Ballet is a type of performance dance that originated during the Italian Renaissance in the fifteenth century and developed into a concert dance form in France and Russia. It has since become a widespread technical form of dance with its own vocabulary based on French terminology, it has been globally influential and has defined the foundational techniques used in many other dance genres and cultures. Ballet has been taught in various schools around the world, which have incorporated their own cultures and as a result, the art has evolved in a number of distinct ways. See glossary of ballet. A ballet, a work, consists of the music for a ballet production. Ballets are performed by trained ballet dancers. Traditional classical ballets are performed with classical music accompaniment and use elaborate costumes and staging, whereas modern ballets, such as the neoclassical works of American choreographer George Balanchine, are performed in simple costumes and without the use of elaborate sets or scenery.
Ballet is a French word which had its origin in Italian balletto, a diminutive of ballo which comes from Latin ballo, meaning "to dance", which in turn comes from the Greek "βαλλίζω", "to dance, to jump about". The word came into English usage from the French around 1630. Ballet originated in the Italian Renaissance courts of the sixteenth centuries. Under Catherine de' Medici's influence as Queen, it spread to France, where it developed further; the dancers in these early court ballets were noble amateurs. Ornamented costumes were meant to impress viewers, but they restricted performers' freedom of movement; the ballets were performed in large chambers with viewers on three sides. The implementation of the proscenium arch from 1618 on distanced performers from audience members, who could better view and appreciate the technical feats of the professional dancers in the productions. French court ballet reached its height under the reign of King Louis XIV. Louis founded the Académie Royale de Danse in 1661 to establish standards and certify dance instructors.
In 1672, Louis XIV made Jean-Baptiste Lully the director of the Académie Royale de Musique from which the first professional ballet company, the Paris Opera Ballet, arose. Pierre Beauchamp served as Lully's ballet-master. Together their partnership would drastically influence the development of ballet, as evidenced by the credit given to them for the creation of the five major positions of the feet. By 1681, the first "ballerinas" took the stage following years of training at the Académie. Ballet started to decline in France after 1830, but it continued to develop in Denmark and Russia; the arrival in Europe of the Ballets Russes led by Sergei Diaghilev on the eve of the First World War revived interest in the ballet and started the modern era. In the twentieth century, ballet had a wide influence on other dance genres, Also in the twentieth century, ballet took a turn dividing it from classical ballet to the introduction of modern dance, leading to modernist movements in several countries. Famous dancers of the twentieth century include Anna Pavlova, Galina Ulanova, Rudolf Nureyev, Maya Plisetskaya, Margot Fonteyn, Rosella Hightower, Maria Tall Chief, Erik Bruhn, Mikhail Baryshnikov, Suzanne Farrell, Gelsey Kirkland, Natalia Makarova, Arthur Mitchell.
Stylistic variations and subgenres have evolved over time. Early, classical variations are associated with geographic origin. Examples of this are Russian ballet, French ballet, Italian ballet. Variations, such as contemporary ballet and neoclassical ballet, incorporate both classical ballet and non-traditional technique and movement; the most known and performed ballet style is late Romantic ballet. Classical ballet is based on vocabulary. Different styles have emerged in different countries, such as French ballet, Italian ballet, English ballet, Russian ballet. Several of the classical ballet styles are associated with specific training methods named after their creators; the Royal Academy of Dance method is a ballet technique and training system, founded by a diverse group of ballet dancers. They merged their respective dance methods to create a new style of ballet, unique to the organization and is recognized internationally as the English style of ballet; some examples of classical ballet productions are: Swan Lake, The Sleeping Beauty and The Nutcracker.
