Paul Grant (rugby union)
Paul Grant is a New Zealand rugby union player. He played in the number 8 position for the provincial based ITM Cup side Otago, was the captain for the side during 2012 and 2013, he was captain. He has represented New Zealand in sevens rugby since 2008. In October 2013, it was announced Paul Grant would leave Otago in November 2013 to join French club Montpellier. In April 2014, it was announced. Otago Rugby profile
Invercargill is the southernmost and westernmost city in New Zealand, one of the southernmost cities in the world. It is the commercial centre of the Southland region; the city lies in the heart of the wide expanse of the Southland Plains on the Oreti or New River some 18 km north of Bluff, the southernmost town in the South Island. It sits amid rich farmland, bordered by large areas of conservation land and marine reserves, including Fiordland National Park covering the south-west corner of the South Island and the Catlins coastal region. Many streets in the city in the centre and main shopping district, are named after rivers in Great Britain Scotland; these include the main streets Dee and Tay, as well as those named after the Tweed, Tyne, Don, Yarrow and Eye rivers. The 2013 census showed. Southland was a scene of early extended contact between Europeans and Māori, notably whalers and missionaries – Wohlers at Ruapuke. In 1853, Walter Mantell purchased Murihiku from local Māori iwi, claiming the land for European settlement.
Otago, of which Southland was itself part, was the subject of planned settlement by the Free Church, an offshoot of the Presbyterian Church of Scotland. Settlement broadened with the discovery of gold in Central Otago in the 1860s. Today, traces of Scottish speech persist in Southland voices, with R pronounced with a rolling burr; this is more noticeable among country people. In 1856, a petition was put forward to Thomas Gore Browne, the Governor of New Zealand, for a port at Bluff. Due to the Otago gold rush, the region's population grew during the 1860s with the settlement of Bluff. Browne gave the name Invercargill to the settlement north of the port. Inver comes from the Scottish Gaelic word inbhir meaning a river's mouth and Cargill is in honour of Captain William Cargill, at the time the Superintendent of Otago, of which Southland was a part; the settlement's chief surveyor was a British civil engineer. Under the influence of James Menzies, Southland Province seceded from Otago in 1861 following the escalation of political tensions.
However, rising debt forced Southland to rejoin Otago in 1870 and the provincial system, with it the province of Otago, was abolished in 1876. This debt was caused by a population decline stemming from poor returns from pastoral farming. In 1874, Invercargill's population was less than 2,500 which reflected the drift north to large centres. In the 1880s, the development of an export industry based on butter and cheese encouraged the growth of dairy farming in Southland. In December 1905, Invercargill voted in local prohibition of alcohol sales; this lasted for 40 years. Drinking continued meanwhile, thanks to hotels and liquor merchants in outlying districts, huge volumes of beer in kegs, brought to private homes, or sold by the glass by keggers at hiding spots round the City; when prohibition ended, a committee of citizens persuaded the Government to give the monopoly on liquor sales in Invercargill to the specially formed Invercargill Licensing Trust. Based on a scheme in Carlisle, England, it returns profits to city amenities.
Today, alcohol is not sold in supermarkets. In recent years, publicity has been brought to the southern city by the election of Tim Shadbolt, a colourful and outspoken former student activist and former mayor of Waitemata City, as mayor, he once appeared on a cheese advertisement stating "I don't mind where, as long as I'm Mayor". His supporters like the colour, his opponents refer to his controversial mayoral career in the Auckland suburbs and to his attitude to veterans during his opposition to the Vietnam War. Publicity and students have come to the city by the Southern Institute of Technology's "Zero Fees" scheme, which allows New Zealand citizens and permanent residents to study while only paying for material costs of their study, not tuition fees. Invercargill is the southernmost city in the Commonwealth of Nations. Invercargill is situated on the fertile and alluvial Southland Plains, amongst some of New Zealand's most fertile farmland. Southern Invercargill lies on the shore of the New River Estuary, while the northern parts lie on the banks of the Waihopai River.
10 kilometres west of the city centre lies Oreti Beach, a long expanse of sand stretching from the Sandy Point area to nearby Riverton. Invercargill has a temperate oceanic climate; the mean daily temperature ranges from 5.2 °C in July to 14 °C in January. The yearly mean temperature is 9.8 °C. Rainfall averages 1,112 millimetres annually, measurable snowfall is seen during the winter months of June to September, it is the cloudiest city in New Zealand with only 1,680 hours of sunshine per annum. Despite its cloudiness, a high frequency of rainy days, Invercargill receives less rain than either Auckland or Wellington. Invercargill is New Zealand's second windiest city, after Wellington; the average temperature high ranges from 18.7 °C in January to 9.5 °C in July, but temperatures do exceed 25 °C in summer. Invercargill's hottest temperature on record was 33.8 °C, recorded on 2 January 1948. Extended periods of heat are rare, however January 2018 was notable for the city recording three consecutive days above 30 for the first time in its recorded history, peaking with the city's second highest temperature on record of 32.3 °C on 14 January 2018.
