Srivijaya, was a dominant thalassocratic Indonesian city-state based on the island of Sumatra, which influenced much of Southeast Asia. Srivijaya was an important centre for the expansion of Buddhism from the 8th to the 12th century. Srivijaya was the first unified kingdom to dominate much of the Indonesian archipelago; the rise of the Srivijayan Empire is seen to run parallel to the end of the Malay sea-faring period. Due to its location, this once powerful state developed complex technology utilizing maritime resources. In addition, its economy became progressively reliant on the booming trade in the region, thus transforming it into a prestige goods based economy; the earliest reference to it dates from the 7th century. A Tang Chinese monk, wrote that he visited Srivijaya in 671 for six months; the earliest known inscription in which the name Srivijaya appears dates from the 7th century in the Kedukan Bukit inscription found near Palembang, dated 16 June 682. Between the late 7th and early 11th century, Srivijaya rose to become a hegemon in Southeast Asia.
It was involved in close interactions rivalries, with the neighbouring Java and Champa. Srivijaya's main foreign interest was nurturing lucrative trade agreements with China which lasted from the Tang to the Song dynasty. Srivijaya had religious and trade links with the Buddhist Pala of Bengal, as well as with the Islamic Caliphate in the Middle East; the kingdom ceased to exist in the 13th century due to various factors, including the expansion of the rival Javanese Singhasari and Majapahit empires. After Srivijaya fell, it was forgotten, it was not until 1918 that French historian George Cœdès, of École française d'Extrême-Orient, formally postulated its existence. Srivijaya is a Sanskrit-derived name: श्रीविजय, Śrīvijaya, it was known in many names, including Javanese: ꦯꦿꦶꦮꦶꦗꦪ, Sundanese: ᮞᮢᮤᮝᮤᮏᮚ, Thai: ศรีวิชัย RTGS: Siwichai, Khmer: ស្រីវិជ័យ Srey Vichey, Burmese: သီရိပစ္စယာ Thiripyisaya, Chinese: 三佛齊 Sanfoqi. In Sanskrit, śrī means "fortunate", "prosperous", or "happy" and vijaya means "victorious" or "excellence".
Thus the combined word Srivijaya means "shining victory", "splendid triumph", "prosperous victor", "radiance of excellence" or "glorious". Historians of early 20th-century that studied the inscriptions of Sumatra and the neighboring islands, thought that the term "Srivijaya" refer to a person's name — a king to be exact; the Sundanese manuscript of Carita Parahyangan composed around the late 16th-century in West Java, mentioned vaguely about a princely hero that rose to be a king named Sanjaya that after secured his rule in Java — involved in battle with the Malayu and Keling, against their king named "Sang Sri Wijaya". The term Malayu is Javanese-Sundanese term to refer Malay people of Sumatra, while Keling — derived from historical Kalinga kingdom of Southern India, refer to people of Indian descent that inhabit the archipelago. Fascinatingly, the name Srivijaya still being found in this local manuscript, although was mistakenly refer to a king. Subsequently, after studying both local stone inscriptions and Chinese historical accounts, historians concluded that the term "Srivijaya" refer to a polity or a kingdom.
Little physical evidence of Srivijaya remains. There had been no continuous knowledge of the history of Srivijaya in Indonesia and Malaysia. Contemporary Indonesians those from the area of Palembang, had not heard of Srivijaya until the 1920s when the French scholar, George Cœdès, published his discoveries and interpretations in the Dutch- and Indonesian-language newspapers. Cœdès noted that the Chinese references to "Sanfoqi" read as "Sribhoja", the inscriptions in Old Malay refer to the same empire; the Srivijayan historiography was acquired and established from two main sources: the Chinese historical accounts and the Southeast Asian stone inscriptions that have been discovered and deciphered in the region. The Buddhist pilgrim Yijing's account is important on describing Srivijaya, when he visited the kingdom in 671 for six months; the 7th-century siddhayatra inscriptions discovered in Palembang and Bangka island are vital primary historical sources. Regional accounts that some might be tales and legends, such as the Legend of the Maharaja of Javaka and the Khmer King provides a glimpse of the kingdom.
