Balboa Park (San Diego)

Balboa Park is a 1,200-acre urban cultural park in San Diego, United States. In addition to open space areas, natural vegetation zones, green belts and walking paths, it contains museums, several theaters, the world-famous San Diego Zoo. There are many recreational facilities and several gift shops and restaurants within the boundaries of the park. Placed in reserve in 1835, the park's site is one of the oldest in the United States dedicated to public recreational use. Balboa Park is managed and maintained by the Parks and Recreation Department of the City of San Diego. Balboa Park hosted the 1915–16 Panama–California Exposition and 1935–36 California Pacific International Exposition, both of which left architectural landmarks; the park and its historic Exposition buildings were declared a National Historic Landmark and National Historic Landmark District in 1977, placed on the National Register of Historic Places. Balboa Park contains museums, gardens and venues; the park is rectangular, bounded by Sixth Avenue to the west, Upas Street to the north, 28th Street to the east, Russ Boulevard to the south.

The rectangle has been modified by the addition of the Marston Hills natural area in the northwest corner of the park, while the southwest corner of the rectangle is occupied by a portion of the Cortez Hill neighborhood of Downtown San Diego and San Diego High School, both of which are separated from the park by Interstate 5. Encroaching on the northern perimeter of the park is Roosevelt Middle School. Two north-south canyons—Cabrillo Canyon and Florida Canyon—traverse the park and separate it into three mesas; the Sixth Avenue Mesa is a narrow strip bordering Sixth Avenue on the western edge of the park, which provides areas of passive recreation, grassy spaces, tree groves, a camp for Camp Fire. The Central Mesa is home to much of the park's cultural facilities, includes scout camps, the San Diego Zoo, the Prado, Inspiration Point. East Mesa is home to many of the active recreation facilities in the park; the park is crossed by several freeways, which take up a total of 111 acres once designated for parkland.

In 1948, California State Route 163 was built under the Cabrillo Bridge. This stretch of road named the Cabrillo Freeway, has been called one of America's most beautiful parkways. A portion of Interstate 5 was built in the park in the 1950s. Surrounding the park are many of San Diego's older neighborhoods, including Downtown, Bankers Hill, North Park, Golden Hill. Balboa Park is a primary attraction in the region, its many mature, sometimes rare and groves comprise an urban forest. Many of the original trees were planted by the renowned American landscape architect, botanist and gardener Kate Sessions. An early proponent of drought tolerant and California native plants in garden design, Sessions established a nursery to propagate and grow for the park and the public; the park's gardens include Alcazar Garden, Botanical Building, Desert Cactus Garden, Casa del Rey Moro Garden, Inez Grant Parker Memorial Rose Garden, Japanese Friendship Garden, Bird Park, George W. Marston House and Gardens, Palm Canyon, Zoro Garden.

The main entrance to the park is through the California Quadrangle. That entry is a two-lane road providing vehicle access to the park. A plan to divert vehicle traffic around to the south of the California Quadrangle, so as to restore it as a pedestrian-only promenade, was dropped after legal challenges, but was reapproved after the legal challenges failed and is scheduled for completion in 2019. El Prado, a long, wide promenade and boulevard, runs through the park's center. Most of the buildings lining this street are in the Spanish Colonial Revival architecture style, a richly ornamented mixture of European Spanish architecture and the Spanish Colonial architecture of New Spain-Mexico. Along this boulevard are many of the park's museums and cultural attractions, including the San Diego Museum of Man, the San Diego Museum of Art, the Museum of Photographic Arts, the San Diego Art Institute, the San Diego Model Railroad Museum, the San Diego Natural History Museum, the San Diego History Center, the Reuben H.

Fleet Science Center, the Timken Museum of Art. Other features along El Prado include the Reflection Pond, the latticed Botanical Building, the Bea Evenson Fountain. Next to the promenade are the San Diego Automotive Museum. Theatrical and musical venues include the Spreckels Organ Pavilion, featuring one of the world's largest outdoor pipe organs; the Casa Del Prado Theater is the home of San Diego Junior Theatre, the country's oldest children's theatre program. The House of Pacific Relations International Cottages collected on El Prado offer free entertainment shows; the Botanical Building, designed by Carleton Winslow, was the largest wood lath structure in the world when it was built in 1915 for the Panama-California Exposition. It contains large specimen palms and other plants and sits next to a long reflecting pool on the El Prado side. Located in the eastern third of the park is the Morley Field Sports Complex, which includes the Balboa Park Golf Complex, which contains a public 18-hole golf course and 9-hole executive course.

Among the institutions and facilities within the park's b

Leeds City Varieties

The Leeds City Varieties is a Grade II* listed music hall in Leeds, West Yorkshire, England. It was built in 1865 as an adjunct to the White Swan Inn in Swan Street and the original interior is unaltered. Along with Hoxton Hall and Wilton's Music Hall, it is a rare surviving example of the Victorian era music halls of the 1850s/1860s; the interior is a long rectangle, with boxes separated by cast-iron columns along the sides at circle level. The theatre was founded by local pub landlord and benefactor Charles Thornton and was called'Thornton's New Music Hall and Fashionable Lounge'; this followed from a'Singing Room' above the inn. The name subsequently changed to the White Swan Varieties and Stansfield's Varieties before becoming the City Palace of Varieties. Charlie Chaplin, Marie Lloyd and Houdini are among the artists. Between 1953 and 1983, the theatre achieved national fame as the venue for the BBC television programme The Good Old Days, a recreation of old-time music hall featuring Leonard Sachs as the alliterative Chairman and many well-known and less-well-known performers.

