Ballistics is the field of mechanics concerned with the launching, flight behavior and impact effects of projectiles ranged weapon munitions such as bullets, unguided bombs, rockets or the like. A ballistic body is a free-moving body with momentum which can be subject to forces such as the forces exerted by pressurized gases from a gun barrel or a propelling nozzle, normal force by rifling, gravity and air drag during flight. A ballistic missile is a missile, guided only during the brief initial phase of powered flight and the trajectory is subsequently governed by the laws of classical mechanics; the earliest known ballistic projectiles were stones and spears, the throwing stick. The oldest evidence of stone-tipped projectiles, which may or may not have been propelled by a bow, dating to c. 64,000 years ago, were found in Sibudu Cave, present day-South Africa. The oldest evidence of the use of bows to shoot arrows dates to about 10,000 years ago, they had shallow grooves on the base. The oldest bow so far recovered is about 8,000 years old.
Archery seems to have arrived in the Americas with the Arctic small tool tradition, about 4,500 years ago. The first devices identified as guns appeared in China around 1000 AD, by the 12th century the technology was spreading through the rest of Asia, into Europe by the 13th century. After millennia of empirical development, the discipline of ballistics was studied and developed by Italian mathematician Niccolò Tartaglia in 1531, although he continued to use segments of straight-line motion, conventions established by Avicenna and Albert of Saxony, but with the innovation that he connected the straight lines by a circular arc. Galileo established the principle of compound motion in 1638, using the principle to derive the parabolic form of the ballistic trajectory. Ballistics was put on a solid scientific and mathematical basis by Isaac Newton, with the publication of Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica in 1687; this gave mathematical laws of motion and gravity which for the first time made it possible to predict trajectories.
The word ballistics comes from the Greek βάλλειν ballein, meaning "to throw". A projectile is any object projected into space by the exertion of a force. Although any object in motion through space is a projectile, the term most refers to a ranged weapon. Mathematical equations of motion are used to analyze projectile trajectory. Examples of projectiles include balls, bullets, artillery shells, etc. Throwing is the launching of a projectile by hand. Although some other animals can throw, humans are unusually good throwers due to their high dexterity and good timing capabilities, it is believed that this is an evolved trait. Evidence of human throwing dates back 2 million years; the 90 mph throwing speed found in many athletes far exceeds the speed at which chimpanzees can throw things, about 20 mph. This ability reflects the ability of the human shoulder muscles and tendons to store elasticity until it is needed to propel an object. A sling is a projectile weapon used to throw a blunt projectile such as a stone, clay or lead "sling-bullet".
A sling has a small pouch in the middle of two lengths of cord. The sling stone is placed in the pouch; the middle finger or thumb is placed through a loop on the end of one cord, a tab at the end of the other cord is placed between the thumb and forefinger. The sling is swung in an arc, the tab released at a precise moment; this frees the projectile to fly to the target. A bow is a flexible piece of material. A string joins the two ends and when the string is drawn back, the ends of the stick are flexed; when the string is released, the potential energy of the flexed stick is transformed into the velocity of the arrow. Archery is the sport of shooting arrows from bows. A catapult is a device used to launch a projectile a great distance without the aid of explosive devices — various types of ancient and medieval siege engines; the catapult has been used since ancient times, because it was proven to be one of the most effective mechanisms during warfare. The word "catapult" comes from the Latin catapulta, which in turn comes from the Greek καταπέλτης, itself from κατά, "against” and πάλλω, "to toss, to hurl".
Catapults were invented by the ancient Greeks. A gun is a tubular weapon or other device designed to discharge projectiles or other material; the projectile may be solid, gas, or energy and may be free, as with bullets and artillery shells, or captive as with Taser probes and whaling harpoons. The means of projection varies according to design but is effected by the action of gas pressure, either produced through the rapid combustion of a propellant or compressed and stored by mechanical means, operating on the projectile inside an open-ended tube in the fashion of a piston; the confined gas accelerates the movable projectile down the length of the tube imparting sufficient velocity to sustain the projectile's travel once the action of the gas ceases at the end of the tube or muzzle. Alternatively, acceleration via electromagnetic field generation may be employed in which case the tube may be dispensed with and a guide rail substituted. A rocket is a missile, aircraft
Solomon's Perjury is a 2016 South Korean television series starring Kim Hyun-soo, Jang Dong-yoon, Seo Ji-hoon, Seo Young-joo and Cho Jae-hyun based on the novel of the same title by Japanese novelist Miyuki Miyabe. It aired on cable network JTBC on Fridays and Saturdays at 20:30 KST from December 16, 2016 to January 28, 2017 with 12 episodes. A student from an elite high school fell to his death on Christmas Day. Just as the police and the school were ready to wrap it up as a suicide, a student claimed to have witnessed the murder; that witness got into car accident soon after. The students became uneasy. Hounded by the media and frustrated with the surrounding adults who ignored their pleas and questions, they decided to hold their own school trial, where each student had their own role to play. Kim Hyun-soo as Go Seo-yeonA student at a well-known high school, she has good intelligence and strong determination. Although as a class president, she tries to help the weak ones from time to time, she's just a simple girl who wants to pass high school smoothly and enter a good college.
