click links in text for more info


Baleen is a filter-feeding system inside the mouths of baleen whales. The baleen system works by a whale taking in water; the whale pushes the water out, animals such as krill are filtered by the baleen and remain as a food source for the whale. Baleen is similar to bristles and consists of keratin, the same substance found in human fingernails and hair. Baleen is a skin derivative; some whales, such as the bowhead whale, have longer baleen than others. Other whales, such as the gray whale, only use one side of their baleen; these baleen bristles are arranged in plates across the upper jaw of whales. Depending on the species, a baleen plate can be 0.5 to 3.5 m long, weigh up to 90 kg. Its hairy fringes are called whalebone hair, they are called baleen bristles, which in sei whales are calcified, with calcification functioning to increase their stiffness. Baleen plates are broader at the gumline; the plates have been compared to Venetian blinds. As a material for various human uses, baleen is called whalebone, a misnomer.

The word "baleen" derives from the Latin bālaena, related to the Greek phalaina – both of which mean "whale". The oldest true fossils of baleen are only 15 million years old because baleen fossilizes, scientists believe it originated earlier than that; this is indicated by baleen-related skull modifications being found in fossils from earlier, including a buttress of bone in the upper jaw beneath the eyes, loose lower jaw bones at the chin. Baleen is believed to have evolved around 30 million years ago from a hard, gummy upper jaw, like the one a Dall's porpoise has; the initial evolution and radiation of baleen plates is believed to have occurred during Early Oligocene when Antarctica broke off from Gondwana and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current was formed, increasing productivity of ocean environments. This occurred because the current kept warm ocean waters away from the area, now Antarctica, producing steep gradients in temperature, salinity and nutrients, where the warm water meets the cold.

The transition from teeth to baleen is proposed to have occurred stepwise, from teeth to a hybrid to baleen. It is known that modern mysticetes have teeth and develop baleen plate germs in utero, but lose their dentition and have only baleen during their juvenile years and adulthood. However, developing mysticetes do not produce tooth enamel because at some point this trait evolved to become a pseudogene; this is to have occurred about 28 million years ago and proves that dentition is an ancestral state of mysticetes. Using parsimony to study this and other ancestral characters suggests that the common ancestor of aetiocetids and edentulous mysticetes evolved lateral nutrient foramina, which are believed to have provided blood vessels and nerves a way to reach developing baleen. Further research suggests that the baleen of Aetiocetus was arranged in bundles between spaced teeth. If true, this combination of baleen and dentition in Aetiocetus would act as a transition state between odontocetes and mysticetes.

This intermediate step is further supported by evidence of other changes that occurred with the evolution of baleen that make it possible for the organisms to survive using filter feeding, such as a change in skull structure and throat elasticity. It would be unlikely for all of these changes to occur at once. Therefore, it is proposed that Oligocene aetiocetids possess both ancestral and descendant character states regarding feeding strategies; this makes them mosaic taxa, showing that either baleen evolved before dentition was lost or that the traits for filter feeding evolved for other functions. It shows that the evolution could have occurred because the ancestral state was maintained. Therefore, the mosaic whales could have exploited new resources using filter feeding while not abandoning their previous prey strategies; the result of this stepwise transition is apparent in modern-day baleen whales, because of their enamel pseudogenes and their in utero development and reabsorbing of teeth.

If it is true that many early baleen whales had teeth, these were used only peripherally, or not at all. Intense research has been carried out to sort out the evolution and phylogenetic history of mysticetes, but much debate surrounds this issue. A whale's baleen plates play the most important role in its filter-feeding process. To feed, a baleen whale opens its mouth and scoops in dense shoals of prey, together with large volumes of water, it partly shuts its mouth and presses its tongue against its upper jaw, forcing the water to pass out sideways through the baleen, thus sieving out the prey, which it swallows. Whale baleen is the mineralized keratin-based bio-material consisting of parallel plates suspended down the mouth of the whale. Baleen's mechanical properties being strong and flexible made it a popular material for numerous applications requiring such a property; the basic structure of the whale baleen was characterized to be a tubular structure with a medulla hollow core enclosed by a tubular layer with a diameter varying from 60 to 900 microns, which had 2.7 times higher calcium content.

