The process began in 1815 with the Congress of Vienna and was completed in 1871 when Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy. The memory of the Risorgimento is central to both Italian politics and Italian historiography, for short period is one of the most contested. Italian nationalism was based among intellectuals and political activists, often operating from exile, after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the Roman province of Italy remained united under the Ostrogothic Kingdom and disputed between the Kingdom of the Lombards and the Byzantine Empire. Following conquest by the Frankish Empire, the title of King of Italy merged with the office of Holy Roman Emperor. However, the emperor was a foreigner who had little concern for the governance of Italy as a state, as a result. This situation persisted through the Renaissance but began to deteriorate with the rise of modern nation-states in the modern period. Italy, including the Papal States, became the site of proxy wars between the powers, notably the Holy Roman Empire and France.
Harbingers of national unity appeared in the treaty of the Italic League, in 1454, leading Renaissance Italian writers Dante Alighieri, Boccaccio, Niccolò Machiavelli and Francesco Guicciardini expressed opposition to foreign domination. Petrarch stated that the ancient valour in Italian hearts is not yet dead in Italia Mia, Niccolò Machiavelli quoted four verses from Italia Mia in The Prince, which looked forward to a political leader who would unite Italy to free her from the barbarians. I am an Italian, he explained, the French Republic spread republican principles, and the institutions of republican governments promoted citizenship over the rule of the Bourbons and Habsburgs and other dynasties. The reaction against any outside control challenged Napoleons choice of rulers, as Napoleons reign began to fail, the rulers he had installed tried to keep their thrones further feeding nationalistic sentiments. After Napoleon fell, the Congress of Vienna restored the pre-Napoleonic patchwork of independent governments, vincenzo Gioberti, a Piedmontese priest, had suggested a confederation of Italian states under leadership of the Pope in his 1842 book, Of the Moral and Civil Primacy of the Italians.
Pope Pius IX at first appeared interested but he turned reactionary, Giuseppe Mazzini and Carlo Cattaneo wanted the unification of Italy under a federal republic. That proved too extreme for most nationalists, the middle position was proposed by Cesare Balbo as a confederation of separate Italian states led by Piedmont. One of the most influential revolutionary groups was the Carbonari, a political discussion group formed in Southern Italy early in the 19th century. After 1815, Freemasonry in Italy was repressed and discredited due to its French connections, a void was left that the Carbonari filled with a movement that closely resembled Freemasonry but with a commitment to Italian nationalism and no association with Napoleon and his government. The response came from middle class professionals and business men and some intellectuals, the Carbonari disowned Napoleon but nevertheless were inspired by the principles of the French Revolution regarding liberty and fraternity. They developed their own rituals, and were strongly anticlerical, the Carbonari movement spread across Italy
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles NV, known as FCA, is an Italian-controlled multinational corporation incorporated in the Netherlands. And currently the world’s seventh-largest auto maker, the group was established in late 2014 by merging Fiat S. p. A. into a new holding company, Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N. V. which is incorporated in the Netherlands for tax purposes. The holding company is listed on the New York Stock Exchange, exor S. p. A, an Italian investment group owned by the Agnelli family, owns 29. 19% of FCA and controls 44. 31% through a loyalty voting mechanism. FCA’s mass-market brands operates through two main subsidiaries, FCA Italy and FCA US, the company’s portfolio includes many well-known automotive names including Alfa Romeo, Dodge, Fiat Professional, Lancia, Ram Trucks, Mopar and SRT. FCA owns Maserati, Magneti Marelli, and Teksid, today FCA operates in four regions. The CEO and executive management including twenty-two employees work between Auburn Hills and Turin, Italy, FCA carries out its mass-market automotive operations through two main subsidiaries, FCA Italy and FCA US.
