The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina known as the Dayton Agreement, Dayton Accords, Paris Protocol or Dayton–Paris Agreement, is the peace agreement reached at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, United States, on 1 November 1995, formally signed in Paris, France, on 14 December 1995. These accords put an end to the 3 1⁄2 - one of the Yugoslav Wars. Though basic elements of the Dayton Agreement were proposed in international talks as early as 1992, these negotiations were initiated following the unsuccessful previous peace efforts and arrangements, the August 1995 Croatian military Operation Storm and its aftermath, the government military offensive against the Republika Srpska, conducted in parallel with NATO's Operation Deliberate Force. During September and October 1995, world powers, gathered in the Contact Group, applied intense pressure to the leaders of the three sides to attend the negotiations in Dayton, Ohio; the conference took place from 1–21 November 1995.
The main participants from the region were the President of the Republic of Serbia Slobodan Milošević, President of Croatia Franjo Tuđman, President of Bosnia and Herzegovina Alija Izetbegović with his Foreign Minister Muhamed Šaćirbeg. The peace conference was led by US Secretary of State Warren Christopher, negotiator Richard Holbrooke with two Co-Chairmen in the form of EU Special Representative Carl Bildt and the First Deputy Foreign Minister of Russia Igor Ivanov. A key participant in the US delegation was General Wesley Clark; the head of the UK's team was Pauline Neville-Jones, political director of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. The UK military representative was Col Arundell David Leakey. Paul Williams, through the Public International Law & Policy Group served as legal counsel to the Bosnian Government delegation during the negotiations; the secure site was chosen in order to remove all the parties from their comfort zone, without which they would have little incentive to negotiate.
Curbing the participants' ability to negotiate via the media was a important consideration. Richard Holbrooke wanted to prevent posturing through early leaks to the press. After having been initiated in Dayton, Ohio, on 21 November 1995, the full and formal agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995 and witnessed by Spanish Prime Minister Felipe Gonzalez, French President Jacques Chirac, U. S. President Bill Clinton, UK Prime Minister John Major, German Chancellor Helmut Kohl and Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin; the agreement's main purpose is to promote peace and stability in Bosnia and Herzegovina and to endorse regional balance in and around the former Yugoslavia, thus in a regional perspective. The present political divisions of Bosnia and Herzegovina and its structure of government were agreed upon, as part the constitution that makes up Annex 4 of the General Framework Agreement concluded at Dayton. A key component of this was the delineation of the Inter-Entity Boundary Line to which many of the tasks listed in the Annexes referred.
The State of Bosnia Herzegovina was set as of the Federation of Bosnia-Herzegovina and of the Republika Srpska. Bosnia and Herzegovina is a complete state, as opposed to a confederation. Although decentralised in its entities, it would still retain a central government, with a rotating State Presidency, a central bank and a constitutional court; the agreement mandated a wide range of international organizations to monitor and implement components of the agreement. The NATO-led IFOR was responsible for implementing military aspects of the agreement and deployed on 20 December 1995, taking over the forces of the UNPROFOR; the Office of the High Representative was charged with the task of civil implementation. The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe was charged with organising the first free elections in 1996. On 13 October 1997, the Croatian 1861 Law Party and the Bosnia-Herzegovina 1861 Law Party requested the Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina to annul several decisions and to confirm one decision of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and, more to review the constitutionality of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina since it was alleged that the agreement violated the Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina in a way that it undermined the integrity of the state and could cause the dissolution of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Court reached the conclusion that it is not competent to decide the dispute in regards to the mentioned decisions since the applicants were not subjects that were identified in Article VI.3 of the Constitution on those who can refer disputes to the Court. The Court rejected the other request: the Constitutional Court is not competent to evaluate the constitutionality of the General Framework Agreement as the Constitutional Court has in fact been established under the Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina in order to uphold this Constitution The Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina was adopted as Annex IV to the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, there cannot be a conflict or a possibility
Clinton Presidential Center
The William J. Clinton Presidential Center and Park is the presidential library of Bill Clinton, the 42nd President of the United States, it is located in Little Rock and includes the Clinton Presidential Library, the offices of the Clinton Foundation, the University of Arkansas Clinton School of Public Service. It is the thirteenth presidential library to have been completed in the United States, the eleventh to be operated by the National Archives and Records Administration, the third to comply with the Presidential Records Act of 1978, it is situated on 17 acres of land located next to the Arkansas River and Interstate 30 and was designed by architectural firm Polshek Partnership, LLP with exhibition design by Ralph Appelbaum Associates. The main building cantilevers over the Arkansas River, echoing Clinton's campaign promise of "building a bridge to the 21st century". With a 68,698-square-foot floor plan, the library itself is the largest presidential library in terms of physical area, although the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library has the greatest space overall, due to its addition of the 90,000 square feet Air Force One Pavilion in 2005.