Besides, some Indian and Arabic accounts describes vaguely about the riches and fabulous fortune of the king of Zabag. The historical records of Srivijaya were reconstructed from a number of stone inscriptions, most of them written in Old Malay using Pallava script, such as the Kedukan Bukit, Talang Tuwo, Telaga Batu and Kota Kapur inscriptions. Srivijaya had become a symbol of early Sumatran importance as a great empire to balance Java's Majapahit in the east. In the 20th century, both empires were referred to by nationalistic intellectuals to argue for an Indonesian identity within an Indonesian state that had existed prior to the colonial state of the Dutch East Indies. Srivijaya, by extension Sumatra, had been known by different names to different peoples; the Chinese called it Sanfoqi or Che-li-fo-che, there was an older kingdom of Kantoli, which could be considered the predecessor of Srivijaya. Sanskrit and Pali texts referred to it as Javadeh, respectively; the Arabs called the Khmers called it Melayu.
While the Javanese called them Suvarnabhumi, Suvarnadvipa or Malayu. This is another reason. While some of these names are reminiscent of the name o
A blueprint is a reproduction of a technical drawing using a contact print process on light-sensitive sheets. Introduced by Sir John Herschel in 1842, the process allowed rapid, accurate, production of an unlimited number of copies, it was used for over a century for the reproduction of specification drawings used in construction and industry. The blueprint process was characterised by white lines on a blue background, a negative of the original; the process was not able to reproduce color or shades of grey. The term blueprint is used less formally to refer to any floor plan; the blueprint process is based on a photosensitive ferric compound. The best known is a process using potassium ferricyanide; the paper dried. When the paper is illuminated, a photoreaction turns the trivalent ferric iron into divalent ferrous iron; the image is developed using a solution of potassium ferricyanide forming insoluble ferroferricyanide with the divalent iron. Excess ammonium ferric citrate and potassium ferricyanide are washed away.
The process is known as cyanotype. This is a simple process for the reproduction of any light transmitting document. Engineers and architects drew their designs on cartridge paper; the tracing paper drawing is placed on top of the sensitized paper, both are clamped under glass, in a daylight exposure frame, similar to a picture frame. The frame is put out into daylight, requiring a minute or two under a bright sun, or about ten minutes under an overcast sky to complete the exposure. Where ultra-violet light is transmitted through the tracing paper, the light sensitive coating converts to a stable blue or black dye. Where the India ink blocks the ultra-violet light the coating remains soluble; the image can be seen forming. When a strong image is seen the frame is brought indoors to stop the process; the unconverted coating is washed away, the paper is dried. The result is a copy of the original image with the clear background area rendered dark blue and the image reproduced as a white line; this process has several features: Introduction of the blueprint process eliminated the expense of photolithographic reproduction or of hand-tracing of original drawings.
By the 1890s in American architectural offices, a blueprint was one-tenth the cost of a hand-traced reproduction. The blueprint process is still used for special artistic and photographic effects, on paper and fabrics. Traditional blueprints became obsolete when less expensive printing methods and digital displays became available. In the early 1940s, cyanotype blueprint began to be supplanted by diazo prints known as whiteprints, which have blue lines on a white background. Other comparable dye-based prints were known as blacklines. Diazo prints remained in use. Xerography is standard copy machine technology using toner on bond paper; when large size xerography machines became available, c. 1975, they replaced the older printing methods. As computer-aided design techniques came into use, the designs were printed directly using a computer printer or plotter. In most computer-aided design of parts to be machined, paper is avoided altogether, the finished design is an image on the computer display.
