California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
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Sepulveda Boulevard is a major street and transportation corridor in the City of Los Angeles and several other cities in western Los Angeles County, California. It is around 42.8 miles in length, making it the longest street in the city and county of Los Angeles. The Boulevard is known as an area of prostitution. Sepulveda Boulevard runs from Long Beach north through the South Bay and Westside regions, over the Santa Monica Mountains at Sepulveda Pass to northern San Fernando Valley, it passes underneath two of the runways of Los Angeles International Airport. Portions of Sepulveda Boulevard are designated as Pacific Coast Highway. In 1769, the Spanish Portola expedition, the first Europeans to see inland areas of California, traveled north through Sepulveda pass on August 5; the party had been travelling west, intending to reach and follow the coast, but were discouraged by the steep coastal cliffs beginning at today's Pacific Palisades and decided to detour inland. They followed it into the San Fernando Valley.
Sepulveda Boulevard is named for the Sepulveda family of California. The termination of Sepulveda is on a part of the Sepulveda family ranch, Rancho Palos Verdes, which consisted of 31,619 acres of the Palos Verdes Peninsula. In 1784 the Spanish land grant for Rancho San Pedro was issued to Juan Jose Dominguez by King Carlos III—the Spanish Empire. A judicial decree was made by Governor José Figueroa, intended to settle the land dispute between the Domínguez and Sepúlveda families; the rancho was formally divided in 1846, with Governor Pío Pico granting Rancho de los Palos Verdes to José Loreto and Juan Capistrano Sepulveda. Sepulveda Boulevard begins in Long Beach at its intersection with Willow Street and the Terminal Island Freeway. Willow Street extends to the east from here crossing into Orange County and becoming Katella Avenue, a major thoroughfare across that county; the avenue becomes Villa Park Road after passing east of Wanda Road. A block or two the first half of Orange ends and enters the enclave city of Villa Park.
A short while the road reenters Orange and a block changes name to become Santiago Canyon Road at the intersection of Linda Vista Street / Santiago Boulevard. From this point on, it continues going east. Sepulveda Boulevard from SR 103 goes westward through Carson to the Harbor Freeway, where it turns northwest, passing through the unincorporated area of West Carson and Harbor Gateway, Torrance. After entering Redondo Beach, signage changes to Camino Real as it heads to Torrance Boulevard; the route heads a few blocks west along Torrance Boulevard and joins Pacific Coast Highway. The Pacific Coast Highway was on a section of the 19th century El Camino Real crossing the Rancho Sausal Redondo; the present day Camino Real section has El Camino Real bell markers along it. From Torrance Boulevard north to Artesia Boulevard, signage on the SR 1/Sepulveda Boulevard overlap reads "Pacific Coast Highway" as it passes through Hermosa Beach. Sepulveda Boulevard signage resumes north of Artesia, it goes through Manhattan Beach and El Segundo.
Sepulveda Boulevard resumes its name upon entering Los Angeles, crosses the western terminus of the Century Freeway, goes through the LAX Airport Tunnel to pass under its runways. The road passes through an interchange with Century Boulevard, which provides access to LAX's terminals to the west and the San Diego Freeway to the east. At the north end of LAX, SR 1/PCH branches to the west as Lincoln Boulevard while Sepulveda Boulevard continues north to become a primary thoroughfare through the Westside region cities and communities of Westchester, Culver City, West Los Angeles, Westwood. In Culver City, north of Slauson Avenue, it merges for a few blocks with Jefferson Boulevard. From Jefferson, Sepulveda Boulevard runs parallel to I-405 as it goes through West Los Angeles and Westwood, passing the Los Angeles National Cemetery. After going past Bel Air, it parallels the freeway up the Sepulveda Canyon. At the Skirball Cultural Center, Sepulveda Boulevard curves west away from I-405, passes through a tunnel under Mulholland Drive, follows a serpentine route down the north side of the Sepulveda Pass.