The archives are the largest as well, containing 2 million photographs, 80 million pages of documents, 21 million e-mail messages, 79,000 artifacts from the Clinton presidency. The Clinton Library is the most expensive, with all funding coming from 112,000 private donations; the museum showcases artifacts from Clinton's two terms as president and includes full-scale replicas of the Clinton-era Oval Office and Cabinet Room. Preliminary planning for the library began in 1997, while groundbreaking for the complex occurred on December 5, 2001. Early estimates put the library's cost at about $125 million. In 2001, the Clinton Foundation hoped to gather $200 million in donations to cover project costs. In the end, the entire project cost $165 million in private funding, with an additional $11.5 million of land given by the City of Little Rock to construct and covers 152,000 square feet within a 28 acres park. Fund-raising for the center was led by Terry McAuliffe, a friend of Clinton's who had contributed to the Clinton-Gore campaign in 1995.
Clinton himself was prohibited by law from soliciting donations for the center, but he did host private events relating to the library. There were no other legal restrictions on donations, the Clinton Foundation was able to accept unlimited private donations, all of which were tax deductible. $10 million of contributions came from Saudi Arabia. However, the Clinton Foundation declined to release a full donor list, similar to the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library. Donations exceeding $1 million were given from various other foreign governments, as well as foreign individuals. Various American organizations contributed millions of dollars to the foundation; the Clinton Presidential Center was dedicated on November 18, 2004. Although it was raining, the ceremony was attended by 30,000 people and included a 20-minute speech made by Clinton, who had undergone bypass surgery, it included performances by Bono, the African Drum Ballet and the Philander Smith Collegiate Choir, as well as an invocation given by Floyd Flake and video tribute from Nelson Mandela.
Four U. S. presidents were on the same stage together. All three other presidents spoke at the event as well. Overall, the ceremony featured six speakers. On November 17, 2009, the library's fifth anniversary saw Clinton giving a speech to 1,000 people, urging for the passage of health-care reform and the reduction of energy use, he mentioned the center and school as places where discussion on such topics could take place. The five-story main building comprises 20,000 square feet of exhibition space, the Great Hall, Forty Two, classrooms. A 2,000-square-foot private penthouse used by Clinton is located on the top floor of the main building, one level above the public museum area. In 2007 the Clinton Foundation installed on the rooftop of the Presidential library the private "Rooftop Garden" with a golf course; the organization of the exhibits within the main building was inspired by the famous Long Room in the Old Library at Trinity College, which Clinton first saw when he was a Rhodes Scholar.
The Cadillac One used during Clinton's presidency is housed on the first floor. On the second floor, the main gallery houses a 110-foot timeline, representing each of Clinton's years as President. There is an 80-seat theater, the Great Hall, the replicas of the Oval Office and Cabinet Room; the restaurant is located in the basement. Between November 18, 2000 and January 27, 2001, eight Lockheed C-5 Galaxy missions that moved 602 tonnes of President Bill Clinton's papers, gifts and other official materials from Andrews Air Force Base to Little Rock Air Force Base. Commercial trucks transported the cargoes from the base to the National Archives storage facility in Little Rock, where they were to remain until completion of the Clinton presidential library in 2004; the archives are housed in a building south of and connected to the main building, which contains NARA fac
The Clinton Foundation is a non-profit organization under section 501 of the U. S. tax code. It was established by former President of the United States Bill Clinton with the stated mission to "strengthen the capacity of people in the United States and throughout the world to meet the challenges of global interdependence." Its offices are located in Arkansas. Through 2016, the foundation had raised an estimated $2 billion from U. S. corporations, foreign governments and corporations, political donors, various other groups and individuals. The acceptance of funds from wealthy donors has been a source of controversy; the foundation "has won accolades from philanthropy experts and has drawn bipartisan support". Charitable grants are not a major focus of the Clinton Foundation, which instead uses most of its money to carry out its own humanitarian programs; this foundation is a public organization to which anyone may donate and is distinct from the Clinton Family Foundation, a private organization for personal Clinton family philanthropy.