Owing to its high latitude, the city enjo
Ngāi Tahu, or Kāi Tahu, is the principal Māori iwi of the southern region of New Zealand. Its takiwā is the largest in New Zealand, extends from Blenheim, Mount Mahanga and Kahurangi Point in the north to Stewart Island in the south; the takiwā comprises 18 rūnanga corresponding to traditional settlements. The five primary hapū of the three tribes are Kāti Kurī, Ngāti Irakehu, Kāti Huirapa, Ngāi Tūāhuriri and Ngāi Te Ruakihikihi; some definitions of Ngāi Tahu include the Waitaha and Kāti Māmoe tribes who lived in the South Island prior to the arrival of Kāi Tāhu. Ngāi Tahu trace their traditional descent from Tahupōtiki, the younger brother of Porou Ariki, founding ancestor of Ngāti Porou, a tribe of the East Coast of the North Island, they originated on the east coast of the North Island, from where they migrated south to present-day Wellington. Late in the 17th century they began migrating to the northern part of the South Island. There they and Kāti Māmoe fought Ngāi Rangitāne in the Wairau Valley.
Kāti Māmoe ceded the east coast regions north of the Clarence River to Ngāi Tahu. Ngāi Tahu continued conquering Kaikoura. By the 1690s Ngāi Tahu had settled including Banks Peninsula. From there they spread further south and into the West Coast. In 1827–1828 Ngāti Toa under the leadership of Te Rauparaha attacked Ngāi Tahu at Kaikoura. Ngāti Toa visited Kaiapoi, ostensibly to trade; when Ngāti Toa attacked their hosts, the well-prepared Ngāi Tahu killed all the leading Ngāti Toa chiefs except Te Rauparaha. Te Rauparaha returned to his Kapiti Island stronghold. In November 1830 Te Rauparaha persuaded Captain John Stewart of the brig Elizabeth to carry him and his warriors in secret to Akaroa, where by subterfuge they captured the leading Ngāi Tahu chief, Te Maiharanui, his wife and daughter. After destroying Te Maiharanui's village they embarked for Kapiti with their captives. Te Maiharunui threw her overboard to save her from slavery. Ngāti Toa killed the remaining captives. John Stewart, though arrested and sent to trial in Sydney as an accomplice to murder escaped conviction.
In the summer of 1831–1832 Te Rauparaha attacked the Kaiapoi pā. After a three-month siege, a fire in the pā allowed Ngāti Toa to overcome it. Ngāti Toa attacked Ngāi Tahu on Banks Peninsula and took the pā at Onawe. In 1832–33 Ngāi Tahu retaliated under the leadership of Tuhawaiki, Taiaroa and Haereroa, attacking Ngāti Toa at Lake Grassmere. Ngāi Tahu prevailed, killed many Ngāti Toa, although Te Rauparaha again escaped. Fighting continued with Ngāi Tahu maintaining the upper hand. Ngāti Toa never again made a major incursion into Ngāi Tahu territory. By 1839 Ngāi Tahu and Ngāti Toa established peace and Te Rauparaha released the Ngāi Tahu captives he held. Formal marriages between the leading families in the two tribes sealed the peace; the New Zealand Parliament passed the Ngai Tahu Claims Settlement Act in 1998 to record an apology from the Crown and to settle claims made under the 1840 Treaty of Waitangi. One of the Act's provisions covered the use of dual names for geographical locations in the Ngāi Tahu tribal area.
The recognised tribal authority, Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu, is based in Christchurch and in Invercargill. In the nineteenth century many Ngāi Tahu in the southern reaches of Te Wai Pounamu, spoke a distinct dialect of the Māori language, sometimes referred to as Southern Māori, so different from the northern version of the language that missionary Rev. James Watkin, based at Karitane found materials prepared by North Island missions couldn't be used in Otago. However, from the 20th century until the early 21st century the dialect came close to extinction and was discouraged. Southern Māori contains all the same phonemes as other Māori dialects, along with the same diphthongs, but it lacks /ŋ/ — this sound merged with /k/ in prehistoric times: for example: Ngāi Tahu as opposed to Kāi Tahu). This change did not occur in the northern part of the Ngāi Tahu area, the possible presence of additional phonemes has been debated. Non-standard consonants are sometimes identified in the spellings of South Island place names, such as g, v, l instead of r, w or u instead of wh as reflecting dialect difference, but similar spellings and pronunciations occur in the North Island.
The apocope resulting from pronunciations like'Wacky-white' for "Waikouaiti" have been identified with Southern Māori. However, the devoicing of final vowels occurs in the speech of native speakers of the Māori language throughout New Zealand, the pronunciation of the names of North Island towns by locals omits final vowels as well, like in the pronunciation of "Paraparam" or "Waiuk". Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu is the governance entity of Ngāi Tahu, following the Treaty of Waitangi settlement between the iwi and the New Zealand Government under Ngāi Tahu Claims Settlement Act 1998, it is a mandated iwi organisation under the Māori Fisheries Act 2004, an iwi aquaculture organisation under the Māori Commercial Aquaculture Claims Settlement Act 2004, an iwi authority under the Resource Management Act 1991 and a Tūhono organisation. It represents Ngāi Tahu Whanui, the collective of hapū including Waitaha, Ngāti Māmoe, Ngāi Tahu, including, Ngāti Kuri, Ngāti Irakehu, Ngāti Huirapa, Ngāi Tuahuriri, Ngāi Te Ruahikihiki, under Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu Act 1
Lake Tuakitoto is a small lake in South Otago, in the South Island of New Zealand. It is located to the northeast of Balclutha, close to the small town of Kaitangata; the smallest of South Otago's three main lakes, it is, like the others shallow. The lake drains into the lower reaches of the Clutha River