A murder incident at the school will change her life. She acts as a prosecutor in the school trial. Jang Dong-yoon as Han Ji-hoonAn adopted son of a former prosecutor, he is a student from another school who has a dark secret that can be the key to solving the case. A cellist and Lee So-woo's best friend, he assumes the identity of The Watchman of Jung Guk High School, he acts as a defense attorney in the school trial. Seo Ji-hoon as Bae Joon-youngThe first one who found Lee So-woo's body. Growing up in a dysfunctional family, he is being suspected by his own mother and had suicidal thoughts for a while. Has a crush on Go Seo-yeon, he acts as an assistant attorney in the school trial. Seo Young-joo as Lee So-wooThe dead student, he tries not to be a stand-out, but has a keen observation skill as well as a cynical view of the world. He was the original owner of The Watchman of Jung Guk High School. Cho Jae-hyun as Han Kyung-moonHe is the legal counsel of the school's foundation and a former prosecutor.
He adopted Ji-hoon and supported him, to the point that he is ready to conceal anything that can ruin his adopted son's life. ClassmatesBaek Chul-min as Choi Woo-hyukThe defendant in the school trial, since many students saw him and Lee So-woo fight near the time of his death. Shin Se-hwi as Lee Joo-riThe supposed witness of the murder of Lee So-woo. Woo Ki-hoon as Kim Min-sukThe deputy class president. A studious and rigid boy, he acts as the judge in the school trial. Seo Shin-ae as Park Cho-rongClassmate of Go Seo-yeon and Bae Joon-young, close friend of Lee Joo-ri. She's in a coma after a car accident. Kim So-hee as Kim Soo-heeBest friends with Go Seo-yeon and Lee Yoo-jin, part of the prosecutors team in the school trial. Ahn Sol-bin as Lee Yoo-jinClose friend of Go Seo-yeon and Kim Soo-hee, part of the prosecutors team in the school trial; the AdultsAhn Nae-sang as Go Sang-joong Go Seo-yeon's father. He is a detective. Kim Yeo-jin as Go Seo-yeon's motherBeing the mother of Go Seo-yeon, she is ready to defend her family and fight for what is right.
Lee Kyung-shim as Bae Joon-young's motherThe mother of Bae Joon-young, a depressed and sick woman who suspects that her son has something to do with Lee So-woo's death. Choi Joon-yong as Choi Woo-hyuk's fatherThe father of Choi Woo-hyuk, an arrogant man who always uses money and power to take care of problems. Shim Yi-young as Detective OhThe detective in charge of the dead student's case. Heo Jung-do as Reporter ParkA reporter who takes a big interest in the case and the students' trial. Shin Eun-jung as teacher KimA teacher at the high school that Ji-hoon attend. Ji Yi-soo as Homeroom teacherShe is the homeroom teacher of class 2-1. Oh Yoon-hong as Student advisorA stern and uncompromising teacher, she can be mean to the students. Yoo Ha-bok as The PrincipalHe is the principal of the high school, he has many hidden secrets. Ryu Tae-ho as The Vice PrincipalThe vice principal of the high school, he is confused as to whether he should be on students' side. In this table, the blue numbers represent the lowest ratings and the red numbers represent the highest ratings.