According to the Clinton Foundation's website, neither Bill Clinton nor his daughter, Chelsea Clinton, draws any salary or receives any income from the Foundation. When Hillary Clinton was a board member, she also received no income from the Foundation; the origins of the foundation go back to 1997, when then-president Bill Clinton was focused on fundraising for the future Clinton Presidential Center in Little Rock, Arkansas. He founded the William J. Clinton Foundation in 2001 following the completion of his presidency. Longtime Clinton advisor Bruce Lindsey became the CEO in 2004. Lindsey moved from being CEO to being chair for health reasons. Other Clinton hands who played an important early role included Ira Magaziner. Additional Clinton associates who have had senior positions at the foundation include John Podesta and Laura Graham; the foundation's success is spurred by Bill Clinton's worldwide fame and his ability to bring together corporate executives and government officials. The foundation areas of involvement have corresponded to whatever Bill felt an interest in.
Preceding Barack Obama's 2009 nomination of Hillary Clinton as United States Secretary of State, Bill Clinton agreed to accept a number of conditions and restrictions regarding his ongoing activities and fundraising efforts for the Clinton Presidential Center and the Clinton Global Initiative. Accordingly, a list of donors was released in December 2008. By 2011, Chelsea Clinton had a seat on its board. To raise money for the Foundation, she gave paid speeches, such as her $65,000 2014 address at the University of Missouri in Kansas City for the opening of the Starr Women's Hall of Fame. In 2013, Hillary Clinton joined the foundation following her tenure as Secretary of State, she planned to focus her work on issues regarding women and children, as well as economic development. Accordingly, at that point, it was renamed the "Bill, Hillary & Chelsea Clinton Foundation". Extra attention was paid to the foundation due to the 2016 United States presidential election. In July 2013, Eric Braverman was named CEO of the foundation.
He is a friend and former colleague of Chelsea Clinton from Company. At the same time, Chelsea Clinton was named vice chair of the foundation's board; the foundation was in the midst of a move to two floors of the Time-Life Building in Midtown Manhattan. Chelsea Clinton moved the organization to an outside review, conducted by the firm of Simpson Thacher & Bartlett, its conclusions were made public in mid-2013. The main focus was to determine how the foundation could achieve firm financial footing, not dependent upon the former president's fundraising abilities, how it could operate more like a permanent entity rather than a start-up organization, thus how it could survive and prosper beyond Bill Clinton's lifetime. Dennis Cheng, a former Hillary Clinton campaign official and State Department deputy chief, was named to oversee a $250 million endowment drive; the review found the management and structure of the foundation needed improvements, including an increase in the size of its board of directors that would have a more direct involvement in planning and budget activities.
Additionally, the review said that all employees needed to understand the foundation's conflict of interest policies and that expense reports needed a more formal review process. In January 2015, Braverman announced his resignation. Politico attributed the move to being "partly from a power struggle inside the foundation between and among the coterie of Clinton loyalists who have surrounded the former president for decades and who helped start and run the foundation." He was succeeded at first in an acting capacity by Maura Pally. On February 18, 2015, The Washington Post reported that, "the foundation has won accolades from philanthropy experts and has drawn bipartisan support, with members of the George W. Bush administration participating in its programs." In March 2015, former Secretary of Health and Human Services in the Clinton administration, Donna Shalala, was selected to run the Clinton Foundation. She left in April 2017. In August 2016 The Boston Globe's editorial board suggested that the Clinton Foundation cease accepting donations.
The Globe's editorial board offered praise for the foundation's work but added that "as long as either of the Clintons are in public office, or seeking it, they should not operate a charity, too" because it represents a conflict of
Economic policy of the Bill Clinton administration
The economic policies of Bill Clinton, referred to by some as Clintonomics, encapsulates the economic policies of United States President Bill Clinton that were implemented during his presidency, which lasted from January 1993–January 2001. President Clinton oversaw a robust economy during his tenure; the U. S. had record job creation. He raised taxes on higher income taxpayers early in his first term and cut defense spending and welfare, which contributed to a rise in revenue and decline in spending relative to the size of the economy; these factors helped bring the federal budget into surplus from fiscal years 1998–2001, the only surplus years after 1969. Debt held by the public, a primary measure of the national debt, fell relative to GDP throughout his two terms, from 47.8% in 1993 to 31.4% in 2001. Clinton signed NAFTA into law along with many other free trade agreements, he enacted significant welfare reform. His deregulation of finance has been criticized as a contributing factor to the Great Recession.