The computer-aided design program generates a computer numerical control sequence from the approved design. The sequence is a computer file which will control the operation of the machine tools used to make the part. In the case of construction plans, such as road work or erecting a building, the supervising workers will view the "blueprints" directly on displays, rather than use printed paper sheets; these displays include mobile devices, such as tablets. Software allows users to annotate electronic drawing files. Various base materials have been used for blueprints. Paper was a common choice. To combat this problem, printing on imitation vellum and polyester film was implemented; the process is now obsolete. It was first displaced by the diazo whiteprint process, by large-format xerographic photocopiers. Now paper copies, made by any method, are used, instead digital copies are used; the traditional term "blueprint" continues to be used informally to refer to various types of image. Practicing engineers and drafters just call them "drawings" or "prints".
Many of the original paper blueprints are archived. In many situations their conversion to digital form is prohibitively expensive. Most buildings and roads constructed; these originals have significant importance to the repair and alteration of constructions still in use, e.g. bridges, sewer systems, railroads, etc. Architectural reprography Floor plan Technical drawing Heliographic copier Whiteprint Cyanotype
Agusan del Norte
Agusan del Norte is a province in the Philippines located in the Caraga region of Mindanao. Its capital is the city of Cabadbaran and it is bordered on the northeast by Surigao del Norte, it faces part of the Bohol Sea, to the northwest. Prior to its creation as an independent province, Agusan, as it was once undivided, was under the jurisdiction of Surigao province during the Spanish colonial period. In 1911, Agusan was separated from Surigao by the American government. During World War II in 1942, the Japanese Imperial forces landed in Northern Agusan. In 1945, Filipino soldiers of the 6th, 10th, 101st, 102nd, 103rd, 107th and 110th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and the 10th Infantry Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary together with the recognized Agusan guerrilla fighter units against the Japanese forces beginning the liberation in Northern Agusan during World War II. During the war, a unit of the joint Philippine-American defense force were located at Manot, Talacogon, in the interior of the Agusan Valley.
In 1967, Republic Act 4979 divided Agusan into two independent provinces: Agusan del Norte and Agusan del Sur. On August 16, 2000, the seat of provincial government was transferred from Butuan City to Cabadbaran through Republic Act 8811, although the province is yet to complete the transfer of provincial services and functions to the new capital. Agusan del Norte is situated in Mindanao's western section of Caraga, it is bordered on the northwest by the Butuan Bay. Agusan del Norte has a total land area of 1,054.15 square miles. When Butuan City is included for geographical purposes, the province's land area is 3,546.86 square kilometres. The central portion of the province forms the lower basin of the third longest river in the country, the Agusan, its mouth located at the Butuan Bay; the terrain surrounding the river features flat to rolling lands. Mountainous terrain dominate the western areas; the country's fourth largest lake, Lake Mainit is situated at the northern border between the province of Surigao del Norte.
Agusan del Norte comprises 1 component city. The city of Cabadbaran is the designated capital of the province per Republic Act 8811; the urbanized city of Butuan is geographically within but administratively independent from the province. The population of Agusan del Norte in the 2015 census was 354,503 people, making it the country's 64th most populous province, it had a density of 340 inhabitants per square mile. When the urbanized city of Butuan is included for geographical purposes, the province's population is 691,566 people, with a density of 195 inhabitants per square kilometre. In 2013, the Diocese of Butuan reported that Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion of the province comprising 71% of the population and significant minority belongs to Iglesia Filipina Independiente with 10%; the remaining beliefs belong to other Christian denominations as well as Islam. The economy of the province is dominantly agricultural, major crops of which include rice, coconut, abaca and mango. Agusan del Norte has two congressional districts encompassing its 10 municipalities and 1 component city, as well as the urbanized city of Butuan.