Both name changes were announced in December 2014, FCA Italy includes the Italian-based brands that include Abarth, Alfa Romeo, Fiat Professional and the engine manufacturing subsidiary VM Motori. FCA US includes the American-based brands that include Chrysler, Jeep, other companies include luxury car and components manufacturers as well as firms working on production automation and metal foundry. Other joint ventures and subsidiaries are undertaken via the FCA Italy, FCA operates in the print media and advertising fields through its Italiana Editrice subsidiary and an interest in RCS Media Group. In January 2016, Ferrari became an independent company, after FCA listed 10% of the company on the NYSE in October 2015, the integration between Fiat and Chrysler dates back to 2009 after Chrysler filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy reorganization on 30 April 2009. On 10 June 2009, Chrysler emerged from the proceedings with the United Auto Workers pension fund, Fiat. Overall, to acquire Chrysler cost Fiat US$4.9 billion, on 29 January 2014 Fiat announced a reorganization and intended merger into a new holding company.
Fiat S. p. A. merged into FCA on 12 October 2014 following approval of the board on 15 June 2014, on 29 October 2014 the group announced the intention to separate Ferrari S. p. A. from FCA. The transaction was completed on 3 January 2016, on July 14,2015, Fiat Chrysler Automobiles NV chief executive Sergio Marchionne and Dennis Williams, President of the United Auto Workers entered into negotiations on July 14,2015. As negotiations between the UAW and Detroit Three automakers began, Marchionne leaned in to embrace Williams in a hug seen round the world, on May 6,2014, Fiat Chrysler Automobiles announced its 5-year business plan. The Group updated its business plan targets in January 2016 at the time FY2015 were announced, much of the global growth will be focused around Jeep, due to its high visibility globally as well as the growing SUV market in developing markets. Chrysler will be re-positioned as the companys mainstream North American brand to compete with Ford, Chevrolet and Volkswagen, while Dodge will focus on performance-based vehicles.
Alfa Romeo will become the premium marque to compete with Mercedes-Benz, BMW
Genoa is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015,594,733 people lived within the administrative limits. As of the 2011 Italian census, the Province of Genoa, over 1.5 million people live in the wider metropolitan area stretching along the Italian Riviera. Genoa has been nicknamed la Superba due to its glorious past, part of the old town of Genoa was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2006. The citys rich history in notably its art, music. It is the birthplace of Christopher Columbus, Niccolò Paganini, Giuseppe Mazzini, which forms the southern corner of the Milan-Turin-Genoa industrial triangle of north-west Italy, is one of the countrys major economic centres. The city has hosted massive shipyards and steelworks since the 19th century, the Bank of Saint George, founded in 1407, is among the oldest in the world and has played an important role in the citys prosperity since the middle of the 15th century. Today a number of leading Italian companies are based in the city, including Fincantieri, Selex ES, Ansaldo Energia, Ansaldo STS, Edoardo Raffinerie Garrone, Piaggio Aerospace, the Genoa area has been inhabited since the fifth or fourth millennium BC.
In ancient times this area was frequented and inhabited by Ligures, Phocaeans and Etruscans. The city cemetery, dating from the 6th and 5th centuries BC, testifies to the occupation of the site by the Greeks, but the fine harbour probably saw use much earlier, perhaps by the Etruscans. In the 5th century BC was founded the first oppidum at the foot of the today called the Castle Hill which now is inside the medieval old town. The ancient Ligurian city was known as Stalia, so referred to by Artemidorus Ephesius and Pomponius Mela, Ligurian Stalia was overshadowed by the powerful Marseille and Vada Sabatia, near modern Savona. Stalia had an alliance with Rome through a foedus aequum in the course of the Second Punic War, the Carthaginians accordingly destroyed it in 209 BC. The town was rebuilt and, after the Carthaginian Wars ended in 146 BC. it received municipal rights, the original castrum thenceforth expanded towards the current areas of Santa Maria di Castello and the San Lorenzo promontory.