The elastic module in the longitudinal direction and the transverse direction are 270MPa and 200MPa, respectively. This difference in elastic module could be attributed to pa

Aishath Rishmy

Aishath Rishmy is a Maldivian actress. Born in Malé, Rishmy is the daughter of actors Aminath Rasheedha and Ahmed Shiyam, she is the sister of actor Maryam Azza. They reside in Vilingili since the early days. Afterwards, Shiyam used to be more involved in production though Rasheedha appears in feature films and television series. Rishmy completed her secondary education from Aminiya School and accomplished her higher education from Centre for Higher Secondary Education. Rishmy made a brief cameo appearance in the film Mithuru, along with Mariyam Azza, produced by her father Shiyam and co-starring with Rasheedha. Though she is known for her on-screen appearances, Rishmy is more interested in the production process. After graduating from Centre for Higher Secondary Education, Rishmy made her official screen debut in Yaara's production debut album Yaaraa, where she was featured in three songs. Apart from starring in their second production venture Yaaraa 2, Rishmy did directing and editing work by herself for most of the songs.

Rishmy made her acting debut with Hukuru Vileyrey, based on a novel published by Ibrahim Waheed on Haveeru Daily 3 years back. Apart from acting in the film, Rishmy worked as the co-director of the film, along with her mother, Rasheedha; the film was a commercial success. Rishmy's role was appraised by critics in particular; the film was considered as "one of the few acceptable horror movies the Maldives film industry has produced". For her portrayal of the character, Rishmy was nominated as the Best Actress at 5th Gaumee Film Awards ceremony; the film was released as 15 episode Television series with inclusion of several clips that were edited off while released in theatre. She next worked with their series album Yaaraa 4, released in 2007. In 2010, Yaaraa Productions released their second film, Fanaa—also directed by her—where she played the role of Mamdhooha, influenced by her mother so much that she wants to become free from her strains. Based on a novel published by Waheed titled Balgish, the film received mixed to negative response from critics.

Her character portrayal was negatively received by Nafiz, where he found Rishmy "over-acting" and they perceived that she is "still immature for a role in a feature film". However, other critics found the performance of Rishmy to be on a "standing ovation" level, though displeased with the length of the film. At the 6th Gaumee Film Awards, she was bestowed with Best Supporting Actress award and Best Costume Design award while she was nominated as the Best Director for her work in the film; the following year, Rishmy first appeared in Aishath Ali Manik's romantic horror film Kuhveriakee Kaakuhey? Opposite Ahmed Azmeel. Inspired by the horror romantic thriller Bollywood film Darling, pre-production of the film was started in 2007 and shot in Sri Lanka, it revolves around a man who cheats on his wife with his secretary, how his life slides to a haunting shift when he accidentally kills his mistress. The film and her performance as a spirit received negative reviews from critics. "Rishmy did an average job.

The director was unable to extract the best of her talent since they failed to develop her character well". The film was declared a flop, it was followed by another romantic horror film 14 Vileyrey, directed by Abdul Faththaah and starring Ali Seezan with Mariyam Nisha. Written by Ibrahim Waheed, the project faced controversy when the team of Kuhveriakee Kaakuhey? Accuses Fatthah for "purloining the plot" of the latter; the film and her performance received mixed to positive reviews from critics. This could be her breakthrough performance since she has the star power to shine in a cast of established actors"; the film did good business at box office and was declared a "Hit". At the 2nd Maldivian Film Awards, she received a nomination for Best Supporting Actress for 14 Vileyrey, she next appeared in a brief role as a news presenter in Ali Seezan's war action comedy film Wathan, which received negative response from critics. Her next release was Ahmed Azmeel's debut direction Hiyy Yaara Dheefa, starred alongside Ali Seezan, Niuma Mohamed, Ahmed Azmeel and Aminath Rasheedha.

The film received negative reviews from critics pointing similarities between Bollywood comedy-drama film Ishq and Kundan Shah's family drama Dil Hai Tumhaara. The film revolves around four young people from different social classes fall in love with partners who do not meet with their parents' approval, she played a rich girl who falls in love with a poor boy. The film did not succeed financially. At the 7th Gaumee Film Awards ceremony, she received a nomination for Best Supporting Actress award. Rishmy's only release of 2012 was Abdul Faththaah's romantic film Love Story alongside Ali Seezan and Amira Ismail; the film and her performance received negative response from critics. Displeased with the screenplay and performance of the actors, Nadheem of Haveeru wrote: "None of the actors were given scope to build their characters and none was able to justify their character. With excessive emotional scenes, actors were exposed to over-acting and nothing more". Despite the negative reviews, Rishmy received her third Gaumee Film Award nomination for Best Supporting Actress and another Maldives Film Awards nomin

