King of the Romans
King of the Romans was a title used by Syagrius by the German king following his election by the princes from the time of Emperor Henry II onward. The title was predominantly a claim to become Holy Roman Emperor and was dependent upon coronation by the Pope; the title referred to any elected king who had not yet been granted the Imperial Regalia and title of "Emperor" at the hands of the Pope. It came to be used for the heir apparent to the Imperial throne between his election and his succession upon the death of the Emperor, their actual title varied over time. During the Ottonian period it was King of the Franks, from the late Salian period it was Roman King or King of the Romans. In the Modern Period, the title King in Germania came into use. Modern German historiography established the term Roman-German King to differentiate it from the ancient Roman Emperor as well as from the modern German Emperor; the territory of East Francia was not referred to as the Kingdom of Germany or Regnum Teutonicum by contemporary sources until the 11th century.
During this time, the king's claim to coronation was contested by the papacy culminating in the fierce Investiture Controversy. After the Salian heir apparent Henry IV, a six-year-old minor, had been elected to rule the Empire in 1056 he adopted Romanorum Rex as a title to emphasize his sacred entitlement to be crowned Emperor by the Pope. Pope Gregory VII insisted on using the derogatory term Teutonicorum Rex in order to imply that Henry's authority was local and did not extend over the whole Empire. Henry continued to use the title Romanorum Rex until he was crowned Emperor by Antipope Clement III in 1084. Henry's successors imitated this practice, were called Romanorum Rex before and Romanorum Imperator after their Roman coronations. Candidates for the kingship were at first the heads of the Germanic stem duchies; as these units broke up, rulers of smaller principalities and non-Germanic rulers were considered for the position. The only requirements observed were that the candidate be an adult male, a Catholic Christian, not in holy orders.
The kings were elected by several Imperial Estates in the imperial city of Frankfurt after 1147, a custom recorded in the Schwabenspiegel code in about 1275. All noblemen present could vote by unanimous acclamation, but a franchise was granted to only the most eminent bishops and noblemen, according to the Golden Bull of 1356 issued by Emperor Charles IV only the seven Prince-electors had the right to participate in a majority voting as determined by the 1338 Declaration of Rhense, they were the Prince-Archbishops of Mainz and Cologne as well as the King of Bohemia, the Count Palatine of the Rhine, the Saxon duke, the Margrave of Brandenburg. After the Investiture Controversy, Charles intended to strengthen the legal status of the Rex Romanorum beyond Papal approbation. Among his successors only Sigismund and Frederick III were still crowned Emperors in Rome and in 1530 Charles V was the last king to receive the Imperial Crown at the hands of the Pope; the Golden Bull remained effective as constitutional law until the Empire's dissolution in 1806.
After his election, the new king would be crowned as King of the Romans at Charlemagne's throne in Aachen Cathedral by the Archbishop of Cologne. Though the ceremony was no more than a symbolic validation of the election result, it was solemnly celebrated; the details of Otto's coronation in 936 are described by the medieval chronicler Widukind of Corvey in his Res gestae saxonicae. The kings received the Imperial Crown from at least 1024, at the coronation of Conrad II. In 1198 the Hohenstaufen candidate Philip of Swabia was crowned Rex Romanorum at Mainz Cathedral, but he had another coronation in Aachen after he had prevailed against his Welf rival Otto IV. At some time after the ceremony, the king would, if possible, cross the Alps, to receive coronation in Pavia or Milan with the Iron Crown of Lombardy as King of Italy, he would travel to Rome and be crowned Emperor by the Pope. Because it was possible for the elected King to proceed to Rome for his crowning, several years might elapse between election and coronation, some Kings never completed the journey to Rome at all.
As a suitable title for the King between his election and his coronation as Emperor, Romanorum Rex would stress the plenitude of his authority over the Empire and his warrant to be future Emperor without infringing upon the Papal privilege. Not all Kings of the Romans made this step, sometimes because of hostile relations with the Pope, or because either the pressure of business at home or warfare in Germany or Italy made it impossible for the King to make the journey. In such cases, the king might retain the title "King of the Romans" for his entire reign; the title Romanorum Rex became functionally obsolete after 1508, when the Pope permitted King Maximilian I to use the title of Electus Romanorum Imperator after he failed in a good-faith attempt to journey to Rome. At this time Maximilian took the new title "King of the Germans" or "King in Germany", but the latter was never used as a primary title; the rulers of the Empire thereafter ca
Cathedral of Trier
The High Cathedral of Saint Peter in Trier, or Cathedral of Trier, is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Trier, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It is the oldest church in Germany and the largest religious structure in Trier, notable for its long life span and grand design; the central part of the nave was built of Roman brick in the early fourth century, resulting in a cathedral, added onto in different eras. The imposing Romanesque westwork, with four towers and an additional apse, has been copied repeatedly; the Trier Cathedral Treasury contains an important collection of Christian art. In 1986 the church was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, as part of the Roman Monuments, Cathedral of St. Peter and Church of Our Lady in Trier. According to certain sources, the cathedral was commissioned by Emperor Constantine the Great and built on top of a palace of Saint Helen, his mother. Following the conversion of Constantine to Christianity, bishop Maximin is said to have coordinated the construction of a cathedral, which at the time was the grandest ensemble of ecclesiastical structures in the West outside Rome.