Trades included skins and honey, goods were shipped to the mainland, up to major cities like Tortona and Piacenza. Among the archeological remains from the Roman period, an amphitheatre was found, another theory traces the name to the Etruscan word Kainua which means New City and still another from the Latin word ianua, related to the name of the God Janus, meaning door or passage. The latter is in reference to its position at the centre of the Ligurian coastal arch. The Latin name, oppidum Genua, is recorded by Pliny the Elder as part of the Augustean Regio IX Liguria, after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the Ostrogoths occupied Genoa
Opera Nazionale Balilla
Futurism, a revolutionary cultural movement which served as a catalyst for Fascism, argued for a school for physical courage and patriotism, as expressed by Filippo Tommaso Marinetti in 1919. Marinetti expressed his disdain for the by now prehistoric and troglodyte Ancient Greek and Latin courses and it was in those years that the first Fascist youth wings were formed. Balilla and Piccole Italiane - ages 8 to 14 Avanguardisti and Giovani Italiane -14 to 18 In time, (note and Avanguardisti were both substructures of the Opera Nazionale Balilla, the latter was not a separate organization. Between the ages of 18 and 22, young men and women would join additional groups of the ONB - Fasci Giovanili di Combattimento and Giovani Fasciste, Male students in all forms of higher education were enrolled in the GUF. It carried out indoctrination with a message of Italian-ness and Fascism, the ONB took charge of all activities initiated by schools, and pressured teachers to enlist all students. Aside from the usual Fascist Saturdays, children would spend their summers in camps, Male children enrolled wore a uniform adapted from that of the Blackshirts, the eponymous black shirt, the fez of Arditi tradition, grey-green trousers, black fasces emblems, and azure handkerchiefs.
During military exercises, they were armed with scaled-down version of Royal Italian Army service rifle, Balilla units were established in Malta, a British colony, by Maltese nationalists. These were disbanded with the advent of the Second World War, the popular 508 baby Fiat small automobile, one of the early peoples car designed by Dante Giacosa and launched at the 1932 Milan automobile show was christened Fiat Balilla. Fiat insisted that the car was named after the 1746 Genoa boy-hero, previously, a class of light Regia Marina submarines, a pony tractor by Motomeccanica, and the small Fiat-Ansaldo A1 biplane aircraft of World War One had been christened Balilla. The local headquarters of the Balilla groups were called Casa del Balilla, many of them were purpose-built in the Italian rationalist style. Hitler Youth Levente Associations National Youth Organisation Fascist Male Academy of Physical Education Italian Fascist Youth Groups
Il Canto degli Italiani
Il Canto degli Italiani is the national anthem of Italy. It is best known among Italians as Inno di Mameli, after the author of the lyrics, or Fratelli dItalia, the words were written in the autumn of 1847 in Genoa, by the 20-year-old student and patriot Goffredo Mameli. Two months later, they were set to music in Turin by another Genoese, the hymn enjoyed widespread popularity throughout the period of the Risorgimento and in the following decades. After the Second World War, Italy became a republic, and on 12 October 1946 and this choice was made official in law only on 23 November 2012. The first manuscript of the poem, preserved at the Istituto Mazziniano in Genoa, appears in a personal copybook of the poet, of uncertain dating, the manuscript reveals anxiety and inspiration at the same time. The poet begins with È sorta dal feretro seems to change his mind, leaves some room, begins a new paragraph, the handwriting appears nervy and frenetic, with numerous spelling errors, among which are Ilia for Italia and Ballilla for Balilla.
The second manuscript is the copy that Goffredo Mameli sent to Michele Novaro for setting to music and it shows a much steadier handwriting, fixes misspellings, and has a significant modification, the incipit is Fratelli dItalia. This copy is in the Museo del Risorgimento in Turin, the hymn was printed on leaflets in Genoa, by the printing office Casamara. The Istituto Mazziniano has a copy of these, with annotations by Mameli himself. This sheet, subsequent to the two manuscripts, lacks the last strophe for fear of censorship and these leaflets were to be distributed on the December 10 demonstration, in Genoa. In this occasion the flag was shown and Mamelis hymn was publicly sung for the first time. After December 10 the hymn spread all over the Italian peninsula, in the 1848, Mamelis hymn was very popular among the Italian people and it was commonly sung during demonstrations and revolts as a symbol of the Italian Unification in most parts of Italy. In the Five Days of Milan, the rebels sang the Song of the Italians during clashes against the Austrian Empire, in the 1860, the corps of volunteers led by Giuseppe Garibaldi used to sing the hymn in the battles against the Bourbons in Sicily and Southern Italy.