The province has many beaches in Cabadbaran and the municipalities of Carmen and Nasipit. Mount Hilong-Hilong, one of the tallest in the province, is located in Cabadbaran. From the top of Prayer Mountain, visitors can have a panoramic view of Cabadbaran which includes buildings, churches and the sea; the Agusan River, the longest in Mindanao and the third longest in the Philippines is in Butuan City. Looming southwest of the Agusan Valley is Mount Mayapay, a mountain plateau; the ancient Balangay boats were found in Butuan, excavated in the Balangay Shrine across the Masao River from Bood Promontory. They played a major role because of Butuan being a port city. Since its discovery, the Balangays have become an icon of Butuan; the Kaya ng Pinoy, Inc. recreated the Balangay boats and have sailed it as part of their project, the Balangay Voyage. Media related to Agusan del Norte at Wikimedia Commons Geographic data related to Agusan del Norte at OpenStreetMap Official website of the Provincial Government of Agusan del Norte
The Tagalog people are a major ethnolingustic group in the Philippines. They have a well developed society due to their cultural heartland, being the capital city of the Philippines. Most of them inhabit and form a majority in the Metro Manila and Calabarzon regions of southern Luzon, as well as a plurality in the provinces of Bulacan, Zambales, Nueva Ecija and Aurora in Central Luzon and in the islands of Marinduque and Mindoro in MIMAROPA; the accepted origin for the endonym "Tagalog" is the term tagá-ilog, which means "people from the river". An alternative theory states that the name is derived from tagá-alog, which means "people from the ford". In 1821, American diplomat Edmund Roberts called the Tagalog "Tagalor" in his memoirs about his trips to the Philippines; the Angono Petroglyphs in Rizal was most been made by Austronesian peoples, of which the most are the ancestors of the Tagalog people. There are 127 human and animal figures engraved on the rock wall, that were carved during the late Neolithic, or before 2000 BC.
According to archaeologists, the human figures on the wall were infants, that the ancient Tagalogs most believed that drawing the figures of their sick children on the'sacred wall' would clear their children from diseases. The earliest written record of Tagalog is a late 9th-century document known as the Laguna Copperplate Inscription, about a remission of debt on behalf of the ruler of Tondo. Inscribed on it is year 822 of the Saka Era, the month of Waisaka, the fourth day of the waning moon, which corresponds to Monday, April 21, 900 CE in the Proleptic Gregorian calendar; the writing system used is the Kawi script, while the language is a variety of Old Malay, contains numerous loanwords from Sanskrit and a few non-Malay vocabulary elements whose origin may be Old Javanese. Some contend it is between Old Javanese; the document states that it releases its bearers, the children of Namwaran, from a debt in gold amounting to 1 kati and 8 suwarnas. Around the creation of the copperplate, a complex society with sarcophagi burial practices developed in the Bondok peninsula in Quezon province.
The polities in Namayan and Tondo, all in the Pasig river tributary, were established. Various Tagalog societies were established in Calatagan, shores of Lake Laguna and Malolos; the enhancements of these Tagalog societies until the middle of the 16th century made it possible for other Tagalog societies to spread and develop various cultural practices such as those concerning the dambana. During the reign of Sultan Bolkiah in 1485 to 1521, the Sultanate of Brunei decided to break Tondo's monopoly in the China trade by attacking Tondo and establishing Selurung as a Bruneian satellite-state. Tomé Pires noted that the Luções or people from Luzon were "mostly heathen" and were not much esteemed in Malacca at the time he was there, although he noted that they were strong, given to useful pursuits. Pires' exploration led him to discover that in their own country, the Luções had foodstuffs, honey, inferior grade gold, had no king, were governed instead by a group of elders, they traded with tribes from Borneo and Indonesia and Filipino historians note that the language of the Luções was one of the 80 different languages spoken in Malacca.
When Magellan's ship arrived in the Philippines, Pigafetta noted that there were Luções there collecting sandalwood. Contact with the rest of Southeast Asia led to the creation of Baybayin script, used in the book Doctrina Cristiana, written by the 16th century Spanish colonizers. On May 19, 1571, Miguel López de Legazpi gave the title "city" to the colony of Manila; the title was certified on June 19, 1572. Under Spain, Manila became the colonial entrepot in the Far East; the Philippines was a Spanish colony administered under the Viceroyalty of New Spain and the Governor-General of the Philippines who ruled from Manila was sub-ordinate to the Viceroy in Mexico City. Throughout the 333 years of Spanish rule, various grammars and dictionaries were written by Spanish clergymen, including Vocabulario de la Lengua Tagala by Pedro de San Buenaventura, Pablo Clain's Vocabulario de la lengua tagala, Vocabulario de la lengua tagala, Arte de la lengua tagala y manual tagalog para la administración de los Santos Sacramentos in addition to early studies of the language.
