Quercus frainetto, the Hungarian oak or Italian oak, is a species of oak, native to southeastern Europe and Turkey. Mesobalanus, it is a large deciduous tree, reaching heights of 38 m tall by 20 m broad, with a trunk girth of nearly 2 m. The leaves are large, 14–25 cm long up to 33 cm, variable in shape, divided into 6-10 deep parallel lobes which are divided into sublobes; the leaf stalks are short, 2–6 mm long. The leaves are widest close to the apex, broad and short pointed; the base of the leaf has auricles which sometimes overlap the twig. The light yellow green expanding leaves turn rich dark green by the beginning of summer; the leaves are covered with minute russet hairs the lower surface. The leaves are concentrated at the ends of twigs; the leaves turn brown, russet or yellow in fall and sometimes remain attached to the twigs until the following spring. The buds are large and pointed, shiny russet or light brown in colour with minute tomentum; the twigs are covered with russet upward pointed hairs.
The light brown acorns mature in about 6 months. They are 15–35 mm long, egg shaped with a blunt apex; the acorn cup is covered with russet hairs. The acorns tend to concentrate in groups of two to eight at the ends of twigs; the centre of the Quercus frainetto native range is in the Balkans. It is adapted to the subcontinental climate of southeastern Europe, but the main factor of its occurrence at a particular site is the soil, it is specially adapted to heavy acidic soils, typical of Serbia and Romania. These soils are leached out dry in the summer and sometimes waterlogged in the spring. However, the Hungarian oak does not tolerate flooding or high water tables, it is extremely sensitive to the presence of lime in the soil. Hence, in contradiction to its English vernacular name, the Hungarian oak is a rare tree in Hungary, where the soils are very rich in lime; the Hungarian oak-Turkey oak forest is the most widespread association of this oak in the Balkans, the most common forest type in Serbia.
This tree is cultivated in parks and large gardens, the cultivar'Hungarian Crown' has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. Bean, W. J.. Trees and shrubs hardy in the British Isles 8th ed. revised. John Murray. "Quercus frainetto". Flora Europaea. Edinburgh: Royal Botanical Garden. 2008. Rushforth, K.. Trees of Britain and Europe. HarperCollins ISBN 0-00-220013-9. Chênes: Quercus frainetto Quercus frainetto - information, genetic conservation units and related resources. European Forest Genetic Resources Programme
Greece the Hellenic Republic, self-identified and known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern and Southeast Europe, with a population of 11 million as of 2016. Athens is largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is located at the crossroads of Europe and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, Turkey to the northeast; the Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a large number of islands, of which 227 are inhabited. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres; the country consists of nine geographic regions: Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace and the Ionian Islands.
Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilisation, being the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, Western literature, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, Western drama and notably the Olympic Games. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as poleis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. Philip of Macedon united most of the Greek mainland in the fourth century BC, with his son Alexander the Great conquering much of the ancient world, from the eastern Mediterranean to India. Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire, in which Greek language and culture were dominant. Rooted in the first century A. D. the Greek Orthodox Church helped shape modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World. Falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence.
Greece's rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The sovereign state of Greece is a unitary parliamentary republic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, a high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the tenth member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001, it is a member of numerous other international institutions, including the Council of Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Greece's unique cultural heritage, large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance classify it as a middle power, it is the largest economy in the Balkans. The names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages and cultures.
The Greek name of the country is Hellas or Ellada, its official name is the Hellenic Republic. In English, the country is called Greece, which comes from Latin Graecia and means'the land of the Greeks'; the earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, in the Greek province of Macedonia. All three stages of the stone age are represented for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries, as Greece lies on the route via which farming spread from the Near East to Europe. Greece is home to the first advanced civilizations in Europe and is considered the birthplace of Western civilisation, beginning with the Cycladic civilization on the islands of the Aegean Sea at around 3200 BC, the Minoan civilization in Crete, the Mycenaean civilization on the mainland; these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek.