It passes under I-405 just before crossing Ventura Boulevard in Sherman Oaks. Sepulveda Boulevard runs parallel to the east of I-405, crossing the Ventura Freeway and the Los Angeles Metro Orange Line rapid transit route, through San Fernando Valley communities of Van Nuys and North Hills, to its northern terminus at the Rinaldi Street interchange with I-405 in Mission Hills. There is a separate section of Sepulveda Boulevard in Sylmar, running from Roxford Street to San Fernando Road, a frontage road along the Golden State Freeway. Prior to the construction of the 405 freeway in the 1960s, that disjunct piece and the main section of Sepulveda Boulevard were one continuous street, separated when the 405 freeway interchange with the Golden State Freeway was built atop the section between Rinaldi and Roxford Streets. Public transit along Sepulveda Boulevard is provided by several different bus lines; the north south-part provides bus service in the San Fernando Valley and through the Sepulveda Pass by Metro Local line 234 and Metr
Marina del Rey, California
Marina del Rey is an unincorporated seaside community in Los Angeles County, with a marina, a major boating and water recreation destination of the greater Los Angeles area. The marina is North America's largest man-made small-craft harbor and is home to 5,000 boats; the area is a popular tourism destination for water activities such as paddle board and kayak rentals, dining cruises, yacht charters. This Westside locale is 4 miles south of Santa Monica, 4 miles north of Los Angeles International Airport; the harbor is owned by Los Angeles County and is operated by the County's Department of Beaches and Harbors. The population was 8,866 at the 2010 census. For statistical purposes, the United States Census Bureau has defined Marina del Rey as a census-designated place; the census definition of the area may not correspond to local understanding of the area with the same name. The Los Angeles Times said in a 1997 editorial that the harbor is "perhaps the county's most valuable resource". Prior to its development as a small craft harbor, the land occupied by Marina del Rey was a salt marsh fed by fresh water from Ballona Creek, frequented by duck hunters and few others.
Burton W. Chace, a member of the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors, referred to the area as mud flats, though today the area would more properly be referred to as wetlands. In the mid-19th century, Moye C. Wicks thought of turning this Playa del Rey estuary into a commercial port, he formed the Ballona Development Company in 1888 to develop the area, but three years the company went bankrupt. Port Ballona made by Louis Mesmer and Moye Wicks was sold to Moses Sherman. Sherman purchased 1,000 acres of land around the Ballona lagoon and Port Ballona in 1902 under the name the Beach Land Company. Sherman and Clark renamed the land "Del Rey". Port Ballona was renamed Playa Del Rey; the port was serviced by the California Central Railway opened in September 1887, this line became the Santa Fe Railway, that became the Atchison and Santa Fe Railroad. The rail line ran from the port to Redondo junction. A street car tram line was made to the Port by the Redondo and Hermosa Beach Railroad company, that had incorporated on February 21, 1901.
This company was part of the Los Angeles Pacific Railroad owned by Sherman. The tram line opened December 1902 departed downtown at Broadway. In 1916, the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers revisited the idea of a commercial harbor, but declared it economically impractical. In 1936 the U. S. Congress ordered a re-evaluation of that determination, the Army Corps of Engineers returned with a more favorable determination. In 1953, the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors authorized a $2 million loan to fund construction of the marina. Since the loan only covered about half the cost, the U. S. Congress passed and President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed Public Law 780 making construction possible. Ground breaking began shortly after. With construction complete, the marina was put in danger in 1962–1963 due to a winter storm; the storm caused millions of dollars in damage to both the marina and the few small boats anchored there. A plan was put into effect to build a breakwater at the mouth of the marina, the L.
A. County Board of Supervisors appropriated $2.1 million to build it. On April 10, 1965 Marina del Rey was formally dedicated; the total cost of the marina was $36.25 million for land and initial operation. Los Angeles County solicited bids for the marina's development, selling 60 year leaseholds to willing developers. Real estate developer Abraham M. Lurie was the single largest leaseholder responsible for the building of three hotels, two apartment complexes, 1,000 boat slips, several shopping centers, restaurants, he ran into cash flow problems and sold a 49.9% interest to Saudi Arabian Sheik Abdul Aziz al Ibrahim, a brother of Waleed bin Ibrahim Al Ibrahim and a brother-in-law of King Fahd. Marina del Rey falls within unincorporated Los Angeles County and is southeast of the L. A. City community of Venice and north of the L. A. City community of Playa del Rey, near the mouth of Ballona Creek, it is located four miles north of Los Angeles International Airport. It is bounded on all sides by the City of Los Angeles.
The beach-style homes, the strip of land against the beach, the beach itself, west of the harbor, are within the City of Los Angeles limits, but share the same zip code as Marina del Rey. The name of this strip is the Marina Peninsula. Via Dolce and the southern portion of Via Marina are the boundaries between L. A. City and the unincorporated area. According to the United States Census Bureau, Marina del Rey has an area of 1.5 square miles. Nine-tenths of a square mile is land and 0.6 square miles is water. The marina itself, a specially designed harbor with moorings for pleasure craft and small boats, is surrounded by high-rise condos, apartments and restaurants; the area includes the University of Southern California Information Sciences Institute, the UCLA Marina Aquatic Center, the Loyola Marymount University boathouse. The community is served by the three-mile-long Marina Freeway, which links Marina del Rey directly to Interstate 405 and nearby Culver City; the area codes of Marina del
A river mouth is the part of a river where the river debouches into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea, or an ocean. The water from a river can enter the receiving body in a variety of different ways; the motion of a river is influenced by the relative density of the river compared to the receiving water, the rotation of the earth, any ambient motion in the receiving water, such as tides or seiches. If the river water has a higher density than the surface of the receiving water, the river water will plunge below the surface; the river water will either form an underflow or an interflow within the lake. However, if the river water is lighter than the receiving water, as is the case when fresh river water flows into the sea, the river water will float along the surface of the receiving water as an overflow. Alongside these advective transports, inflowing water will diffuse. At the mouth of a river, the change in flow condition can cause the river to drop any sediment it is carrying; this sediment deposition can generate a variety of landforms, such as deltas, sand bars and tie channels.