On a groundplan four times the size of the present cathedral no less than four basilicas, a baptistery and outbuildings were constructed. Archaeological research confirms that the current cathedral, as well as the adjacent cloisters and Church of Our Lady, is raised upon the foundations of ancient Roman buildings of Augusta Treverorum; the four piers of the crossing of the present church, as well as parts of the brick outer walls are remnants from this period. The fourth-century church was rebuilt, it was destroyed again by the Vikings in 882. Under Archbishop Egbert rebuilding started; the famous west façade dates from this period, although the apse was not finished until 1196. Throughout the centuries the church continued to be rebuilt and embellished, according to the fashion of the period with Gothic vaults, Renaissance sculptures and Baroque chapels, but the overall style of the building remains Romanesque with a Roman core. Large sections of Roman brickwork are visible on the north façade.
The imposing westwork of Trier Cathedral consist of five symmetrical sections and is typical of Romanesque architecture under the Salian emperors. The westwork was completed by Eberhard, its four towers are less symmetrically placed on both sides of the western apse. It served as an example for many other churches in Rhine-Meuse area; the Latin inscription above the clock on the tallest tower reads "NESCITIS QVA HORA DOMINVS VENIET". The east choir is less prominent, due to its built-in location and the addition of the Chapel of the Holy Tunic in the early 18th century; the interior measures 112.5 by 41 meter. It consists of three Romanesque naves with Gothic vaulting; the original Roman structure is difficult to read on the inside but its basic rectangular form may still be recognized in the three easternmost bays of the nave. The four original columns were changed into cruciform piers. A Baroque chapel for the relic of the Seamless robe of Jesus, recovered from the previous main altar in 1512, was added behind the east choir and is visible through an opening in the wall.
The west choir is decorated in the style of the German Baroque, so are the chapels of Our Lady and the Holy Sacrament, most of the altars in the church. A Romanesque tympanum depicts Christ with the Virgin Saint Peter; the main church organ appears old but dates from 1974. Henry I, archbishop of Trier Udo, archbishop of Trier Baldwin, archbishop of Trier Bohemond II, archbishop of Trier Richard von Greiffenklau zu Vollrads, archbishop-elector of Trier Lothar von Metternich, archbishop-elector of Trier Johann Hugo von Orsbeck, archbishop-elector of Trier Franz Georg von Schönborn, archbishop-elector of Trier The Seamless Robe of Jesus, the robe said to have been worn by Jesus shortly before his crucifixion, is the best-known relic of the cathedral, it is kept in an annex chapel and shown to the public infrequently, most in 2012. The skull of St. Helena, the mother of Emperor Constantine, is displayed in the east crypt of the cathedral, her drinking cup is kept in the cathedral's treasury as well as the so-called Egbert Shrine.
This is a decorated portable altar that contained the sole of a sandal of St. Andrew and other relics. Another reliquary from the same period contains a Holy Nail from the Cross of Jesus. Both objects are considered highlights of Ottonion goldsmithery; the Gothic cloisters were built between 1245 and 1270. They connect the Liebfrauenkirche. In the western section of the cloisters is a chapel where the cathedral's canons were buried. On the outside wall is a bell from 1682. Adjacent to the cloisters are several annex buildings; the so-called "Romanesque Room" was the former cathedral school. The "Gothic Room" was used for distributing bread to the poor. Roman Monuments, Cathedral of St. Peter and Church of Our Lady in Trier UNESCO World Heritage Site Liebfrauenkirche, Trier Official Website History Historic photos Music
Koblenz, spelled Coblenz before 1926, is a German city situated on both banks of the Rhine where it is joined by the Moselle. Koblenz was established as a Roman military post by Drusus around 8 B. C, its name originates in the Latin cōnfluentēs. The actual confluence is today known as the "German Corner", a symbol of German reunification that features an equestrian statue of Emperor William I; the city celebrated its 2000th anniversary in 1992. After Mainz and Ludwigshafen am Rhein, it is the third-largest city in Rhineland-Palatinate, with a population of around 112,000. Koblenz lies in the Rhineland. Around 1000 BC, early fortifications were erected on the Festung Ehrenbreitstein hill on the opposite side of the Moselle. In 55 BC, Roman troops commanded by Julius Caesar reached the Rhine and built a bridge between Koblenz and Andernach. About 9 BC, the "Castellum apud Confluentes", was one of the military posts established by Drusus. Remains of a large bridge built in 49 AD by the Romans are still visible.
