Highways Development Project Old NH 49 on OpenStreetMap NH 85 on MapsofIndia.com

The Little Mermaid (1968 film)

The Little Mermaid is a 1968 Soviet animated film based on Hans Christian Andersen's fairy tale "The Little Mermaid". As the story opens, a busful of tourists are touring Copenhagen, their guide draws their attention to the beautiful statue at Langelinie. At that, the film's focus moves below the waterline, where several fish tell the story of... A galleon is foundering on the rough ocean, its master, a young prince, is trying his best to keep the ship out of harm, but he fails, falls into the waves. Meanwhile, four mermaid princesses come from a magnificent alabaster underwater palace; the three older mermaids, clad in blue, give their younger sister a red cloak, indirectly indicating whom the protagonist is. The little mermaid sees the now-unconscious prince in the water, she carries him to the shore. A bell tolls from a nearby convent and several women come out; the little mermaid jumps into the sea, waiting to see. One of the ladies helps him to the convent; the little mermaid tells her sisters of the prince.

She decides to go to the hag of the sea for a solution. The hag offers her a potion to turn human, with the condition of having to lose her voice and bear a pain in her feet whilst walking; this the little mermaid accepts. The little mermaid arrives on land, he sees her beauty, she dreams of a fantasy world riding with him on a winged horse into the stars. The couple are seen on a voyage on a ship to a nearby land. A servant from the nearby palace's balcony calls for the princess; the prince and the little mermaid enter the palace, observed by the courtiers. The king welcomes the couple; the king presents his daughter, none other than the girl at the convent. The little mermaid is surprised, remembering how the hag had told her that if the prince marries another, she would die the next sunrise; the prince and princess, clad in wedding clothes, head back to the ship with the little mermaid holding the bride's train and an entourage following them. As the little mermaid awaits the next day in desperation, her three sisters appear, now sporting short hair, since they traded their long tresses to the hag in exchange for enough magic to assist their younger sister.

They give her a magic shell, which would kill the prince, save her life, return her to her mermaid shape. The little mermaid refuses and drops the shell into the sea a huge wave comes to the ship, killing her for love; the prince notices her absence, looks up in the sky as though he knows she is deceased and looking down upon him and his bride from a sunlit sky. Nina Gulyayeva as The Little Mermaid. Lidiya Korolyova as the fish guide. Roza Makagonova as. Viktoriya Ivanova as singing voice of The Little Mermaid. Anatoli Papanov as the guide. Vladimir Troshin as. Yuliya Yulskaya as; the Little Mermaid on IMDb The Little Mermaid at Animator.ru

Giancarlo Mazzanti

Giancarlo Mazzanti is a Colombian architect based in Bogota. Mazzanti was born in Barranquilla, Colombia in 1963, he graduated with a degree in architecture from the Pontifical University in Javeriana, Bogotá in 1987. He received a graduate degree in history and theory of architecture and industrial design from the University of Florence, Italy in 1991. Mazzanti's work includes Biblioteca Parque España, León de Greiff Library in Medellín, Gerardo Molina College, Restaurant Nazca, Habitar 72, Habitar 74 and the Medellin Coliseum, he won the Sustainable Architecture prize from the French Institute of Architecture. He designed El Porvenir kindergarten in Bosa, Gerardo Molina College in Suba, Museo del Caribe in Barranquilla, Third Millennium Park in San Victorino and coliseums. Giancarlo Mazzanti is an Architect of the Javeriana University in Bogotá, with a postgraduate in Industrial design from the University of Florence in Italy, he has taught in several Colombian universities and at Princeton and Columbia universities and his work is exhibited in MoMA's and Pompidou’s permanent collections.

Social values are at the core of Mazzanti's architecture projects. He searches for projects that build communities. Mazzanti has committed his professional life to the improvement of the quality of design of the build environment and the concept of social equality, his works reflect significant social shifts happening in Latin America today, his work has helped show that good design can lead to new identities for cities and their inhabitants, transgressing reputations of crime and poverty. Biblioteca Parque España León de Greiff Library, Medellín Gerardo Molina School Restaurant Nazca Habitar 72 Habitar 74 Medellin Coliseum Giancarlo Mazzanti website

Hutchinson, Pennsylvania

Hutchinson is a village located in Westmoreland County, is part of Sewickley Township, Pennsylvania. As of the 2000 census, Hutchinson had 99 single family homes, a total population of 322. Although only about the size of a small subdivision, Hutchinson has its own post office and zip code: 15640. Hutchinson was built as a coal mining town in 1924, is geographically located above the Hutchinson Mine; the community was named for S. P. Hutchinson, president of Westmoreland Coal Company at the time the town was built; because it was built much than nearby "coal patch" towns, Hutchinson was distinguished by an unusually spacious layout, in which houses had larger yards than one would find in older coal mining communities. In late 2017, crews broke ground on a multimillion-dollar project in order to bring sewage to the small village. Construction of initial sewage piping concluded in the spring of 2018 but the sewage plant added at the end of Jackson Street did not cease until summer of 2018; the resident were given notice to tap in to the sewage lines at the beginning of October 2018 and had only 90 days to tap in.

The sewage plant will be started at the beginning of January 2019 for the use of the public. Hutchinson Mine

Rodrigo Alberto Carazo Zeledón

Rodrigo Alberto Carazo Zeledón is a Costa Rican politician, economist and political scientist and is Costa Rica's representative to the United Nations, having presented his credentials the 31st of August of 2018. He was the first Ombudsman of the Republic of Costa Rica and a former delegate to the Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica who served in that capacity during the Pacheco administration, he was president of the Partido Acción Ciudadana. Carazo Zeledón is the son of the former president of Rodrigo Carazo Odio. Like his father, he has had a strong tendency towards social positions and is conspicuous in opposition to neoliberalism, he was one of the opposition leaders against the Central America Free Trade Agreement with the United States. In 1997, he obtained his doctorate in political science. Between 1983 and 1987, he completed higher studies in political science at the University of Geneva, Switzerland, he graduated with a Bachelor of economics and social sciences in 1977, received his Bachelor Law Degree at the University of Costa Rica.

He completed post-graduate studies in international law at the Academy of International Law in The Hague and studied economic history at the University of Costa Rica. He was the first Ombudsman of the Republic of Costa Rica, as well as Vice President and President of the Central American Council of Human Rights, Vice President and President of the Ibero - American Federation of Ombudsmen. Between 1984 and 1987, he was a representative of the University for Peace to the United Nations European Offices, from 1979 to 1981 he was an Ambassador in special mission for the General Assembly of the United Nations, he was Delegate of the Legislative Power for the Citizen Action Party, member of its Political Commission for the period 2002 - 2006 and president of its Executive Committee from June 28, 2014, until his resignation on September 3, 2014. He has several companies, he has been general manager of large companies and university professor at the UCR. Rodrigo Alberto Carazo. Violencia y paz en América Latina.

Libro Universitario Regional. ISBN 978-9968-801-08-9. Https://www.ameliarueda.com/nota/exdefensor-de-los-habitantes-rodrigo-alberto-carazo-es-el-nuevo-presidente https://www.nacion.com/el-pais/rodrigo-alberto-carazo-renuncia-a-la-presidencia-del-pac/P3OWS5JKHVB5NMNPQ3FFCQ33NA/story/