Many places in the United Kingdom take their names from their positions at the mouths of rivers, such as Plymouth and Great Yarmouth. Confluence River delta Estuary Liman
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds. The term pesticide includes all of the following: herbicide, insecticides nematicide, piscicide, rodenticide, insect repellent, animal repellent and fungicide; the most common of these are herbicides which account for 80% of all pesticide use. Most pesticides are intended to serve as plant protection products, which in general, protect plants from weeds, fungi, or insects. In general, a pesticide is a chemical or biological agent that deters, kills, or otherwise discourages pests. Target pests can include insects, plant pathogens, molluscs, mammals, fish and microbes that destroy property, cause nuisance, or spread disease, or are disease vectors. Along with these benefits, pesticides have drawbacks, such as potential toxicity to humans and other species; the Food and Agriculture Organization has defined pesticide as: any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, or controlling any pest, including vectors of human or animal disease, unwanted species of plants or animals, causing harm during or otherwise interfering with the production, storage, transport, or marketing of food, agricultural commodities and wood products or animal feedstuffs, or substances that may be administered to animals for the control of insects, arachnids, or other pests in or on their bodies.
The term includes substances intended for use as a plant growth regulator, desiccant, or agent for thinning fruit or preventing the premature fall of fruit. Used as substances applied to crops either before or after harvest to protect the commodity from deterioration during storage and transport. Pesticides can be classified by target organism, chemical structure, physical state. Biopesticides include biochemical pesticides. Plant-derived pesticides, or "botanicals", have been developing quickly; these include the pyrethroids, nicotinoids, a fourth group that includes strychnine and scilliroside. Many pesticides can be grouped into chemical families. Prominent insecticide families include organochlorines and carbamates. Organochlorine hydrocarbons could be separated into dichlorodiphenylethanes, cyclodiene compounds, other related compounds, they operate by disrupting the sodium/potassium balance of the nerve fiber, forcing the nerve to transmit continuously. Their toxicities vary but they have been phased out because of their persistence and potential to bioaccumulate.
Organophosphate and carbamates replaced organochlorines. Both operate through inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, allowing acetylcholine to transfer nerve impulses indefinitely and causing a variety of symptoms such as weakness or paralysis. Organophosphates are quite toxic to vertebrates and have in some cases been replaced by less toxic carbamates. Thiocarbamate and dithiocarbamates are subclasses of carbamates. Prominent families of herbicides include phenoxy and benzoic acid herbicides, triazines and Chloroacetanilides. Phenoxy compounds tend to selectively kill broad-leaf weeds rather than grasses; the phenoxy and benzoic acid herbicides function similar to plant growth hormones, grow cells without normal cell division, crushing the plant's nutrient transport system. Triazines interfere with photosynthesis. Many used pesticides are not included in these families, including glyphosate; the application of pest control agents is carried out by dispersing the chemical in a solvent-surfactant system to give a homogeneous preparation.
A virus lethality study performed in 1977 demonstrated that a particular pesticide did not increase the lethality of the virus, however combinations which included some surfactants and the solvent showed that pretreatment with them markedly increased the viral lethality in the test mice. Pesticides can be classified based upon their biological mechanism application method. Most pesticides work by poisoning pests. A systemic pesticide moves inside a plant following absorption by the plant. With insecticides and most fungicides, this movement is upward and outward. Increased efficiency may be a result. Systemic insecticides, which poison pollen and nectar in the flowers, may kill bees and other needed pollinators. In 2010, the development of a new class of fungicides called; these work by taking advantage of natural defense chemicals released by plants called phytoalexins, which fungi detoxify using enzymes. The paldoxins inhibit the fungi's detoxification enzymes, they are believed to be greener.
Since before 2000 BC, humans have utilized pesticides to protect their crops. The first known pesticide was elemental sulfur dusting used in ancient Sumer about 4,500 years ago in ancient Mesopotamia; the Rig Veda, about 4,000 years old, mentions the use of poisonous plants for pest control. By the 15th century, toxic chemicals such as arsenic and lead were being applied to crops to kill pests. In the 17th century, nicotine sulfate was extracted from tobacco leaves for use as an insecticide; the 19th century saw the introduction of two more natural pesticides, derived fr