The first substantial dictionary of Tagalog language was written by the Czech Jesuit missionary Pablo Clain in the beginning of the 18th century. Further compilation of his substantial work was prepared by P. Juan de Noceda and P. Pedro de Sanlucar and published as Vocabulario de la Lengua Tagala in Manila in 1754 and repeatedly re-edited, with the last edition being in 2013 in Manila; the indigenous poet Francisco Baltazar is regarded as the foremost Tagalog writer, his most notable work being the early 19th-century epic Florante at Laura. The first Asian-origin people known to arrive in North America after the beginning of European colonization were a group of Filipinos known as "Luzonians" or Luzon Indians who were part of the crew and landing party of the Spanish galleon Nuestra Señora de la Buena Esperanza; the ship set sail from Macau and landed in Morro Bay in what is now the California coast on October 17 of 1587, as part of the Galleon Trade between the Spanish East Indies and New Spain.
More Filipino sailors arrived along the California coast when both places were part of the Spanish Empire. By 1763, "Manila men" or "Tagalas" had esta
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west and the Americas in the east. At 165,250,000 square kilometers in area, this largest division of the World Ocean—and, in turn, the hydrosphere—covers about 46% of Earth's water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of Earth's land area combined; the centers of both the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean. The equator subdivides it into the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean, with two exceptions: the Galápagos and Gilbert Islands, while straddling the equator, are deemed wholly within the South Pacific, its mean depth is 4,000 meters. The Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 meters; the western Pacific has many peripheral seas. Though the peoples of Asia and Oceania have traveled the Pacific Ocean since prehistoric times, the eastern Pacific was first sighted by Europeans in the early 16th century when Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama in 1513 and discovered the great "southern sea" which he named Mar del Sur.
The ocean's current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish circumnavigation of the world in 1521, as he encountered favorable winds on reaching the ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means "peaceful sea". Important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. About 3000 BC, the Austronesian peoples on the island of Taiwan mastered the art of long-distance canoe travel and spread themselves and their languages south to the Philippines and maritime Southeast Asia. Long-distance trade developed all along the coast from Mozambique to Japan. Trade, therefore knowledge, extended to the Indonesian islands but not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a significant Islamic settlement in Canton much of this trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims. In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality. From 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean; the first contact of European navigators with the western edge of the Pacific Ocean was made by the Portuguese expeditions of António de Abreu and Francisco Serrão, via the Lesser Sunda Islands, to the Maluku Islands, in 1512, with Jorge Álvares's expedition to southern China in 1513, both ordered by Afonso de Albuquerque from Malacca.
The east side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 after his expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama and reached a new ocean. He named it Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. In 1519, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific East to West on a Spanish expedition to the Spice Islands that would result in the first world circumnavigation. Magellan called the ocean Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters; the ocean was called the Sea of Magellan in his honor until the eighteenth century. Although Magellan himself died in the Philippines in 1521, Spanish Basque navigator Juan Sebastián Elcano led the remains of the expedition back to Spain across the Indian Ocean and round the Cape of Good Hope, completing the first world circumnavigation in a single expedition in 1522. Sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands, the Aru Islands, Papua New Guinea.
In 1542–43 the Portuguese reached Japan. In 1564, five Spanish ships carrying 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi, sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands. For the remainder of the 16th century, Spanish influence was paramount, with ships sailing from Mexico and Peru across the Pacific Ocean to the Philippines via Guam, establishing the Spanish East Indies; the Manila galleons operated for two and a half centuries, linking Manila and Acapulco, in one of the longest trade routes in history. Spanish expeditions discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific. In the quest for Terra Australis, Spanish explorations in the 17th century, such as the expedition led by the Portuguese navigator Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, discovered the Pitcairn and Vanuatu archipelagos, sailed the Torres Strait between Australia and New Guinea, named after navigator Luís Vaz de Torres. Dutch explorers, sailing around southern Africa engaged in discovery and trade.