This drama airs on a cable channel/pay TV which has a smaller audience compared to free-to-air TV/public broadcasters. Episode 5-6 were delayed a week due to the special New Year broadcast of JTBC's variety shows Phantom Singer and Package Tour on December 30–31, 2016; the series is directed by Kang Il-soo. JTBC released the first video teaser on November 18, 2016 through the YouTube channel of its drama unit; the first cast and crew meeting was held on November 22, 2016 at the JTBC studios in Sangam-dong, Seoul. Streaming rights to this drama is held by On Demand Korea and Viki. the 2015 two-part movie series based on the same novel Solomon's Perjury official JTBC website Solomon's Perjury at HanCinema Solomon's Perjury on IMDb Solomon's Perjury on Naver TV
Press is a 2010 Turkish drama film directed by Sedat Yılmaz that tells the story of six employees at the Diyarbakır office of Turkey's first Kurdish language daily newspaper. The film was selected for the 47th Antalya "Golden Orange" International Film Festival; the English word was used in the original title of the film because of the double meaning of the word, both describing the work done and the pressure on the journalists. Director Sedat Yılmaz has stated, I am not Kurdish, but, I wanted to tell this story out of solidarity with the Kurdish people and with Gündem newspaper. Gündem is a important newspaper in the press tradition of Turkey. Maybe the real meaning of its importance will be understood later, it is the early 1990s, a handful of journalists are trying to attract the world’s attention to the ongoing human rights abuses in Diyarbakır. Eighteen year- old Firat opens up and cleans the newspaper office everyday, helps with distribution. While researching the disappearance of five villagers, journalist Kadir discovers the traces of a paramilitary gang.
In addition to struggling with usual technical difficulties of a small operation, the newspaper is subjected to various attempts to intimidate them and prevent their courageous reports from coming to light. Following increased threats and attacks, Firat volunteers to guard the office at night, by day he tries to learn the trade; when the newspaper’s distribution to Diyarbakır is blocked, the team has to come up with new ways to reach their readership. The film premiered in competition at the 47th Antalya "Golden Orange" International Film Festival on October 12, 2010, where some of the audience protested the Kurdish-speaking actor and left the hall. 47th Antalya "Golden Orange" International Film Festival Turkish films of 2010
Tank is an independent UK-based magazine launched in 1998. It is a quarterly publication, printed in the UK, that covers contemporary culture, art, architecture and politics; the magazine is considered one of the pioneering publications in boutique magazine publishing, balancing fewer advertisements with a high cover price. Since its launch, the Tank group has expanded to include Tank Form, tank.tv, TankBooks and Because magazine. Tank was launched by editor-in-chief Masoud Golsorkhi and art director Andreas Laeufer in September 1998; the first issue was published in the form of a thick, miniature book. Its slogan “Small tank, big fish” began a trend where thinkers, writers and photographers could look beyond conventional areas of discussion. In 2002, upon Laeufer’s departure, Caroline Issa was appointed the magazine’s publisher and fashion director. Issa was established as a “perennial street style favourite” and “fixture on the fashion week circuit”; the independent magazine has produced a number of different incarnations: bulk pocket book, large wire-bound magazine and a rectangular perfect-bound edition.
Tank’s independent editorial platform takes its motto “Elitism for All” from a maxim by Jean-François Lyotard. Each issue revolves around theoretical framework. Past subjects have included: revolution, reality and the city. Ane Lynge-Jorlén described the magazine as one of the alternative fashion publications. Launched in 2003, Tank Form is an independent, boutique creative agency that grew out of Tank magazine. Describing itself as "specialist, not generalist", the agency provides a creative consultancy. Tank Form is run by group creative director and editor-in-chief Masoud Golsorkhi, CEO Caroline Issa. Special projects have included sponsored publications created for Prada and Levi's.... And? was a pink broadsheet newspaper created for Prada. MINED, a palindrome of the word ‘denim’, was a thick magazine created for Levi’s, it won the D&AD Yellow Pencil Editorial and Book Design Award in 2002. TankBooks features unabridged classics in the form of cigarette packs, their release coincided with the ban on smoking in public places in the UK.
Created for “lovers of literature and connoisseurs of design”. TankBooks repackages the works of Joseph Conrad, Ernest Hemingway, Rudyard Kipling, Leo Tolstoy, Franz Kafka and Robert Louis Stevenson; the cigarette books received an iF product design award in 2008. O: by Tank was a luxury fashion supplement created for The Observer, it focused on the world of fashion and beauty. Published four times a year, O: functioned both as a shopping guide and a source of inspiration for upcoming seasons. From 2012, the supplement was accompanied with a free mobile application called Fashion Scan; the application uses image-recognition technology to link the pages of the supplement with online video content. Tank.tv, an online platform established in 2003, profiles contemporary artists, both emerging and prominent, that work in moving image and video formats. Tank.tv collaborated on a number of events with international art institutions, including: Tate Modern, Center for Art and Media Karlsruhe and the Institute of Contemporary Arts.