During the period of Italian Fascism, the Song of the Italians continued to play an important role as patriotic hymn along with several popular fascist songs. After the armistice of Cassibile, Mamelis hymn was sung by both the Italian partisans and the people who supported the Italian Social Republic. After the Second World War, following the birth of the Italian Republic, on 23 November 2012, this choice was made official in law. This is the text of the original poem written by Goffredo Mameli. However, the Italian anthem, as performed in official occasions, is composed of the first stanza sung twice
Within six weeks, three thousand French men and women were slain by the rebels, and the government of King Charles lost control of the island. It was the beginning of the War of the Sicilian Vespers and these lay between Hohenstaufen lands in northern Italy and the Hohenstaufen Kingdom of Sicily in the south, the Hohenstaufen at the time ruled Germany. In 1245 Pope Innocent IV excommunicated Frederick II and declared him deposed, when Frederick died in 1250, his dominion was inherited by his son, Conrad IV of Germany. A period of turmoil followed Conrads death in 1254, and the Kingdom of Sicily was seized by Manfred, King of Sicily, Fredericks illegitimate son, Manfred had no involvement in German politics, where the interregnum lasted longer and there was no emperor until 1274. He first styled himself as vicar of his nephew Conradin, Conrads son, following a false rumour that Conradin was dead, Manfred had himself crowned as king. He wished for a reconciliation with the papacy, which may have explained his support for the landless Baldwin II, Latin Emperor.
However, Pope Urban IV and Pope Clement IV were not prepared to recognize Manfred as lawful ruler of Sicily and first excommunicated sought to depose him by force of arms. After abortive attempts to enlist England as the champion of the Papacy against Manfred, Charles invaded Italy and defeated and killed Manfred in 1266 at the Battle of Benevento, becoming King of Sicily. In 1268 Conradin, who had come of age, invaded Italy to press his claim to the throne. Charles was now undisputed master of the Kingdom of Sicily, beginning on that night, thousands of Sicilys French inhabitants were massacred within six weeks. The events that started the uprising are not known for certain, the only town in Sicily not to join the rebellion was a small village called Sperlinga, which protected French soldiers in a castle excavated in sandstone. According to Steven Runciman, the Sicilians at the church were engaged in holiday festivities, a sergeant named Drouet dragged a young married woman from the crowd, pestering her with his advances.
Her husband attacked Drouet with a knife, killing him, when the other Frenchmen tried to avenge their comrade, the Sicilian crowd fell upon them, killing them all. At that moment all the bells in Palermo began to ring for Vespers. The French were attacked, first with rocks, the news spread to other cities leading to revolt throughout Sicily. By the time the furious anger at their insolence had drunk its fill of blood, there is a third version of the events that is quite close to Runcimans, varying only in the minor details. This story is part of the tradition on the island up to the present time. This oral tradition cannot be verified, but is of interest to sociologists, according to the legend, John of Procida was the mastermind behind the conspiracy
The 508 Balilla was a compact car designed and developed by Fiat in 1932. It is effectively the replacement of the Fiat 509, although production of the model had ceased back in 1929. It had a transmission, seated four, and had a top speed of about 50 mph. The car was assembled by Walter Motors a. s. in Czechoslovakia, in the Centralne Warsztaty Samochodowe factory in Poland, by NSU-Fiat in Germany. The car was developed by some of the leading Italian automotive engineers of the day, including Nebbia, the goal was to incorporate some of the qualities of a high class automobile into a modestly priced vehicle. The car had its unveiling on 12 April 1932 at a show being held on the Fiera Milano trade fair site. Many believe that the Balilla name was connected with Italian Fascism, the action triggered a Genoese revolt against the Austrians and for this Balilla was celebrated as a local hero in Northern Italy through the intervening two centuries. Fiat themselves had used the name on the Fiat A1 aeroplane, it had been used by a Milan-based firm as the name for a tractor.
