Balhae was a multi-ethnic kingdom in Manchuria, the Korean peninsula and the Russian Far East. Balhae was established by refugees from the fallen Korean kingdom of Goguryeo and Tungusic Mohe tribes in 698, when the first king, Dae Joyeong, defeated the Wu Zhou dynasty at Tianmenling. Along with Goguryeo refugees and Mohe tribes, Balhae had a diverse population, including other minorities such as Khitan and Evenk peoples. Balhae had a high level of craftsmanship and engaged in trade with neighboring countries such as Göktürk, Japan and Tang. In 926, Baekdusan Mountain, located in the heart of Balhae territory and caused the collapse of the kingdom. Soon after, the Khitan Liao dynasty conquered Balhae and established the autonomous kingdom of Dongdan ruled by the Liao crown prince Yelü Bei, soon absorbed into the Liao. Meanwhile, a series of nobilities and elites led by key figures such as crown prince Dae Gwang-hyeon, were absorbed into Goryeo; the Khitan conquest of Balhae was one of the factors behind Goryeo's prolonged hostility against Khitan Liao dynasty.
At its start, the kingdom had around 100,000 households and a population of about 500,000. Archaeological evidence suggests that the Balhae culture was an amalgamation of Han Chinese and Tungusic cultures. Balhae was founded in 698 under the name 震, transcribed as Jin in Korean romanisation or Zhen in Chinese romanisation; the kingdom's name was written as 振 in Chinese character, with the reconstructed Old Chinese pronunciation /*ər/ and the Middle Chinese pronunciation dzyin. The former state's character referred to the 5th Earthly Branch of the Chinese zodiac, a division of the orbit of Jupiter identified with the dragon; this was associated with a bearing of 120° but with the two-hour period between 7 and 9 am, leading it to be associated with dawn and the direction east. In 713, the Tang dynasty bestowed the ruler of Jin with the title of "Head of Bohai Commandery",:§5.1 ¶3 and in 762 the Tang recognized it as a kingdom and renamed it "Balhae".:§5.1 ¶11The transcriptions Bohai and Parhae are used in modern academia.
During the Khitan rebellion against Tang, Dae Jung-sang, a former Goguryeo official led Goguryeo refugees, allied with Geolsa Biu, a leader of the Mohe people, against the Tang in 698. After Dae Jungsang's death, his son, Dae Jo-yeong, a former Goguryeo general or chief of Somo Mohe succeeded his father, who received orders from the last King of Goguryeo to found a succeeding country. Geolsa Biu died in battle against the Tang army led by the general Li Kaigu. Dae Jo-yeong managed to escape Tang territory with the remaining Mohe soldiers, he defeated a pursuing army sent by Wu Zetian at the Battle of Tianmenling. Which enabled him to establish the state of Jin in the former region of Yilou as King Go. Another account of events suggests that there was no rebellion at all, the leader of the Sumo Mohe rendered assistance to the Tang by suppressing Khitan rebels; as a reward the Tang acknowledged the leader as the local hegemon of a semi-independent state. The second King Mu, who felt encircled by Tang and Heishui Mohe along the Amur River, ordered a punitive expedition to Tang with his navy in 732 and killed a Tang prefect based on the Shandong Peninsula.
At the same time, the king led troops overland to Madusan in the vincity of the Shanhai Pass and occupied towns nearby. He sent a mission to Japan in 728 to threaten Silla from the southeast. Balhae kept commercial contacts with Japan until the end of the kingdom. Balhae dispatched envoys to Japan 34 times. A compromise was forged between Tang and Balhae, which led Tang diplomatically recognize Mun of Balhae, who succeeded to his father's throne, as King of Balhae; the third King Mun expanded its territory into the Amur valley in the north and the Liaodong Peninsula in the west. During his reign, a trade route with Silla, called "Sillado", was established. King Mun moved the capital of Balhae several times, he established Sanggyeong, the permanent capital near Lake Jingpo in the south of today's Heilongjiang province around 755. He authorized the creation of the Jujagam, the national academy, based on the national academy of Tang. Although China recognized him as a king, Balhae itself referred to him as the son of heaven and a king.
The tenth King Seon reign, Balhae controlled northern Korea, Northeastern Manchuria and now Primorsky Krai of Russia. King Seon led campaigns that resulted in the absorbing of many northern Mohe tribes and southwest Little Goguryeo kingdom, located in the Liaodong Peninsula, was absorbed into Balhae, its strength was such that Silla was forced to build a northern wall in 721 as well as maintain active defences along the common border. In the middle of the 9th century, Balhae completed its local system, composed of five capitals, 15 prefectures and 62 counties. Following the reign of King Seon, there are no surviving written records of Balhae; some scholars believe that the 946 eruption of Paektu Mountain may have caused a national-level catastrophe leading to its final fall to the Khitan Liao Dynasty, based on records of massive population displacement of Balhae people to the Liaodong peninsula of the Khitan empire and the Korean peninsula of Goryeo. A significant territory of what was used to be Balhae was depopulated around the Paektu volcano, at the heart of Bal
CIBH-FM is a Canadian radio station located in Parksville, British Columbia. The station, which operates at 88.5 FM, is owned by Island Radio, a division of the Jim Pattison Group. CIBH first went on the air on December 3, 1973 as CHPQ, a semi-satellite of Nanaimo station CHUB, operating at 1370 AM with 1000 watts of power. In 1986, Nanaimo Broadcasting sold CHUB and CHPQ to Benchmark Ventures Inc.. In 1994, Benchmark Ventures merged with Central Island Broadcasting Ltd. and the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission granted CHUB permission to move to 102.3 FM and to place a rebroadcaster in Parksville at 99.9 FM. The switch took effect in early 1995. In 1999, CKCI began simulcasting CKEG's oldies format as the two stations took the on-air name Good Time Oldies. On January 14, 2002, CKCI moved to 88.5 FM and became CIBH, adopting its current adult contemporary format. The CHPQ call sign is now used by the former CKWV rebroadcaster CKWV-FM-1, which began airing a separate schedule on February 11, 2005.
On November 1, 2005, the Jim Pattison Broadcast Group and Island Radio Ltd. announced that Island Radio had agreed to sell its six radio stations to the Jim Pattison Broadcast Group. 88.5 The Beach CIBH-FM history – Canadian Communications Foundation Query the REC Canadian station database for CIBH-FM
My Brief History is a memoir published in 2013 by the English physicist Stephen Hawking. The book recounts Hawking's journey from his post-war London boyhood to his years of international acclaim and celebrity. My Brief History has received modest praise from critics. Ian Sample of The Guardian wrote, "Hawking's memoir, My Brief History, is a skip across the surface of the Cambridge cosmologist's life, from his quirky upbringing in London and St Albans to his latest work on the beginning of time and the evolution of the universe; the details are sketched. Hawking's intellectual activity soars as his illness takes hold and puts an intolerable burden on his marriages." Chuck Leddy of The Boston Globe observed, "It's clear, that Hawking is more comfortable looking up at the universe than into himself, more concerned with detailing the evolution of a career than the twists and turns of a life, though he does reveal some interesting details about his beginnings as a scientist. In clean, direct prose, Hawking leads us from his birth in Oxford in 1942 to the present."