The Mycenaeans absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC, during a time of regional upheaval known as the Bronze Age collapse. This ushered from which written records are absent. Though the unearthed Linear B texts are too fragmentary for the reconstruction of the political landscape and can't support the existence of a larger state contemporary Hittite and Egyptian records suggest the presence of a single state under a "Great King" based in mainland Greece; the end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to the year of the first Olympic Games. The Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, which spread to the shores of the Black Sea, So
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between the Balkans, Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Western Asia. It is supplied by a number of major rivers, such as the Danube, Southern Bug, Dniester and the Rioni. Many countries drain into the Black Sea, including Austria, Belarus and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Moldova, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia and Ukraine; the Black Sea has an area of 436,400 km2, a maximum depth of 2,212 m, a volume of 547,000 km3. It is constrained by the Pontic Mountains to the south, Caucasus Mountains to the east, Crimean Mountains to the north, Strandzha to the southwest, Dobrogea Plateau to the northwest, features a wide shelf to the northwest; the longest east–west extent is about 1,175 km. Important cities along the coast include Batumi, Constanța, Istanbul, Novorossiysk, Ordu, Rize, Sevastopol, Sukhumi, Varna and Zonguldak; the Black Sea has a positive water balance. There is a two-way hydrological exchange: the more saline and therefore denser, but warmer, Mediterranean water flows into the Black Sea under its less saline outflow.
This creates a significant anoxic layer well below the surface waters. The Black Sea drains into the Mediterranean Sea, via the Aegean Sea and various straits, is navigable to the Atlantic Ocean; the Bosphorus Strait connects it to the Sea of Marmara, the Strait of the Dardanelles connects that sea to the Aegean Sea region of the Mediterranean. These waters separate the Caucasus and Western Asia; the Black Sea is connected, to the North, to the Sea of Azov by the Strait of Kerch. The water level has varied significantly. Due to these variations in the water level in the basin, the surrounding shelf and associated aprons have sometimes been land. At certain critical water levels it is possible for connections with surrounding water bodies to become established, it is through the most active of these connective routes, the Turkish Straits, that the Black Sea joins the world ocean. When this hydrological link is not present, the Black Sea is an endorheic basin, operating independently of the global ocean system, like the Caspian Sea for example.
The Black Sea water level is high. The Turkish Straits connect the Black Sea with the Aegean Sea, comprise the Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara and the Dardanelles; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Black Sea as follows: On the Southwest. The Northeastern limit of the Sea of Marmara. In the Kertch Strait. A line joining Cape Takil and Cape Panaghia. Current names of the sea are equivalents of the English name "Black Sea", including these given in the countries bordering the sea: Abkhazian: Амшын Еиқәа, IPA: Adyghe: Хы шӏуцӏэ, IPA: Bulgarian: Черно море, IPA: Crimean Tatar: Къара денъиз, Qara deñiz IPA: Georgian: შავი ზღვა, translit.: shavi zghva, IPA: Laz and Mingrelian: უჩა ზუღა, IPA:, or ზუღა, IPA:, "Sea" Romanian: Marea Neagră, pronounced Russian: Чёрное мо́рe, IPA: Turkish: Karadeniz, IPA: Ukrainian: Чорне море, IPA: Such names have not yet been shown conclusively to predate the 13th century, but there are indications that they may be older. In Greece, the historical name "Euxine Sea", which holds a different meaning, is still used: Greek: Éfxeinos Póntos.
The principal Greek name "Póntos Áxeinos" is accepted to be a rendering of Iranian word *axšaina-, compare Avestan axšaēna-, Old Persian axšaina-, Middle Persian axšēn/xašēn, New Persian xašīn, as well as Ossetic œxsīn. The ancient Greeks, most those living to the north of the Black Sea, subsequently adopted the name and altered it to á-xenos. Thereafter, Greek tradition refers to the Black Sea as the "Inhospitable Sea", Πόντος Ἄξεινος Póntos Áxeinos, first attested in Pindar; the name was considered to be "ominous" and was changed into the euphemistic name "Hospitable sea", Εὔξεινος Πόντος Eúxeinos Póntos, for the first time attested in Pindar. This became the used designation for the sea in Greek. In contexts related to mythology, the older form Póntos Áxeinos remained favored, it has been erroneously suggested that the name was derived from the color of the water, or was at least related to climatic conditions. Black or dark in this context, referred to a system in which colors represent the cardinal points of the known world.