In the 16th and 17th centuries Spain considered the Pacific Ocean a mare clausum—a sea closed to other naval powers. As the only known entrance from the Atlantic, the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. On the western side of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines; the 18th cen
A treenail trenail, trennel, or trunnel, is a wooden peg, pin, or dowel used to fasten pieces of wood together in timber frames, covered bridges, wooden shipbuilding and boat building. It is driven into a hole bored through two pieces of structural wood; the use of wood as a tenon can be traced back over 7,000 years, as archaeologist have found traces of wood nails in the excavation of early Germanic sites. Trenails are notoriously economical and available, making them a common early building material. Honey Locust is a favorite wood when making trunnels in shipbuilding due to its strength and rot resistance, while red oak is typical in buildings. Traditionally treenails and pegs were made by splitting bolts of wood with a froe and shaping them with a drawknife on a shaving horse. Treenails perform well because of the natural grain; the grain of the treenail runs perpendicular to the grain of the receiving mortises which adds structural strength. Treenails are 1.25"-1.5" in diameter and are hand whittled with rough facets.
The mortise is drilled 1/16" smaller than the treenail to create a tight fit and take advantage of friction in the mortise. In cases where the treenail is 24 inches or longer, the treenail should be shaped 1/8 inch smaller than the other half. In the same case the mortise is drilled in two parts, with a smaller auger for the smaller part of the treenail and a typical auger for the standard part. Other trenails are tapered with the large end being 1/8" longer than the mortise. After treenails are hammered into the mortise, they can be trimmed and wedged with a small piece of oak that increases friction force; as an alternative to the wedge, the treenail can receive a plug or a punch to the center that expands the entire circumference. While this method prevents leaks by reducing gaps and punches are more to fall out in cold temperatures. Ideally, the nose of the treenail is driven 4–5 cm clear of the timber before being trimmed. Unlike metal nails, trenails can not be reused; as the wood shrinks or expand the fibers create a friction that interlocks it into the mortise snugly.
If a treenail breaks or fails but the wood it is fastening remains intact the remaining trenail can be cut out and replaced with a larger treenail that fits snugly. In addition, treenails have the ability to retain structural integrity; because both the mortise and the tenon are wood, the trenail does not stress the mortise to the point of failure during movement including seismic forces and grade settlement. Early mortise and tenon trusses with spans of less than 30 feet used treenail fasteners; when used in a truss, the connecting mortises are drilled off center such that when the treenail is inserted it creates a tighter joint. Because of the large number of trenails required in a truss, the treenails can be turned on a lathe with a head and a tapered end kept extra-long for the tightest fit; the bottom chord requires 2-3 pegs and is the weakest part of the truss. Hence the treenail can not prevent failure in spans of over 30 feet. In cases where significant shrinkage may occur, it may be necessary to use iron U-straps or reinforcements.
Ancient shipbuilding used treenails to bind the boat together. They had the advantage of not giving rise to "nail-sickness", a term for decay accelerated and concentrated around metal fasteners. Increased water content causes wood to expand, so that treenails gripped the planks tighter as they absorbed water. However, when the treenail was a different wood species than the planking it caused rot. Treenails and iron nails were most common until the 1780s when copper nails over copper sheathing became more popular; as late as the 1870s, the merchant navy ships used treenails and iron bolts, while the higher class ships used the copper and yellow metal bolts and dumps. In the 1870s tradition, treenails were used in a ratio of four treenails to one bolt with the exception that sometimes the number of bolts was increased. In corvettes the ratio was changed to two treenails to one bolt. Similar wooden trenail fastenings were used as alternatives to metal spikes to secure railroad rail-support "chairs" to wooden sleepers in early Victorian times.
Treenails were extensively used constructing railroads in North England