The first 508 came with a four cylinder petrol/gasline side-valve engine of 995cc. Maximum power was listed as 20 hp at 3500 rpm, providing for a top speed of approximately 80 km/h, power passed to the rear wheels through a 3-speed manual gear box without the assistance of synchromesh on any of the ratios. Stopping power was provided by drum brakes on all four wheels, at the end of 1933 power was increased to 24 hp at 3500 rpm, and the maximum speed went up to 85 km/h. Transmission was upgraded to a four speed gear box, for 1934 the car now came with a slightly more aerodynamic looking berlina body, available with either two or four doors. This version was identified as the Fiat 508B, and the original 1932 model was now, the Fiat 508 was fitted with a 995 cc side valve engine. The first 508A, introduced in 1932, was a 2-door Berlina with four seats, the front seats could be slid forwards and the backrests tilted in order to facilitate access to the back seat in what was a relatively small car.
The interior used rubber mats while the seats were cloth covered, a Lusso version featured a better type of cloth covering for the seats as well as extra bright work around the lights, front grille and door handles. The gear box was upgraded, now offering four forward speeds, and while the a 2-door Berlina remained on offer for a few more months and Lusso versions of the 4-door Berlina were both offered. The 508 Spider was a small 2-door 2-seater cabriolet bodied car, the driver and passenger sat side by side, but the drivers seat was fixed a few centimetres further back than the passenger seat. On the Spider the seat coverings were made from leather, the car was available in both standard and Lusso versions
Italian Fascism, known simply as Fascism, is the original fascist ideology, as developed in Italy. According to Sternhell “most syndicalist leaders were among the founders of the Fascist movement, ” who, in years, gained key posts in Mussolini’s regime. ”Other historians argued that Fascism billed itself “not only as an alternative. This economic system intended to resolve conflict through collaboration between the classes. It was opposed to Marxist socialism because of its opposition to nationalism. It believed the success of Italian nationalism required respect for tradition, the National Fascist Party founded in 1921, declared that the party was to serve as a revolutionary militia placed at the service of the nation. It follows a policy based on three principles, discipline, Mussolini often referred to Fascist Italy during World War II as the proletarian nations that rise up against the plutocrats. It identifies modern Italy as the heir to the Roman Empire and Italy during the Renaissance, Italian Fascism historically sought to forge a strong Italian Empire as a Third Rome, identifying ancient Rome as the First Rome, and Renaissance-era Italy as the Second Rome.
Italian Fascism has directly promoted imperialism, such as within the Doctrine of Fascism, ghostwritten by Giovanni Gentile on behalf of Mussolini, The Fascist state is a will to power, the Roman tradition is here a powerful force. According to the Doctrine of Fascism, an empire is not only a territorial or military or mercantile concept, but a spiritual and moral one. One can think of an empire, that is, a nation, Fascism sought the incorporation of claimed unredeemed territories to Italy. Mussolini identified Dalmatia as having strong Italian cultural roots for centuries via the Roman Empire, the Fascist regime imposed mandatory Italianization upon the German and South Slav populations living within Italys borders. This resulted in significant violence against South Slavs deemed to be resisting Italianization, the Fascist regime endorsed Albanian irredentism, directed against the predominantly Albanian-populated Kosovo and Epirus - particularly in Chameria inhabited by a substantial number of Albanians.
The Fascist regime claimed the Ionian Islands as Italian territory, on the basis that the islands had belonged to the Venetian Republic from the mid-14th until the 18th century. To the west of Italy, the Fascists claimed that the territories of Corsica, Nice, as a result, Piedmont-Sardinia was pressured to concede Nice and Savoy to France in exchange for France accepting the unification of Italy. The Fascist regime produced literature on Corsica that presented evidence of the Italianità of the island, the Fascist regime produced literature on Nice that justified that Nice was an Italian land based on historic and linguistic grounds. The Fascists quoted Medieval Italian scholar Petrarch who said The border of Italy is the Var, to the north of Italy, the Fascist regime in the 1930s had designs on the largely Italian-populated region of Ticino and the Romansch-populated region of Graubünden in Switzerland. In November 1938, Mussolini declared to the Grand Fascist Council, the Fascist regime accused the Swiss government of oppressing the Romansch people in Graubünden.
