Bali is a province of Indonesia and the westernmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands. Located east of Java and west of Lombok, the province includes the island of Bali and a few smaller neighbouring islands, notably Nusa Penida, Nusa Lembongan, Nusa Ceningan; the provincial capital, Denpasar, is the most populous city in the Lesser Sunda Islands and the second largest, after Makassar, in Eastern Indonesia. Bali is the only Hindu-majority province in Indonesia, with 83.5% of the population adhering to Balinese Hinduism. Bali is Indonesia's main tourist destination, with a significant rise in tourism since the 1980s. Tourism-related business makes up 80% of its economy, it is renowned for its developed arts, including traditional and modern dance, painting, leather and music. The Indonesian International Film Festival is held every year in Bali. Other international events held in Bali include the Miss World 2013 and 2018 Annual Meetings of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group. In March 2017, TripAdvisor named Bali as the world's top destination in its Traveller's Choice award.
Bali is part of the Coral Triangle, the area with the highest biodiversity of marine species fish and turtles. In this area alone, over 500 reef-building coral species can be found. For comparison, this is about seven times as many as in the entire Caribbean. Bali is the home of a UNESCO World Heritage Site, it is home to a unified confederation of kingdoms composed of 10 traditional royal Balinese houses, each house ruling a specific geographic area. The confederation is the successor of the Bali Kingdom; the royal houses are not recognised by the government of Indonesia. Bali was inhabited around 2000 BCE by Austronesian people who migrated from the island of Taiwan to Southeast Asia and Oceania through Maritime Southeast Asia. Culturally and linguistically, the Balinese are related to the people of the Indonesian archipelago, the Philippines and Oceania. Stone tools dating from this time have been found near the village of Cekik in the island's west. In ancient Bali, nine Hindu sects existed, namely Pasupata, Siwa Shidanta, Bodha, Resi and Ganapatya.
Each sect revered a specific deity as its personal Godhead. Inscriptions from 896 and 911 do not mention a king, until 914, they reveal an independent Bali, with a distinct dialect, where Buddhism and Sivaism were practiced simultaneously. Mpu Sindok's great-granddaughter, married the Bali king Udayana Warmadewa around 989, giving birth to Airlangga around 1001; this marriage brought more Hinduism and Javanese culture to Bali. Princess Sakalendukirana appeared in 1098. Suradhipa reigned from 1115 to 1119, Jayasakti from 1146 until 1150. Jayapangus appears on inscriptions between 1178 and 1181, while Adikuntiketana and his son Paramesvara in 1204. Balinese culture was influenced by Indian and Hindu culture, beginning around the 1st century AD; the name Bali dwipa has been discovered from various inscriptions, including the Blanjong pillar inscription written by Sri Kesari Warmadewa in 914 AD and mentioning Walidwipa. It was during this time that the people developed their complex irrigation system subak to grow rice in wet-field cultivation.
Some religious and cultural traditions still practiced. The Hindu Majapahit Empire on eastern Java founded a Balinese colony in 1343; the uncle of Hayam Wuruk is mentioned in the charters of 1384–86. A mass Javanese immigration to Bali occurred in the next century when the Majapahit Empire fell in 1520. Bali's government became an independent collection of Hindu kingdoms which led to a Balinese national identity and major enhancements in culture and economy; the nation with various kingdoms became independent for up to 386 years until 1906, when the Dutch subjugated and repulsed the natives for economic control and took it over. The first known European contact with Bali is thought to have been made in 1512, when a Portuguese expedition led by Antonio Abreu and Francisco Serrão sighted its northern shores, it was the first expedition of a series of bi-annual fleets to the Moluccas, that throughout the 16th century traveled along the coasts of the Sunda Islands. Bali was mapped in 1512, in the chart of Francisco Rodrigues, aboard the expedition.