Clinton's presidency included a great period of economic growth in America's history. Clintonomics encompassed both a set of economic policies as well as governmental philosophy. Clinton's economic approach entailed modernization of the federal government, making it more enterprise-friendly while dispensing greater authority to state and local governments; the ultimate goal involved rendering the American government smaller, less wasteful, more agile in light of a newly globalized era. Clinton assumed office following the end of a recession, the economic practices he implemented are held up by his supporters as having fostered a recovery and surplus, though some of the president's critics remained more skeptical of the cause-effect outcome of his initiatives; the Clintonomics policy focus could be encapsulated by the following four points: Establish fiscal discipline and eliminate the budget deficit Maintain low interest rates and encourage private-sector investment Eliminate protectionist tariffs Invest in human capital through education and researchPrior to the 1992 presidential campaign, America had undergone twelve years of conservative policies implemented by Ronald Reagan and George Herbert Walker Bush.
Clinton ran on the economic platform of balancing the budget, lowering inflation, lowering unemployment, continuing the traditionally conservative policies of free trade. David Greenberg, a professor of history and media studies at Rutgers University, opined that: The Clinton years were unquestionably a time of progress on the economy... Clinton's 1992 slogan,'Putting people first,' and his stress on'the economy, stupid,' pitched an optimistic if still gritty populism at a middle class that had suffered under Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush.... By the end of the Clinton presidency, the numbers were uniformly impressive. Besides the record-high surpluses and the record-low poverty rates, the economy could boast the longest economic expansion in history. In proposing a plan to cut the deficit, Clinton submitted a budget and corresponding tax legislation that would cut the deficit by $500 billion over five years by reducing $255 billion of spending and raising taxes on the wealthiest 1.2% of Americans.
It imposed a new energy tax on all Americans and subjected about a quarter of those receiving Social Security payments to higher taxes on their benefits. Republican Congressional leaders launched an aggressive opposition against the bill, claiming that the tax increase would only make matters worse. Republicans were united in this opposition, every Republican in both houses of Congress voted against the proposal. In fact, it took Vice President Gore's tie-breaking vote in the Senate to pass the bill. After extensive lobbying by the Clinton Administration, the House narrowly voted in favor of the bill by a vote of 218 to 216; the budget package expanded. It reduced the amount they paid in federal income and Federal Insurance Contributions Act tax, providing $21 billion in relief for 15 million low-income families. Clinton signed the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993 into law; this act created a 36 percent to 39.6 percent income tax for high-income individuals in the top 1.2% of wage earners.
Businesses were given an income tax rate of 35%. The cap was repealed on Medicare; the taxes were raised 4.3 cents per gallon on transportation fuels and the taxable portion of Social Security benefits were increased. Clinton enacted Small Business Job Protection Act of 1996 which reduced taxes for many small business. Furthermore, he signed legislation that increased the tax deduction for self-employed business owners from 30% to 80% by 1997; the Taxpayer Relief Act reduced some federal taxes. The 28% rate for capital gains was lowered to 20%; the 15% rate was lowered to 10%. In 1980, a tax credit was put into place based on the number of individuals under the age of 17 in a household. In 1998, it was $400 per child and in 1999, it was raised to $500; this Act removed from taxation profits on the sale of a house of up to $500,000 for individuals who are married, $250,000 for single individuals. Educational savings and retirement funds were given tax relief; some of the expiring tax provisions were extended for selected businesses.