Turner Prize winning artist Laure Provoust directed Tank.tv from 2004-2011, initiating discussion with and invitations to artists and curators including Paul McCarthy, Pipilotti Rist, Jeremy Deller, John Latham, Hans-Ulrich Obrist, Stuart Comer, John Bock and Negar Azimi. All work commissioned by and invited onto tank.tv is archived and available to view on the website,In 2013, a decade after launching, tank.tv opened an exhibition space on Great Portland Street, London. The gallery, a not for profit Arts Council supported public space, dedicated it's programme to new media experimentation through exhibitions, lecture-performances and audio-visual events. Two key online residencies were with London-based gallery and publisher Arcadia Missa and curatorial team Sanssouci Realty; because is Tank's digital sister publication, launched in 2009 with the strapline "How to look amazing and where to go when you do". Caroline Issa is the magazine’s editor-in-chief. Tank Magazine Official Website
Alavuden Peli-Veikot ry or APV is a sports club in Alavus, Finland. APV was founded in 1953 as a speciality football club – tradition holds that it was the first specialty football club to be founded in rural Finland – but expanded to include other sports over time; the club now offers programs in football, ice hockey, pesäpallo and is best known for its youth and junior teams. APV’s representative ice hockey teams play in the men’s fourth-tier II-divisioona and in the women’s highest-tier Naisten Liiga; the club’s representative men’s pesäpallo team plays in the Suomensarja, the third-tier league below the Superpesis and Ykköspesis. Football spread to Alavus and the surrounding countryside from the urban centers of Vaasa and Tampere; the new sport was first practiced in Alavus at the Jokivarren School in 1908. By the 1940s the game was established in the region, where informal games were played in pastures and hayfields. Alavuden Urheilijat was the first club in Alavus to organize a football division under its sports department and the first official games in Alavus were played in 1947.
Early on, there was interest amongst footballers to create a specialty club but the project was delayed by economic issues. However, plans to establish a club began to materialize when the municipality of Alavus gained ownership of the central sports field; the founding meeting for Alavuden Peli-Veikot was held at 1 pm on 19 April 1953 in the Kyntäjän Cooperative. Armas Korpela, football chairman of the Alavuden Urheilijat at that time, was integral to the success of the founding meeting. With newspaper announcements and posters, he invited alumnus football players to attend “in large numbers.” The meeting minutes recorded 22 people in attendance but contemporary accounts describe a crowd that extended down the stairs to the front door. The Football Association of Finland was represented by Anselm Anttila, in whom APV found a stalwart supporter. Alavuden Urheilijat ry donated all of their kits and equipment to the newly created club. Alavuden Peli-Veikot was granted membership to the Football Association of Finland on 18 May 1953 and the club was registered on 14 September 1953.
Early on, APV supported a project to establish a skating rink in Alavus. The project was funded and supported from community donations, the municipality did not provide any grants to the initial construction or maintenance. Donations of note included an initial monetary donation made by Urmas Seppä with his wife and pharmacist Hannes Leinonen, some lumber donated by Mr. Hakkola of Hakkola Sawmill in Tuuri, the efforts of Nepa Sinkkonen, who transformed an old truck engine into a water pump to spray water through an attached hose and resurface the ice. Operating the ice rink became unsustainable after several years and the project was ended. Ice hockey was included in APV’s program in 1964. Alavus Areena serves as home ice for women's representative teams; the arena can seat 421 spectators. The men’s representative team plays in the Keskimaan lohko of the II-divisoona; the team won the regional championship in the 2012–13 season and progressed to the Suomi-sarja qualifiers, they did not earn promotion at that time.
In December 2019, the women’s representative team gained promotion to the Alempi jatkosarja of the Naisten Liiga from the Ristiinkarsinta of the Naisten Mestis. The promotion marks the team’s first return to the top-tier Naisten Liiga since the 2009–10 season. APV’s junior program is well regarded and has produced such players as Kärpät forward and Olympic medalist Saila Saari, goaltender Pekka Tuokkola, coach Tuomas Tuokkola, defenceman Lauri Taipalus. Rally driver Jari-Matti Latvala played junior hockey at APV. Petteri Haveri, alternate-captain of Peliitat Heinola Katja Manninen, Naisten Liiga player from 2003 to 2005 Saila Saari, won bronze with Naisleijonat at the 2018 Winter Olympics Lauri Taipalus, awarded Liiga Most Assists by a Defenseman Eveliina Tuokkola, Naisten Liiga player from 2003 to 2006 Pekka Tuokkola, Liiga Champion and Jari Kurri Award winner in the 2008–09 season Tuomas Tuokkola, head coach of KooKoo since 2016 APV’s men’s representative pesäpallo team has competed in the Suomensarja since 2014.