Black or dark represented the north. The symbolism based on cardinal points was used in multiple occasions and is therefore attested. For example, the "Red Sea", a body of water reported since the time of Herodotus in fact designated the Indian Ocean, together with bodies of water now known as the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea. According to the same explanation and reasoning, it is therefore considered to be impossible
Pindus Mountains mixed forests
The Pindus Mountains mixed forests constitute a terrestrial ecoregion of Europe according to both the WWF and Digital Map of European Ecological Regions by the European Environment Agency. It belongs to the biome of Mediterranean forests and scrub, to the Palearctic ecozone; the Pindus Mountains mixed forests are situated in the montane parts of the southern Balkans in the wide altitudinal range above 300–500 m. They cover Taygetus on the Peloponnesus in the south, occur in the mountain ranges of Central Greece, eastern Albania and the southwestern part of the Republic of Macedonia, extend to the Drin River valley in the north and occupy 39,500 km² in the three countries; the ecoregion is landlocked and surrounded by the Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests, Illyrian deciduous forests, Dinaric Mountains mixed forests and Balkan mixed forests. The climate of the ecoregion is of Köppen's Mediterranean type with hot summers. Due to the wide altitudinal range of this ecoregion the highest elevations are covered with coniferous forests, with a mixed broadleaf zone occurring lower.
The coniferous forests are dominated by Pinus nigra subsp. Nigra var. pallasiana, Abies cephalonica and A. borisii-regis, with deciduous European Beech in the north. Juniperus foetidissima occurs near the tree line; the dominant species on the lower elevations are remarkably diverse, including Aesculus hippocastanum and various deciduous oaks. Evergreen oaks Q. calliprinos, other Mediterranean sclerophyll shrubland species are abundant on dry and rocky south-facing slopes. Phytogeographically, the ecoregion is shared between the East Mediterranean province of the Mediterranean Region and the Illyrian province of the Circumboreal Region within the Holarctic Kingdom. Mount Olympus Mount Parnassus Mount Oeta Vikos–Aoös National Park Pindus National Park Lake Prespa Mount Dajt Lurë National Park Tomorr Galičica Pelister "Pindus Mountains mixed forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most used climate classification systems. It was first published by the Russian climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several modifications by Köppen, notably in 1918 and 1936; the climatologist Rudolf Geiger introduced some changes to the classification system, thus sometimes called the Köppen–Geiger climate classification system. The Köppen climate classification divides climates into five main climate groups, with each group being divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns; the five main groups are A, B, C, D, E. Each group and subgroup is represented by a letter. All climates are assigned a main group. All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation subgroup. For example, Af indicates a tropical rainforest climate; the system assigns a temperature subgroup for all groups other than those in the A group, indicated by the third letter for climates in B, C, D, the second letter for climates in E.
For example, Cfb indicates an oceanic climate with warm summers as indicated by the ending b. Climates are classified based on specific criteria unique to each climate type. Köppen designed the system based on his experience as a botanist, so the main climate groups are based on the different variety of vegetation that grows in climates belonging to each group. In addition to identifying climates, the system can be used to analyze ecosystem conditions and identify the main types of vegetation within climates. Due to its link with the plant life of a region, the system is useful in predicting future changes in plant life within a region; the Köppen climate classification system has been further modified, within the Trewartha climate classification system in the middle 1960s. The Trewartha system sought to create a more refined middle latitude climate zone, one of the criticisms of the Köppen system; the Köppen climate classification scheme divides climates into five main climate groups: A, B, C, D, E.
The second letter indicates the seasonal precipitation type, while the third letter indicates the level of heat. Summers are defined as the 6 month period, warmer either from April–September and/or October–March while winter is the 6 month period, cooler. Group A: Tropical climates This type of climate has every month of the year with an average temperature of 18 °C or higher, with significant precipitation. Af = Tropical rainforest climate. Am = Tropical monsoon climate. Aw or As = Tropical wet and dry or savanna climate. Group B: Dry climates This type of climate is defined by little precipitation. Multiply the average annual temperature in Celsius by 20 add 280 if 70% or more of the total precipitation is in the spring and summer months, or 140 if 30%–70% of the total precipitation is received during the spring and summer, or 0 if less than 30% of the total precipitation is received during the spring and summer. If the annual precipitation is less than 50% of this threshold, the classification is BW.
A third letter can be included to indicate temperature. H signified low-latitude climate while k signified middle-latitude climate, but the more common practice today in the United States, is to use h to mean the coldest month has an average temperature above 0 °C, with k denoting that at least one month's averages below 0 °C; the n is used to denote a climate characterized by frequent fog. BWh = Hot desert climate BWk = Cold desert climate BSh = Hot semi-arid climate BSk = Cold semi-arid climateGroup C: Temperate climates This type of climate has the coldest month averaging between 0 °C and 18 °C and at least one month averaging above 10 °C. Cfa = Humid subtropical climate. No significant precipitation difference between seasons. No dry months in the summer. Cfb = Temperate oceanic climate. No significant precipitation difference between seasons. Cfc = Subpolar oceanic climate. No significant precipitation difference between seasons. Cwa = Monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate.
Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest
Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest is a temperate climate terrestrial habitat type defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature, with broadleaf tree ecoregions, with conifer and broadleaf tree mixed coniferous forest ecoregions. These forests are richest and most distinctive in central China and eastern North America, with some other globally distinctive ecoregions in the Caucasus, the Himalayas, southern Europe, the Russian Far East; the typical structure of these forests includes four layers. The uppermost layer is the canopy composed of tall mature trees ranging from 30 to 61 m high. Below the canopy is the three-layered, shade-tolerant understory, 9 to 15 m shorter than the canopy; the top layer of the understory is the sub-canopy composed of smaller mature trees and suppressed juvenile canopy layer trees awaiting an opening in the canopy. Below the sub-canopy is the shrub layer, composed of low growing woody plants; the lowest growing layer is the ground cover or herbaceous layer. In the Northern hemisphere, characteristic dominant broadleaf trees in this biome include oaks, maples, or birches.
The term "mixed forest" comes from the inclusion of coniferous trees as a canopy component of some of these forests. Typical coniferous trees include: Pines and spruces. In some areas of this biome the conifers may be a more important canopy species than the broadleaf species. In the Southern hemisphere, endemic genera such as Nothofagus and Eucalyptus occupy this biome. Furthermore, in the southern hemisphere, most coniferous trees occur in mixtures with broadleaf species, are classed as broadleaf and mixed forests. Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests occur in areas with a distinct warm and cool season, which give it a moderate annual average temperature — 3 to 15.6 °C. These forests occur in warm and rainy climates, sometimes with a distinct dry season. A dry season occurs in the winter in East Asia and in summer on the wet fringe of the Mediterranean climate zones. Other areas, as in the central and upper eastern United States and southeastern Canada, have a even distribution of rainfall.
Temperatures are moderate except in parts of Asia such as Ussuriland where temperate forests can occur despite harsh conditions with cold winters. Kuchler plant association system Mediterranean forests and scrub Temperate deciduous forest Trees of the world World Wildlife Fund−WWF Biomes: Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests biome Temperate forest Bioimages.vanderbilt.edu: Index of North American Temperate Broadleaf & Mixed Forests ecoregions Terraformers Canadian Forest Conservation Foundation
Pinus peuce is a species of pine native to the mountains of North Macedonia, Albania, Kosovo, the extreme southwest of Serbia, the extreme north of Greece, growing at 1,000-2,200 m altitude. It reaches the alpine tree line in this area; the mature size is up to 35–40 m height, 1.5 m trunk diameter. However, the height of the tree diminishes near the upper forest limit and may obtain shrub sizes, it is a member of the white pine group, Pinus subgenus Strobus, like all members of that group, the leaves are in fascicles of five, with a deciduous sheath. They are 6–11 cm long, its pine cones are 8–16 cm long up to 20 cm long, green at first, becoming yellow-brown when mature, with broad, flat to downcurved scales. The 6–7 mm long seeds have a 2 cm wing and can be wind-dispersed, but are very dispersed by spotted nutcrackers. Macedonian pine is one of the most valuable conifer species in the Balkan Peninsula, its durable wood is valued in construction, furniture production, wood-carving and cooperage.
The tree is exceptionally good at adapting to severe mountain climate conditions, which makes it a valuable species for afforestation on high terrain for protection against erosion. The local population use P. peuce resin to cure wounds, pectoral and stomach diseases, varicose veins and other illnesses. Macedonian pine is a popular ornamental tree in parks and large gardens, giving reliable steady though not fast growth on a wide range of sites, it is tolerant of severe winter cold, hardy down to at least -45 °C, of wind exposure. It is locally naturalised Punkaharju in eastern Finland. Like other European and Asian white pines, Macedonian pine is resistant to white pine blister rust; this fungal disease was accidentally introduced from Europe into North America, where it has caused severe mortality in the American native white pines in many areas. Macedonian pine is of great value for research into hybridisation and genetic modification to develop rust resistance in these species. Synonyms include Pinus cembra var. fruticosa Griseb.
Pinus excelsa var. peuce Beissn. Pinus peuce var. vermiculata Christ, Balkan pine. Pinus peuce - information, genetic conservation units and related resources. European Forest Genetic Resources Programme