Mussolini argued that Romansch was an Italian dialect and thus Graubünden should be incorporated into Italy, Ticino was claimed because the region had belonged to the Duchy of Milan from the mid-fourteenth century until 1515
War of the Austrian Succession
The War of the Austrian Succession involved most of the powers of Europe over the question of Maria Theresas succession to the Habsburg Monarchy. The war included King Georges War in British America, the War of Jenkins Ear, the First Carnatic War in India, the Jacobite rising of 1745 in Scotland, and the First and Second Silesian Wars. Austria was supported by Great Britain and the Dutch Republic, the enemies of France, as well as the Kingdom of Sardinia. France and Prussia were allied with the Electorate of Bavaria, the war ended with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748, by which Maria Theresa was confirmed as Archduchess of Austria and Queen of Hungary, but Prussia retained control of Silesia. But the peace was soon to be shattered, when Austrias desire to recapture Silesia intertwined with the political changes in Europe. In 1740, after the death of her father, Charles VI, Maria Theresa succeeded him as Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, Archduchess of Austria and Duchess of Parma. The complications involved in a female Habsburg ruler had been long foreseen, problems began when King Frederick II of Prussia violated the Pragmatic Sanction and invaded Silesia on 16 December 1740, using the 1537 Treaty of Brieg as a pretext.
For much of the century, France approached its wars in the same way. It would let its colonies defend themselves, or would offer only minimal help, several long land borders made an effective domestic army imperative for any ruler of France. At the end of the war, France gave back its European conquests, the British—by inclination as well as for pragmatic reasons—had tended to avoid large-scale commitments of troops on the Continent. For the War of the Austrian Succession, the British were allied with Austria, by the time of the Seven Years War, they were allied with its enemy, Prussia. In marked contrast to France, Britain strove to prosecute the war in the colonies once it became involved in the war. The British pursued a strategy of naval blockade and bombardment of enemy ports. They would harass enemy shipping and attack enemy outposts, frequently using colonists from nearby British colonies in the effort and this plan worked better in North America than in Europe, but set the stage for the Seven Years War.
Prince Frederick had been only 28 years of age on 31 May 1740 when his father, Frederick William I died, neither Frederick nor his father had ever been fond of Austria and its various snubs against Prussia. Emperor Charles VI had made provision for the succession of his daughter, in support of his invasion of Silesia, Frederick used a questionable interpretation of a treaty between the Hohenzollerns and the Piasts of Brieg as pretext. In particular, Frederick feared that Augustus III, Elector of Saxony and King of Poland, was preparing to seize Silesia for himself to unite Saxony and Poland. The only recent combat experience of the Prussian Army was their participation in the War of the Polish Succession, the Prussian Army had an uninspiring reputation and was counted as one of the many minor armies of the Holy Roman Empire
The Monarchy was a composite state composed of territories within and outside the Holy Roman Empire, united only in the person of the monarch. The dynastic capital was Vienna, except from 1583 to 1611, from 1804 to 1867 the Habsburg Monarchy was formally unified as the Austrian Empire, and from 1867 to 1918 as the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The two entities were never coterminous, as the Habsburg Monarchy covered many lands beyond the Holy Roman Empire, the monarchy had no official name. The entity had no official name, Austrian Empire, This was the official name. Note that the German version is Kaisertum Österreich, i. e. the English translation empire refers to a territory ruled by an emperor, Austria-Hungary, This was the official name. An unofficial popular name was the Danubian Monarchy often used was the term Doppel-Monarchie meaning two states under one crowned ruler, Crownlands or crown lands, This is the name of all the individual parts of the Austrian Empire, and of Austria-Hungary from 1867 on.