In 1585, a ship foundered off the Bukit Peninsula and left a few Portuguese in the service of Dewa Agung. In 1597, the Dutch explorer Cornelis de Houtman arrived at Bali, the Dutch East India Company was established in 1602; the Dutch government expanded its control across the Indonesian archipelago during the second half of the 19th century. Dutch political and economic control over Bali began in the 1840s on the island's north coast, when the Dutch pitted various competing Balinese realms against each other. In the late 1890s, struggles between Balinese kingdoms in the island's south were exploited by the Dutch to increase their control. In June 1860, the famous Welsh naturalist, Alfred Russel Wallace, travelled to Bali from Singapore, landing at Buleleng on the north coast of the island. Wallace's trip to Bali was instrumental in helping him devise his Wallace Line theory; the Wallace Line is a faunal boundary that runs through the strait between Lombok. It has been found to be a boundary between species.
The Keirle House is located at 3017 Mormon Street in the Florence neighborhood of North Omaha, Nebraska. Built in 1905 in the classic box style popular in the Midwest, the Keirle House was designated an Omaha Landmark in 1997; the Keirle House was built by the founder and owner of the Keirle Ice Company, which cut its ice from the Florence Water Works and shipped them across the Midwest for top price. Its four bedrooms occupy a small estate in the middle of Florence; the Florence Historical Foundation restored this house in 1996 after the death of Maude Keirle, the last member of the only family that lived there. Built with a variety of styles, the Keirle House is a Midwest "classic box" with Queen Anne and classical revival details, it was built to face the town square of Winter Quarters, which the Mormons laid out in 1846. Until February 2011, the House served as offices for the Uta Halee Girls Village executive offices. On November 9, 2011, Omaha's Landmarks Heritage Preservation Commission voted to delay a vote indefinitely on removing the House's historic landmark designation.
The owners of the home had requested the designation be removed to ease the property's sale. On March 9, 2012, the Keirle House was purchased by Robert and Kristina Mitchell for the purchase price of $110,000. Robert and Kristina will use the house as their primary residence; the House remains on Omaha's Landmarks Heritage Preservation Commission registry. Modern photo of the Keirle House
Fossarina patula is a species of small sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusc or micromollusk in the family Trochidae, the top snails. The shell grows to a length of 6 mm; the shell is umbilicated, with alternate larger and smaller tuberculated spiral ribs. The ribs are simple on the base; the umbilicus is acutely carinate-margined. The shell is whitish, sparsely maculated with dark brown; the three whorls are convex. The outer lip is ascending posteriorly; this marine species is endemic to Australia and occurs off New South Wales and Victoria Adams, S. & Angas, G. F. 1863. Descriptions of new species from Australian seas, in the collection of George French Angas. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1863: 418-428, pl. xxxvii Angas, G. F. 1871. Descriptions of thirty-four new species of shells from Australia. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1871: 13-20 Tenison-Woods, J. E. 1881. On some new marine Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 17: 80-83 Whitelegge, T. 1889.
List of the Marine and Freshwater Invertebrate Fauna of Port Jackson and the Neighbourhood. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 23: 1-161 Henn, A. U. & Brazier, J. W. 1894. List of Mollusca found at Watson's Bay, Sydney. With a few remarks upon some of the most interesting species and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 2 9: 165-182 Tate, R. & May, W. L. 1901. A revised census of the marine Mollusca of Tasmania. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 26: 344-471 Kesteven, H. L. 1902. The systematic position of the genus Fossarina, A. Adams and Angas, of Fossarina varia, Hutton. Records of the Australian Museum 4: 317-322 Pritchard, G. B. & Gatliff, J. H. 1902. Catalogue of the marine shells of Victoria. Part V. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 14: 85-138 Hedley, C. 1918. A checklist of the marine fauna of New South Wales. Part 1. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 51: M1-M120 Iredale, T. & McMichael, D.
F. 1962. A reference list of the marine Mollusca of New South Wales. Memoirs of the Australian Museum 11: 1-109 Wilson, B. 1993. Australian Marine Shells. Prosobranch Gastropods. Kallaroo, Western Australia: Odyssey Publishing Vol. 1 408 pp. "Fossarina patula". Gastropods.com. Retrieved 16 January 2019