Since 1998, an exemption could be taken out for those family farms and small businesses that qualified for it. In 1999, the correction of inflation on the $10,000 annual gift tax exclusion was accomplished. By the year 2006, the $
Post-presidency of Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. After he left office, he continued to be active in the public sphere, touring the world, writing books, campaigning for Democrats, including his wife, Hillary Clinton, who served as the junior US Senator from New York between 2001 and 2009 and the 67th United States Secretary of State between 2009 and 2013 on her presidential campaigns in 2008, in which she was runner-up, in 2016, when she lost the election to Donald Trump. At the end of his presidency, the Clintons moved to New York, in Westchester County. Clinton opened his personal office in the Harlem section of New York City. In 2000, Clinton assisted his wife in her campaign for office as Senator from New York. Clinton campaigned for a number of Democratic candidates for the Senate in the 2002 elections. Clinton comments on contemporary politics in speaking engagements around the world. One notable theme is his advocacy of multilateral solutions to world problems.
Clinton spoke for the fifth consecutive time at a Democratic National Convention on July 26, 2004, praising candidate John Kerry. He said of President George W. Bush's depiction of Kerry, "strength and wisdom are not opposing values." Despite Clinton's speech, the post-convention bounce to Kerry's poll numbers was less than was hoped for. Clinton has given dozens of paid speeches each year to corporations and philanthropic groups in North America and Europe earning $100,000 to $300,000 per speech. According to his wife's Senate ethics reports, he earned more than $30 million in speaking from 2001 to 2005. In 2007, it is estimated. Overall, Bill Clinton earned more than $104 million from 542 paid speeches between January 2001 and January 2013. Clinton made his first visit to new United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon in April 2007; the 45-minute meeting, called at Clinton's request, touched on a host of topics, including disease, war and poverty in Africa in the Darfur region. The Middle East, the conflict in Iraq, Iran's nuclear standoff with the U.
N. were on the agenda, as well as HIV/AIDS. He was the opening speaker at the Ontario Economic Summit held on November 13, 2007 in which he addressed people on various subjects including Canada's role in Afghanistan and access to healthcare. Clinton served as one of the organizers for the New Baptist Covenant alongside former President Jimmy Carter and other Baptist leaders; this effort sought to bring various Baptists in America together across racial lines, to discuss issues that unite them. Clinton spoke at the January 2008 celebration in Atlanta, GA. Clinton dedicated his presidential library, the William J. Clinton Presidential Center in Little Rock, Arkansas on November 18, 2004. Under rainy skies, Clinton received praise from former presidents Jimmy Carter and George H. W. Bush, as well as from then-president George W. Bush, he was treated to a musical rendition from Bono and The Edge from U2, who expressed their gratitude at Clinton's efforts to resolve the Northern Ireland conflict during his presidency.
The library has the largest archives of any presidential library. The Clinton facility was funded to a large degree by donations from foreign governments, receiving a $10 million donation from the royal family of Saudi Arabia. Clinton released a personal autobiography, My Life in 2004; the book was published by the Knopf Publishing Group at Random House on June 22, 2004. According to the publisher, for single day non-fiction book sales, the book set a worldwide record. Released as an audio book, total sales were in excess of 400,000 copies; as a writer's fee, he received U. S. $12 million in advance. He released, Giving: How Each of Us Can Change the World in September 2007, which became a bestseller and gandered positive reviews; the book is about citizen activism and the role of public charity and public service in the modern world. The audiobook version was nominated for a 2008 Grammy Award in the category of Best Spoken Word Album. In 2011, Clinton released a book "Back to Work: Why We Need Smart Government for a Strong Economy."
The book details Clinton's suggestions for improving the economy. The William J. Clinton Foundation provides for a number of humanitarian causes. Within the foundation, the Clinton Foundation HIV and AIDS Initiative strives to make treatment for HIV/AIDS more affordable and to implement large-scale integrated care and prevention programs. While in Sydney to attend a Global Business Forum, Clinton signed a memorandum of understanding on behalf of his presidential foundation with the Australian government to promote HIV/AIDS programs in the Asia-Pacific region; the Clinton Global Initiative, funded by the Clinton Foundation, was inaugurated September 15–17, 2005 in New York City to coincide with the 2005 World Summit. The focus areas of the initiative include attempts to address world problems such as global public health, poverty alleviation and religious and ethnic conflict. Clinton announced through the William J. Clinton Foundation an agreement by major soft drink manufacturers to stop selling sugared sodas and juice drinks, in public primary and secondary schools within the United States, on May 3, 2005.