The venue still presents live "Good Old Days" music hall events over runs of 3 weekends in the spring and 4 in the autumn, as well as pantomime and a regular programme of stand-up comedy and music concerts. The City Varieties was granted Heritage Lottery funds to help with major refurbishment and restoration; the theatre closed for refurbishment in January 2009, re-opened in September 2011. The theatre now seats 467, the sides of the balcony are closed to the public, now giving space to additional lighting. City Varieties website The Good Old Days at Leeds City Varieties theatre, from


Levonorgestrel is a hormonal medication, used in a number of birth control methods. As an emergency birth control, sold under the brand name Plan B among others, it is useful within 120 hours of unprotected sex; the more time that has passed since sex, the less effective the medication becomes, it does not work after pregnancy has occurred. It decreases the chances of pregnancy by 57 to 93%, it is combined with an estrogen to make combination birth control pills. In an intrauterine device, such as Mirena among others, it is effective for the long-term prevention of pregnancy. An implantable form of levonorgestrel is available in some countries. Common side effects include nausea, breast tenderness and increased, decreased, or irregular menstrual bleeding; when used as an emergency contraceptive, if pregnancy occurs, there is no evidence that its use harms the baby. It is safe to use during breastfeeding. Birth control that contains levonorgestrel will not change the risk of sexually transmitted infections.

It has effects similar to those of the hormone progesterone. It works by preventing ovulation and closing off the cervix to prevent the passage of sperm. Levonorgestrel was patented in 1960 and introduced for medical use together with ethinylestradiol in 1970, it is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system. It is available as a generic medication; the wholesale cost in the developing world is between $0.23 and $1.65 US for the dose required for emergency birth control. In the United States it is over the counter for all ages. In 2016 it was the 223rd most prescribed medication in the United States with more than 2 million prescriptions. At low doses, levonorgestrel is used in monophasic and triphasic formulations of combined oral contraceptive pills, with available monophasic doses ranging from 100–250 µg, triphasic doses of 50 µg/75 µg/125 µg, it is combined with the estrogen ethinylestradiol in these formulations.

At low daily dose of 30 µg, levonorgestrel is used in some progestogen-only pill formulations. Levonorgestrel is the active ingredient in a number of intrauterine devices including Mirena and Skyla, it is the active ingredient in the birth control implants Norplant and Jadelle. One of the more common forms of contraception that contains only levonorgestral is an IUD. One IUD, the Mirena is a small hollow cylinder containing levonorgestral and polydimethylsiloxane and covered with a release rate controlling membrane. Levonorgestrel is used in emergency contraceptive pills, both in a combined Yuzpe regimen which includes estrogen, as a levonorgestrel-only method; the levonorgestrel-only method uses levonorgestrel 1.5 mg taken within 3 days of unprotected sex, with one study indicating that beginning as late as 120 hours after intercourse could be effective. The primary mechanism of action of levonorgestrel as a progestogen-only emergency contraceptive pill is, according to International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics, to prevent fertilization by inhibition of ovulation and thickening of cervical mucus.

FIGO has stated that: "review of the evidence suggests that LNG ECPs cannot prevent implantation of a fertilized egg. Language on implantation should not be included in LNG ECP product labeling." In November 2013, the European Medicines Agency approved a change to the label saying it cannot prevent implantation of a fertilized egg. Other studies still find the evidence to be unclear. While it is unlikely that emergency contraception affects implantation it is impossible to exclude the possibility of post-fertilization effect. In November 2013, the EMA approved a change to the label for HRA Pharma's NorLevo saying: "In clinical trials, contraceptive efficacy was reduced in women weighing 75 kg or more, levonorgestrel was not effective in women who weighed more than 80 kg." In November 2013 and January 2014, the FDA and the EMA said they were reviewing whether increased weight and body mass index reduce the efficacy of emergency contraceptives. Levonorgestrel is used in combination with an estrogen in menopausal hormone therapy.

It is used under the brand name Klimonorm as a combined oral tablet with estradiol valerate and under the brand name Climara Pro as a combined transdermal patch with estradiol. As a type of emergency contraception, levonorgestrel is used after unprotected intercourse to reduce the risk of pregnancy. However, it can serve different hormonal purposes in its different methods of delivery, it is available for use in a variety of forms: Levonorgestrel can be taken by mouth as a form of emergency birth control. The typical dosage is either 0.75 mg taken 12 -- 24 hours apart. The effectiveness in both methods is similar; the most used form of oral emergency contraception is the progestin-only pill, which contains a 1.5 mg dosage of levonorgestrel. Levonorgestrel-only emergency contraceptive pills are reported to have an 89% effectiveness rate if taken within the recommended 72 hours after sex; the efficacy of the drug decreases by 50% for each 12 hour delay in taking the dose after the emergency contraceptive regimen has been started.

Estradiol with levonorgestrel in the form of a skin patch is used under the brand name Climara Pro for hormone replacement therapy in postmenstrual women, treating symptoms such as hot flashes or osteoporosis. The simultaneous delivery of a progestogen such as levonorgestrel is necessary for the protection of the endometrium; the levonorgestrel intrauterine system is a type of long-term birth control that releases the progestin into the uterine cavity. L