The Romans built two castles as protection for the bridge, one in 9 AD and another in the 2nd century, the latter being destroyed by the Franks in 259. North of Koblenz was a temple of Rosmerta, which remained in use up to the 5th century. With the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the city was conquered by the Franks and became a royal seat. After the division of Charlemagne's empire, it was included in the lands of his son Louis the Pious. In 837, it was assigned to Charles the Bald, a few years it was here that Carolingian heirs discussed what was to become the Treaty of Verdun, by which the city became part of Lotharingia under Lothair I. In 860 and 922, Koblenz was the scene of ecclesiastical synods. At the first synod, held in the Liebfrauenkirche, the reconciliation of Louis the German with his half-brother Charles the Bald took place; the city was sacked and destroyed by the Norsemen in 882. In 925, it became part of the eastern German Kingdom the Holy Roman Empire. In 1018, the city was given by the emperor Henry II to the archbishop-elector of Trier after receiving a charter.
It remained in the possession of his successors until the end of the 18th century, having been their main residence since the 17th century. Emperor Conrad II was elected here in 1138. In 1198, the battle between Philip of Swabia and Otto IV took place nearby. In 1216, prince-bishop Theoderich von Wied donated part of the lands of the basilica and the hospital to the Teutonic Knights, which became the Deutsches Eck. In 1249–1254, Koblenz was given new walls by Archbishop Arnold II of Isenburg; the city was a member of the league of the Rhenish cities. The Teutonic Knights founded the Bailiwick of Koblenz in or around 1231. Koblenz attained great prosperity and it continued to advance until the disaster of the Thirty Years' War brought about a rapid decline. After Philip Christopher, elector of Trier, surrendered Ehrenbreitstein to the French, the city received an imperial garrison in 1632. However, this force was soon expelled by the Swedes, who in their turn handed the city over again to the French.
Imperial forces succeeded in retaking it by storm in 1636. In 1688, Koblenz was besieged by the French under Marshal de Boufflers, but they only succeeded in bombing the Old City into ruins, destroying among other buildings the Old Merchants' Hall, restored in its present form in 1725; the city was the residence of the archbishop-electors of Trier from 1690 to 1801. In 1786, the last archbishop-elector of Trier, Clemens Wenceslaus of Saxony assisted the extension and improvement of the city, turning the Ehrenbreitstein into a magnificent baroque palace. After the fall of the Bastille in 1789, the city became, through the invitation of the archbishop-elector's chief minister, Ferdinand Freiherr von Duminique, one of the principal rendezvous points for French émigrés; the archbishop-elector approved of this because he was the uncle of the persecuted king of France, Louis XVI. Among the many royalist French refugees who flooded into the city were Louis XVI's two younger brothers, the Comte de Provence and the Comte d'Artois.
In addition, Louis XVI's cousin, Prince Louis Joseph de Bourbon, prince de Condé, arrived and formed an army of young aristocrats willing to fight the French Revolution and restore the Ancien Régime. The Army of Condé joined with an allied army of Prussian and Austrian soldiers led by Duke Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand of Brunswick in an unsuccessful invasion of France in 1792; this drew down the wrath of the First French Republic on the archbishop-elector. In 1814, it was occupied by the Russians; the Congress of Vienna assigned the city to Prussia, in 1822, it was made the seat of government for the Prussian Rhine Province. After World War I, France occupied the area once again. In defiance of the French, the German populace of the city insisted on using the more German spelling of Koblenz after 1926. During World War II it was the location of the command of German Army Group B and like many other German cities, it was bombed and rebuilt afterwards. Between 1947 and 1950, it served as the seat of government of Rhineland-Palatinate.