Farmer Vaughn

Henry Francis Vaughn was a professional baseball catcher. He played in Major League Baseball for the Cincinnati Red Stockings, Louisville Colonels, New York Giants, Cincinnati Kelly's Killers, Milwaukee Brewers and Cincinnati Reds, he was born in Ohio. In 13 seasons, he played in 915 games and had 3,454 at bats, 474 runs, 946 hits, 147 doubles, 53 triples, 21 home runs, 525 RBI, 92 stolen bases, 151 walks.274 batting average.307 on-base percentage.365 slugging percentage and 1,262 total bases. He died in Cincinnati, Ohio, at the age of 49. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Baseball-Reference

Michael Lunt

Michael Stanley Randle Lunt was an English amateur golfer. He played in the Walker Cup four times. Lunt was the son of Stanley Lunt who won the English Amateur in 1934. Lunt himself won the English Amateur in 1966 and they became the first father and son to win the event. Lunt had a successful junior career, representing England boys and reaching the final of the Boys Amateur Championship in 1951. Against Neville Dunn, he was 5 up after 11 holes of the morning round but lost 6&5. Individually his biggest success came when he won the Amateur Championship at St Andrews in 1963, beating John Blackwell 2&1 in the final; the following year he came close to repeating his success but lost in the final to Gordon Clark at the 39th hole. Lunt was part of the Great Britain and Ireland team that won the 1964 Eisenhower Trophy at Olgiata Golf Club near Rome, he played in four successive Walker Cup matches from 1959 to 1965. Lunt died from an aneurysm. At the time of his death, he was part of the way though his year as captain of the R&A. 1958 Golf Illustrated Gold Vase 1963 Amateur Championship 1966 English Amateur Walker Cup: 1959, 1961, 1963, 1965 Eisenhower Trophy: 1964 Amateurs–Professionals Match: 1958, 1959 St Andrews Trophy: 1958, 1960, 1964 Commonwealth Tournament: 1963


Kallimadayam is a Village Panchayat under Thoppampatti Union of Oddanchatram taluk, on Oddanchatram-Dharapuram Road, Dindigul district, Tamil Nadu. "Kallimandayam is located 17.6 km distance from its Taluk Main Town Thoppampatti. Kallimandayam is 40.7 km far from its District Main City Dindigul." Its PIN code is 624616. "It is bounded by Konrangi Keeranur in the west, Kolinjivadi in the north, Idaiyakottai in the east and Tangachiyammapatti in the south." Kallimandayam has eighteen small villages attached to it for administrative purposes. Velayuthampalayam Arranmanaivalasu Esakaampatti Thumpitchapalayam Kootakkaaranputhur C. Pongavalasu P. Pongavalasu Kallimandayam Vangaarachinnapatti Thoopakkavalasu Sengaataanvalasu Neelagoundanpatti Malayandigoundanvalasu Othaiyur village In Kallimandayam there is one higher secondary school, ten government primary schools, one middle school, including CSI High school and Tirupathi Arul Nery Hr. school. Kallimandayam has a primary health centre

Spalerosophis atriceps

Spalerosophis atriceps is a species of snake in the family Colubridae. The species is endemic to South Asia. S. atriceps is found in northwestern India and Pakistan. The type locality given in the original description is "Himalaya "; the preferred habitats of S. atriceps are deserts, rocky areas, scrub forest. S. atriceps may attain a snout-to-vent length of 2 m. Dorsally, it is pale orange, pink, or yellow, with scattered black flecks; the dorsal surface of the head is either black or black and deep red. The sides of the head and the nape of the neck are deep red. Ventrally, it is pinkish. S. atriceps is nocturnal. S. atriceps is oviparous. In India, the adult female lays a clutch of 3 to 8 eggs in October; the eggs are 56–78 mm long by 16–27 mm wide. Fischer JG. "Herpetologische Bemerkungen ". Jahrbuch der Hamburgischen Wissenschaftlichen Anstalten 2: 82-121... Minton SA Jr. "A contribution to the herpetology of West Pakistan". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 134: 29-184.. Smith MA; the Fauna of British India and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-region.

Reptilia and Amphibia. Vol. III.—Serpentes. London: Secretary of State for India.. Xii + 583 pp.. Whitaker R, Captain A. Snakes of India: The Field Guide. Chennai: Draco Books. 495 pp. ISBN 978-8190187305