The foundation has received donations from a number of foreign governments, including the king of Morocco, a foundation linked to the United Arab Emirates, the governments of Kuwait and Qatar. In 2008 newspapers reported that "Mr Clinton had travelled to Kazakhstan with a Canadian mining magnate, Frank Giustra, to meet its dictator president. Mr Giustra won three lucrative uranium mining contracts from the government and donated $US31 million to Mr Clinton's chari
Bombing of Iraq (1998)
The December 1998 bombing of Iraq was a major four-day bombing campaign on Iraqi targets from 16 December 1998, to 19 December 1998, by the United States and the United Kingdom. The contemporaneous justification for the strikes was Iraq's failure to comply with United Nations Security Council resolutions and its interference with United Nations Special Commission inspectors; the operation was a major flare-up in the Iraq disarmament crisis. The stated goal of the cruise missile and bombing attacks was to strike military and security targets in Iraq that contributed to Iraq's ability to produce, store and deliver weapons of mass destruction; the bombing campaign had been anticipated since February 1998 and incurred wide-ranging criticism and support, at home and abroad. Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates announced they would deny the U. S. military the use of local bases for the purpose of air strikes against Iraq. U. S. President Bill Clinton had been working under a regional security framework of dual containment, which involved punishing Saddam Hussein's regime with military force whenever Iraq challenged the United States or the international community.
Although there was no Authorization for Use of Military Force as there was during Operation Desert Storm and Operation Iraqi Freedom or a declaration of war, as in World War II, Clinton signed into law H. R. 4655, the Iraq Liberation Act on 31 October 1998. The new act appropriated funds for Iraqi opposition groups in the hope of removing Saddam Hussein from power and replacing his regime with a democratic government. Despite the act's intention of support of opposition groups, Clinton justified his order for US action under the act; the act stated that: Nothing in this Act shall be construed to authorize or otherwise speak to the use of United States Armed Forces in carrying out this Act. Section 4 states: The President is authorized to direct the drawdown of defense articles from the stocks of the Department of Defense, defense services of the Department of Defense, military education and training for organizations. Just prior to Desert Fox, the U. S. nearly led. It was abandoned at the last minute when the Iraqi leader allowed the UN to continue weapons inspections.
Clinton administration officials said the aim of the mission was to "degrade" Iraq's ability to manufacture and use weapons of mass destruction, not to eliminate it. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright was asked about the distinction while the operation was going on: I don't think we're pretending that we can get everything, so this is – I think – we are being honest about what our ability is. We are lessening; the weapons of mass destruction are the threat of the future. I think the president explained clearly to the American people that this is the threat of the 21st century. Hat it means is that we know we can't get everything; the main targets of the bombing included weapons research and development installations, air defense systems and supply depots, the barracks and command headquarters of Saddam's elite Republican Guard. One of Saddam's lavish presidential palaces came under attack. Iraqi air defense batteries, unable to target the American and British jets, began to blanket the sky with near random bursts of flak fire.
The air strikes continued unabated however, cruise missile barrages launched by naval vessels added to the bombs dropped by the planes. By the fourth night, most of the specified targets had been damaged or destroyed and the operation was deemed a success and the air strikes ended. U. S. Navy aircraft from Carrier Air Wing Three, flying from USS Enterprise, Patrol Squadron Four, flew combat missions from the Persian Gulf in support of ODF. Of significance, the operation marked the first time that women flew combat sorties as U. S. Navy strike fighter pilots and the first combat use of the U. S. Air Force's B-1B bomber from the 28th Air Expeditionary Group stationed at RAFO Thumrait, Sultanate of Oman. Ground units included the 31st Marine Expeditionary Unit, of which 2nd Battalion 4th Marines served as the ground combat element; the U. S. Air Force sent several sorties of F-16s from the 34th Fighter Squadron, 522nd Fighter Squadron into Iraq to fly night missions in support of Operation Desert Fox.
On the second night of Operation Desert Fox, aircrews flying 12 B-52s took off from the island of Diego Garcia in the Indian Ocean and launched 74 conventional air-launched cruise missiles. The missiles found their mark striking multiple Iraqi targets including six of President Saddam Hussein's palaces, several Republican Guard barracks, the Ministries of Defense and Military Industry; the following evening, two more B-52 crews launched 16 more CALCMs. Over a two-night period aircrews from the 2nd and 5th Bomb Wings launched a total of 90 CALCMs; the B-1 bomber made its combat debut by striking at Republican Guard targets. On 17 Dec, USAF aircraft based in Kuwait participated, as did British Royal Air Force Tornado aircraft; the British contribution totaled 15 percent of the sorties flown in Desert Fox. By 19 December, U. S. and British aircraft had struck 97 targets, Secretary of Defense William Cohen claimed the operation was a success. Supported by Secretary Cohen, as well as United States Central Command commander General Anthony C.