The Hungarian parts of the Empire were called Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of Saint Stephen or Lands of Holy Stephens Crown, the Bohemian Lands were called Lands of the St. Wenceslaus Crown. Burgenland came to Austria in 1921 from Hungary, Salzburg finally became Austrian in 1816 after the Napoleonic wars. Vienna, Austrias capital became a state January 1,1922, after being residence and Lower Austria, were split into Austria above the Enns and Austria below the Enns. Upper Austria was enlarged after the Treaty of Teschen following the War of the Bavarian Succession by the so-called Innviertel, formerly part of Bavaria. Hereditary Lands or German Hereditary Lands or Austrian Hereditary Lands, In a narrower sense these were the original Habsburg Austrian territories, i. e. basically the Austrian lands, in a wider sense the Lands of the Bohemian Crown were included in the Hereditary lands. The term was replaced by the term Crownlands in the 1849 March Constitution, within the Habsburg Monarchy, each province was governed according to its own particular customs.
Until the mid 17th century, not all of the provinces were even necessarily ruled by the same members of the family often ruled portions of the Hereditary Lands as private apanages. An even greater attempt at centralization began in 1849 following the suppression of the revolutions of 1848. For the first time, ministers tried to transform the monarchy into a bureaucratic state ruled from Vienna. The Kingdom of Hungary, in particular, ceased to exist as a separate entity, in this system, the Kingdom of Hungary was given sovereignty and a parliament, with only a personal union and a joint foreign and military policy connecting it to the other Habsburg lands. When Bosnia and Herzegovina was annexed, it was not incorporated into either half of the monarchy, instead, it was governed by the joint Ministry of Finance. Austria-Hungary collapsed under the weight of the various unsolved ethnic problems that came to a head with its defeat in World War I, to these were added in 1779 the Inn Quarter of Bavaria, and in 1803 the Bishoprics of Trent and Brixen
The Balilla-class were the first submarines to be built for the Italian navy following the end of World War I. They were large ocean-going cruiser submarines designed to operate in the Indian Ocean based in Italys East African colonies, the design was double-hulled and based on the German Type UE2 U-boats, one of which, U-120 was supplied to the Italians as a war reparation. A425 horsepower auxiliary engine was installed as an extra generator. During the war, the boats were stationed in the Mediterranean in 1940 and their only success was the sinking of the British submarine HMS Triad by Enrico Toti on 15 October 1940. After 1941 they were used as transport submarines to supply Italian forces in North Africa, the surviving boats were scrapped after the war. One submarine, Humaytá, was built for the Brazilian navy to a modified design, the design of the Ballila-class consisted of a strong double-hull which gave the ships a maximum diving depth of 350 ft, though Domenico Millelire reached 400 ft in trials.
The boats displaced 1,427 tons surfaced and 1874 tons submerged and they were 86.5 m long with a beam of 7.8 m and a draught of 4.7 m. The boats were considered to have poor stability, the submarines were powered by 2 Fiat diesels for surface cruising and 2 Savigliano electric motors for use while submerged driving 2 shafts. These created 4,900 bhp and 2,200 hp respectively, the second diesel engine was for auxiliary purposes and for recharging the batteries, novel at the time of the boats construction. This gave the ships a speed of 16 knots surfaced and 7 knots submerged, however the initial design called for the ability to reach speeds of 17.5 knots surfaced and 8.9 knots and the subs never reached these marks. The Ballila-class boats had a range of 13,000 nmi at 10 knots, the Ballila-class was armed with 6533 mm torpedo tubes with 4 located in the bow and 2 in the stern. The submarines carried a load of 16 torpedoes, with two reloads for each bow tube and one reload for each stern tube.
The class was armed with 11924 model 120 mm /27 calibre deck gun that was placed in a shielded mounting in the forward section of the conning tower. In 1934, the class underwent a refit that upgraded the model to a 120 mm /45 calibre gun, the ships received 213.2 mm machine guns placed two single mounts. Humaytá was ordered by the Brazilian navy as a deep-diving submarine, the submarine was longer at 87 m with a shallower draught,4 m. The vessel displaced 1390 tons surfaced and 1884 tons submerged, the submarine was powered by 2 Ansaldo diesels with one electric motor creating 4,900 bhp and 900 hp respectively. This gave the ship a speed of 18.5 knots surfaced and 9.5 knots submerged, the submarine was equipped with the 6533 mm torpedo tubes with 4 located in the bow and 2 in the stern. However, the vessel had only a 4 in deck gun, All ships were built by OTO in Muggiano