The Rhine Gorge was declared a World Heritage Site in 2002, with Koblenz marking the northern end
Prince-Bishopric of Worms
The Bishopric of Worms, or Prince-Bishopric of Worms, was an ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire. Located on both banks of the Rhine around Worms just north of the union of that river with the Neckar, it was surrounded by the Electorate of the Palatinate. Worms had been the seat of a bishop from Roman times. From the High Middle Ages on, the prince-bishops' secular jurisdiction no longer included the city of Worms, an Imperial Free City and which became Protestant during the Reformation; the prince-bishops however retained jurisdiction over the Cathedral of Worms inside the city. In 1795 Worms itself, as well as the entire territory of the prince-bishopric on the left bank of the Rhine, was occupied and annexed by France. In the wake of the territorial reorganizations that came with the German mediatization of 1802-1803, the remaining territory of the bishopric, along with that of nearly all the other ecclesiastical principalities, was secularized. In this case, it was annexed by Hesse-Darmstadt
House of Capet
The House of Capet or the Direct Capetians and called the House of France, or the Capets, ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328. It was the most senior line of the Capetian dynasty – itself a derivative dynasty from the Robertians. Historians in the 19th century came to apply the name "Capetian" to both the ruling house of France and to the wider-spread male-line descendants of Hugh Capet. Contemporaries did not use the name "Capetian"; the Capets were sometimes called "the third race of kings". The name "Capet" derives from the nickname given to Hugh, the first Capetian King, who became known as Hugh Capet; the direct line of the House of Capet came to an end in 1328, when the three sons of Philip IV all failed to produce surviving male heirs to the French throne. With the death of Charles IV, the throne passed to the House of Valois, descended from a younger brother of Philip IV. Royal power would pass to another Capetian branch, the House of Bourbon, descended from the youngest son of Louis IX, to a Bourbon cadet branch, the House of Orléans, always remaining in the hands of agnatic descendants of Hugh Capet.
The first Capetian monarch was Hugh Capet, a Frankish nobleman from the Île-de-France, following the death of Louis V of France – the last Carolingian King – secured the throne of France by election. He proceeded to make it hereditary in his family, by securing the election and coronation of his son, Robert II, as co-King; the throne thus passed securely to Robert on his father's death, who followed the same custom – as did many of his early successors. The Capetian Kings were weak rulers of the Kingdom – they directly ruled only small holdings in the Île-de-France and the Orléanais, all of which were plagued with disorder; the House of Capet was, fortunate enough to have the support of the Church, – with the exception of Philip I, Louis IX and the short-lived John the Posthumous – were able to avoid the problems of underaged kingship. Under Louis VII'the Young', the House of Capet rose in their power in France – Louis married Aliénor, the heiress of the Duchy of Aquitaine, so became Duke – an advantage, eagerly grasped by Louis VI'the Fat', Louis the Young's father, when Aliénor's father had asked of the King in his Will to secure a good marriage for the young Duchess.
However, the marriage – and thus one avenue of Capetian aggrandisement – failed: the couple produced only two daughters, suffered marital discord. Louis VIII – the eldest son and heir of Philip Augustus – married Blanche of Castile, a granddaughter of Aliénor of Aquitaine and Henry II of England. In her name, he claimed the crown of England, invading at the invitation of the English Barons, being acclaimed – though, it would be stressed, not crowned – as King of England. However, the Capetians failed to establish themselves in England – Louis was forced to sign the Treaty of Lambeth, which decreed that he had never been King of England, the Prince reluctantly returned to his wife and father in France. More for his dynasty, he would during his brief reign conquer Poitou, some of the lands of the Pays d'Oc, declared forfeit from their former owners by the Pope as part of the Albigensian Crusade; these lands were added to the French crown. Louis IX – Saint Louis – succeeded Louis VIII as a child.
She had been chosen by her grandmother, Aliénor, to marry the French heir, considered a more suitable a Queen of the Franks than her sister Urraca. Louis, proved a acclaimed King – though he expended much money and effort on the Crusades, only for it to go to waste, as a King of the Franks he was admired for his austerity, bravery and his devotion to France. Dynastically, he established two notable Capetian Houses: the House of Anjou, the House of Bourbon. At the death of Louis IX (who shortl
House of Luxembourg
The House of Luxembourg was a late medieval European royal family, whose members between 1308 and 1437 ruled as King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperors as well as Kings of Bohemia and Hungary. Their rule over the Holy Roman Empire was twice interrupted by the rival House of Wittelsbach; the Luxembourg line was a cadet branch of the ducal House of Limburg–Arlon, when in 1247 Henry, younger son of Duke Waleran III of Limburg inherited the County of Luxembourg upon the death of his mother Countess Ermesinde, a scion of the House of Namur. Her father, Count Henry IV of Luxembourg, was related on his mother's side to the Ardennes-Verdun dynasty, which had ruled the county since the late 10th century. Count Henry V's grandson Henry VII, Count of Luxembourg upon the death of his father Henry VI at the 1288 Battle of Worringen, was elected Rex Romanorum in 1308; the election was necessary after the Habsburg king Albert I of Germany had been murdered, Henry, backed by his brother Archbishop-Elector Baldwin of Trier, prevailed against Charles, Count of Valois.