Zinni and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General Henry H. S
1992 Democratic National Convention
The 1992 National Convention of the U. S. Democratic Party nominated Governor Bill Clinton of Arkansas for President and Senator Al Gore from Tennessee for Vice President; the convention was held at Madison Square Garden in New York City, New York from July 13 to July 16, 1992. The Clinton-Gore ticket faced and defeated their Republican opponents, President George H. W. Bush and Vice President Dan Quayle as well as the independent ticket of Ross Perot and James Stockdale in the 1992 presidential election; the convention's keynote speaker was Georgia Governor Zell Miller who said, "Not all of us can be born rich and lucky, that's why we have a Democratic Party" and added, "Our Commander in Chief talks like Dirty Harry but acts like Barney Fife." Other notable speakers included Democratic National Committee Chair Ron Brown, Elizabeth Glaser, New York Governor Mario Cuomo. The convention, organized by chairman Ron Brown, was seen as a great success. Unlike some earlier Democratic conventions, it had been well planned and run with few gaffes or errors, as Republicans conceded.
As Clinton finished his acceptance speech Fleetwood Mac's "Don't Stop", which would become the theme song of Bill Clinton's 1992 campaign, was played several times during the balloon drop and celebration. Clinton received a significant poll bounce from the convention, due to both the perceived success of the convention, as well as Ross Perot announcing he was withdrawing from the campaign just as the convention was ending; the convention bounce gave the Clinton/Gore ticket a lead that only shrank when Ross Perot re-entered the race. Clinton and Gore went on to defeat President Bush and Vice-President Quayle, as well as independent candidate Ross Perot and his running mate, James Stockdale, in the general election. Pennsylvania Governor Bob Casey did not speak. Casey maintained that he was denied a speaking spot because he intended to give a speech about his opposition to abortion, while the Clinton camp said that Casey did not speak because he had not endorsed the Clinton/Gore ticket. After the convention was over, Casey told the New York Times, "I support the ticket.
Period." Other Democrats opposing abortions such as Chicago Mayor Richard M. Daley, Senators John Breaux and Howell Heflin, five anti-abortion Democratic governors did speak. While Democratic officials said that these speakers were not barred from discussing their opposition to abortion, they nonetheless did not address the issue in their speeches. Casey asked both DNC Chairman Ron Brown and Texas Governor Ann Richards, the convention's chairwoman, for a speaking spot. Neither responded directly, Casey received a letter explaining that he would not receive a spot. Controversy regarding Casey's treatment at the 1992 Convention was cited in media coverage of his son Bob Casey, Jr.'s successful 2006 Pennsylvania Senate campaign against Republican incumbent Rick Santorum. Former California Governor Jerry Brown, still an active candidate with a large amount of delegates and had not withdrawn to support the clear nominee—thus not being given a speaker's spot by the convention organizers—addressed the convention to state his case for a "humility agenda" by seconding his own nomination.
Gore was nominated by acclamation on a voice vote. Bill Clinton presidential campaign, 1992 1992 Democratic presidential primary 1991 Libertarian National Convention 1992 Republican National Convention United States presidential election, 1992 History of the United States Democratic Party List of Democratic National Conventions U. S. presidential nomination convention Democratic Party Platform of 1992 at The American Presidency Project Clinton Nomination Acceptance Speech for President at DNC at The American Presidency Project Complete text and audio of Barbara Jordan's Keynote Address Complete text and audio of Elizabeth Glaser's Address Complete text and audio of William Jefferson Clinton's Acceptance Address List of members from various state delegations to convention Video of Clinton nomination acceptance speech for President at DNC Audio of Clinton nomination acceptance speech for President at DNC Video of Gore nomination acceptance speech for Vice President at DNC Audio of Gore nomination acceptance speech for Vice President at DNC Transcript of Gore nomination acceptance speech for Vice President at DNC Video of Zell Miller's keynote address at Democratic National Convention