Content in this edit is translated from the existing Finnish Wikipedia article at fi:Alavuden Peli-Veikot. Official website
Anita Ama Ankyewah Asante is an English football defender playing for Chelsea in the FA WSL. Her name, “Ama” is a Ghanaian Akan name given to girls born on Saturday, she is a Ghanaian by descent as her name shows. She has made 71 appearances for the English national team and was selected in the Great Britain squad for the 2012 London Olympics. Asante has played for English side Arsenal, for Saint Louis Athletica, Chicago Red Stars, Washington Freedom and Sky Blue FC in Women's Professional Soccer. Before signing for FC Rosengård in 2013, she had spent two seasons in Sweden with Göteborg. Asante studied politics and English BA at the Business School of Brunel University in London, whilst benefiting from the UK "Government's Talented Athletes Scholarship Scheme", which helps athletes in full-time education. While in America she began a PhD in the governorship of women's football. Anita wishes to complete her PhD after her professional playing career. Asante joined her first club Arsenal as a junior in 1998.
She became a senior player in 2003/2004 season. Asante was part of the Arsenal team that won the quadruple in 2006/2007, collecting the UEFA Women's Cup, FA Women's National Premier League, FA Women's Cup and the FA Women's Premier League Cup. Asante was part of the Arsenal team that made history by being the first team outside Germany or Scandinavia to win the UEFA Women's Cup. Asante is reported to have played exceptionally well in the final. On 3 July 2008, it was announced that Asante along with teammate Lianne Sanderson had joined Chelsea Ladies. Upon signing Asante said: "I want to compete with the likes of Arsenal and Everton and get to some finals, like the League Cup Final, but I don't want to assume anything. But it is such a great squad here at Chelsea, with lots of young players. We know a lot of the younger players who were at Arsenal before and our England team mates, but there are so many other players who want to win things and will be up for it this season." Arsenal manager Vic Akers publicly criticized the players after their departure: "You think you've the respect of players, they do that.
It's a sorry state of affairs."In 2009 Asante joined New Jersey–based WPS franchise Sky Blue FC. She helped. On 6 May 2010 Asante was traded to the Saint Louis Athletica in return for India Trotter; when the Saint Louis Athletica folded on 27 May 2010, she was acquired by the Chicago Red Stars. She was subsequently traded to the Washington Freedom on 6 August 2010. In December 2010 Asante returned for a second spell at Sky Blue FC, after Jim Gabarra, her coach at Washington Freedom, took the reins at Sky Blue. With the demise of WPS prior to the 2012 season, Asante signed a contract with Swedish club Kopparbergs/Göteborg FC, her first match for Göteborg was back at Arsenal in the UEFA Women's Champions League quarter final, a 3–1 first leg defeat. Asante played 41 league games for Göteborg over the two seasons, she won the Swedish Cup and the Swedish Super Cup with KGFC, before she signed for national champions LdB FC Malmö in October 2013. Due to a foot injury, it was not expected that Asante could play in Malmö's looming Champions League fixture with holders VfL Wolfsburg.
Asante, won several titles at FC Rosengård including the Damallsvenskan league 2014, 2015, the Swedish Cup 2016 and the Swedish Super Cup 2016, 2017 and runners up in 2015. Anita has reached the quarter finals of Champions League three seasons with FCR. Asante played in the England Under 17 team, she was a member and captain of the England Under 19s and played in the inaugural FIFA World Under 19 Championship in Canada in 2002. She won 11 international caps in all at this level, she was in the first call up for the England Under 21s in 2004, a month after her senior international début. Asante made her senior international début as a substitute against Iceland in May 2004, her first full international was against Northern Ireland in March 2005. She scored her first international goal in only her second full international, against Norway in April 2005; this turned out to be the winning goal. Asante was named in England's squad for Euro 2005. Asante played in the 2011 World Cup and made her 50th senior international appearance in England's 2–0 win over eventual champions Japan.
Having been part of the English squad which reached the final of Euro 2009, Asante was confident of England's chances ahead of Euro 2013. She was substituted at half time in England's 3–0 defeat to France which sealed a first round elimination. In 2015 politically active Asante was "a glaring omission" from England's squad for the 2015 World Cup in Canada, she had been the only English player to sign a petition against the controversial artificial turf used at the tournament. In June 2012 Asante was named in the 18–player Great Britain squad for the 2012 London Olympics, she played in all four games. Scores and results list England's goal tally first PersonalOutstanding Achievement Awards – 19 May 2006 - Presented by the Queen at Brunel University Player of the year – Sports Award – Nationwide Player of the month – March 2006TeamUEFA Women's Cup – 2007 FA Women's Cup – 2004, 2006, 2007, 2008 FA Women's National Premier League – 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 FA Women's Premier League Cup – 2005, 2005, 2007 Quadruple winners – 2007 Double winners – 2006, 2008 Svenska Cupen – 2012 Svenska Su