Henry arranged the marriage of his son John with the Přemyslid heiress Elisabeth of Bohemia in 1310, through whom the House of Luxembourg acquired the Kingdom of Bohemia, enabling that family to compete more for power with the Habsburg and Wittelsbach dynasties. One year after being crowned Holy Roman Emperor at Rome, Henry VII, still on campaign in Italy, died in 1313; the prince-electors, perturbed by the rise of the Luxembourgs, disregarded the claims raised by Henry's heir King John, the rule over the Empire was assumed by the Wittelsbach duke Louis of Bavaria. John instead concentrated on securing his rule in Bohemia and vassalized the Piast dukes of adjacent Silesia from 1327 until 1335, his son Charles IV, in 1346 mounted the Imperial throne. His Golden Bull of 1356 served as a constitution of the Empire for centuries. Charles not only acquired the duchies of Brabant and Limburg in the west, but the former March of Lusatia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1373 under the Kingdom of Bohemia.
The family's decline began under Charles' son King Wenceslaus, deposed by the prince-electors in 1400 who chose the Wittelsbach Elector Palatine Rupert. In 1410 rule was assumed by Wenceslaus' brother Sigismund, who once again stabilized the rule of the Luxembourgs and contributed to end the Western Schism in 1417, he was succeeded by his son-in-law, the Habsburg archduke Albert V of Austria. The Habsburgs prevailed as Luxembourg heirs, ruling the Empire until the extinction of their senior branch upon the death of Maria Theresa in 1780. Henry VII — elected King of the Romans in 1308 succeeding assassinated Albert of Habsburg, crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 1312, he was succeeded by Louis IV from the House of Wittelsbach. Baldwin — brother of Henry, Prince-Archbishop of Trier and thereby Archchancellor of Burgundy 1307–54. John the Blind — only son of Henry, he was enfeoffed with Bohemia by his father in 1310, married the Přemyslid heiress Elisabeth of Bohemia and deposed the Bohemian king Henry the Carinthian.
Charles IV — eldest son of John. He was elected King of the Romans in opposition to Louis IV in 1346 and succeeded his father as king of Bohemia in the same year, crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 1355. John Henry, Margrave of Moravia — younger brother of Charles, he married Margaret, Countess of Tyrol, daughter of Henry the Carinthian in 1330. Jobst of Moravia — eldest son of John Henry. Margrave of Brandenburg 1388–1411, elected King of the Romans in 1410. Wenceslaus — eldest surviving son of Charles; as Margrave of Brandenburg from 1373 to 1378, he was elected King of the Romans in 1376 and succeeded his father as King of Bohemia in 1378. Declared deposed by the prince-electors in 1400, he was succeeded by Rupert of Wittelsbach. Sigismund — younger son of Charles. Margrave of Brandenburg from 1378 to 1388, he was King of Hungary from 1387 in right of his wife Mary of Anjou, was elected King of the Romans in 1411, succeeding his brother as King of Bohemia in 1419, being crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 1433 yet he left no heirs male.
Jacquetta of Luxembourg — Mother of Queen Consort, Elizabeth Woodville and subsequent ancestress of all English and British monarchs since Henry VIII including the current monarch, Elizabeth II. Elizabeth of Luxembourg, only child of Emperor Sigismund, married Archduke Albert V of Austria from the Albertinian line of the House of Habsburg in 1422, becoming queen consort of Hungary from 1437 as well as Queen of the Romans and queen consort of Bohemia from 1438 until Albert's death in 1439: she was the heiress who conveyed the major portion of the Luxembourg inheritance to the Habsburgs and the Jagiellons through her daughter Elisabeth of Austria. According to the Salic law, the succession could have been disputed, in which case it would have passed collaterally to the cadet branch of Ligny; that branch descended from a younger son of Henry V, was headed by Louis de Luxembourg, Count of Saint-Pol, before he was executed for treason by Louis XI of France. The first instance of the house of Luxembourg seems to be: Two houses descended from the women of the counts of Luxembourg, the Counts of Loon and the Counts of Grandpré, wear a shield barry.
Both families had a place in relation to the succession of the House of Ardennes. Indeed, the Count of Grandpré was the next heir of Conrad II of Luxembourg, the last representative of the Ardennes dynasty, but Emperor Frederick Barbarossa preferred that Luxembourg was held by a lord Germanic rather than French and attributed the co