Romantic ballet was an artistic movement of classical ballet and several productions remain in the classical repertoire today. The Romantic era was marked by the emergence of pointe work, the dominance of female dancers, longer, flowy tutus that attempt to exemplify softness and a delicate aura; this movement occurred during the early to mid-nineteenth century and featured themes that emphasized intense emotion as a source of aesthetic experience. The plots of many romantic ballets revolved around spirit women who enslaved the hearts and senses of mortal men; the 1827 ballet La Sylphide is considered to be the first, the 1870 ballet Coppélia is considered to be the last. Famous ballet dancers of the Romantic era include Marie Taglioni, Fanny Elssler, Jules Perrot. Jules Perrot is known for his choreography that of Giselle considered to be the most celebrated romantic ballet. Neoclassical ballet is abstract, with no clear plot, costumes or scenery. Music choice can be diverse and will include music, neoclassical (e.g. Stravinsky
The German Hound is a breed of dog originating in Westphalia, a region of Germany. The German Hound is of the scenthound type, used for hunting both small game; the breed is referred to as the Deutsche Bracke in English, rather than by the translation of the name, German Hound. The German Hound is a small hound, 40 – 53 cm at the withers, with long, drooped ears and a long, narrow tail, it is distinguished by a long, somewhat narrow head, a rectangular body, described as "elegant". The coat has hard bristly, short fur tricolor, with white markings called Bracken marks - a white muzzle, legs and tip of the tail, a blaze on the head; the St. Hubert's Hound may have contributed to the Bracke's voice, the distinctive call made by the dogs while chasing game. Over a long period of time, Bracke developed into a variety of regional forms. In 1896, the Deutschen Bracken Club, encompassing all of the local types of Bracke in northwest Germany, was formed in Olpe; the breeds were merged in 1900 as one breed and were designated Deutsche Bracke.
This breed was called by a variety of old regional names such as "Olpe Bracke", "Sauerländer Bracke" and "Westphalian Bracke", other local types now blended into one breed. The only breeds of Bracke in the area today are the Westphalian Dachsbracke; the Westphalian Dachsbracke is a short-legged dog a cross of a Bracke with the Dachshund. Hunting with the Bracke in early times was done with hunters on horses following the hounds, as done by the ancient Celts chasing deer, modern-day fox hunters. Another sport, developed in the 16th century, did not require the expense of horses and big kennels, made use of firearms, called Brackade. Hounds hunting this way tenaciously follow the game while voicing cries that communicate to the hunter as to where the dog is and what type of game the dog is following. Today, the Deutsche Bracke is used to hunt deer, but rabbits and fox, it is hunted singly as a leash hound, to hunt on smaller areas. The space needed to hunt a pack of hounds is described by the breed club as a minimum area of 1,000 ha.
Related to the hunting with Bracke is the use of horns to communicate with the dogs, a custom, continued today. The German Hound was recognized by the Verband für das Deutsche Hundewesen through the Deutschen Bracken Club was formed in 1886 and continues today, oversees breeding and hunt testing, as well as preserving traditions of Bracke hunting; the German Hound was the first Bracke to be registered as a distinct breed, in 1900. and by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale as breed number 299 in Group 6, Section 1.3. Of the major kennel clubs in the English-speaking world, only the United Kennel Club in the US recognises the German Hound, in its Scenthound Group; the German Hound may be recognised by any of the many minor registries, rare breed groups, hunting clubs, internet registry businesses under its original name, discarded antique names, translations of the name, or variations on the name. The German Hound is a hunting dog, seen outside its native country. Outside the home country, purchasers of dogs represented as German Hound should research the dog's background if it is registered with one of the minor clubs that require little to no documentation before accepting a dog or litter for registration.
The term Bracke was used in German to mean the scenthounds. Brack is an old Low German word for a coastal marsh periodically inundated by storm surges with salt water-the English word brackish. In Europe, scenthounds are separated into running hounds or leash hounds The Bracke are used as running hounds, in packs, to hunt rabbits or foxes in a type of hunt called Brackade. No specific diseases or claims of extraordinary health have been documented for this breed. According to the original German breed club, although it is a hunting dog, it is affectionate and benefits from living with the family rather than in a kennel, it is a persistent tracking dog with a good sense of direction. The German Hound is related to the Westfälische Dachsbracke and the Drever called the Swedish Dachsbracke; the Finnenbracke is from Finland. The Alpenländische Dachsbracke is in Austria, as is the Tiroler Bracke. Hunting dog Hound Scent hound
K. Daniel O'Leary is an American psychologist, Distinguished Professor of Clinical Psychology at Stony Brook University. Much of his research has focused on the causes and prevention of intimate partner violence, as well as the long-term persistence of romantic love between married partners. In 1969, he and his wife Susan O'Leary a professor at Stony Brook, started a program there dedicated to counteracting antisocial behavior in children, he has served as president of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy, the New York chapter of the Association of Family and Conciliation Courts, section 3 of Division 12 of the American Psychological Association. In 2015, O'Leary received a $25,000 prize from the Elizabeth Hurlock Beckman Award Trust for motivating his students. In 2018, he was named a fellow of the American Association for Advancement of Science. Faculty page K. Daniel O'Leary publications indexed by Google Scholar