The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Ernst & Young
Ernst & Young is a multinational professional services firm headquartered in London, United Kingdom. EY is one of the largest professional services firms in the world. Over the recent years, as a firm, EY has shifted its historical business focus from traditional audit profile towards consulting. In particular, EY advanced its market presence in strategic consulting and entered into direct competition with what has been a traditional field of "Big Three" companies, namely Bain, McKinsey and BCG. By series of acquisitions and shift of market focus, EY expanded its market share in areas including operations services consulting, strategy services consulting, HR services consulting, financial services consulting & technology services consulting. EY operates as a network of member firms, it has 270,000 employees in over 700 offices around 150 countries in the world. It provides assurance, tax and advisory services to companies; the firm dates back to 1849 with the founding of Pullein in England. The current firm was formed by a merger of Ernst & Whinney and Arthur Young & Co. in 1989.
It was known as Ernst & Young until 2013 when it underwent a rebranding to EY. The acronym "EY" was an informal name for the firm prior to its official adoption. In 2018, Fortune magazine ranked EY 52nd on the 100 Best Companies to Work For list. In 2017, EY was the 9th largest owned organization in the United States. EY is the result of a series of mergers of ancestor organizations; the oldest originating partnership was founded in 1849 in England as Pullein. In that year the firm was joined by Frederick Whinney, he was made a partner in 1859 and with his sons in the business, it was renamed Whinney Smith & Whinney in 1894. In 1903, the firm of Ernst & Ernst was established in Cleveland, US by Alwin C. Ernst and his brother Theodore and in 1906, Arthur Young & Co. was set up by the Scotsman Arthur Young in Chicago. As early as 1924, these American firms allied with prominent British firms, Young with Broads Paterson & Co. and Ernst with Whinney Smith & Whinney. In 1979, this led to the formation of Anglo-American Ernst & Whinney, creating the fourth largest accountancy firm in the world.
In 1989, the number four firm Ernst & Whinney merged with the number five, Arthur Young, on a global basis to create Ernst & Young. In October 1997, EY announced plans to merge its global practices with KPMG to create the largest professional services organization in the world, coming on the heels of another merger plan announced in September 1997 by Price Waterhouse and Coopers & Lybrand; these plans were abandoned in February 1998 due to client opposition, antitrust issues, cost problems and difficulty of merging the two diverse firms and cultures. EY had built up its consulting arm during the 1980s and 1990s; the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission and members of the investment community began to raise concerns about potential conflicts of interest between the consulting and auditing work amongst the Big Five and in May 2000, EY was the first of the firms to formally and separate its consulting practices via a sale to the French IT services company Capgemini for $11 billion in stock, creating the new company of Capgemini Ernst & Young, renamed Capgemini.
In 2002, EY took over many of the ex-Arthur Andersen practices around the world, although not those in the United Kingdom, China, or the Netherlands. In 2006, EY became the only member of the Big Four to have two member firms in the United States, with the inclusion of Mitchell & Titus, LLP, the largest minority-owned accounting firm in the United States. In April 2009, Reuters reported that EY launched an initiative encouraging its staff in China to take 40 days of low-pay leave between July 2009 and June 2010 due to the economic turndown; those who participated got benefits of a full-time employee. The initiative applied to employees in Hong Kong and mainland China, where the firm's employees are 8,500 in total. In 2010, EY acquired the Brazilian member firm of Grant Thornton. In 2013, EY agreed to pay federal prosecutors $123 million to settle criminal tax avoidance charges stemming from $2 billion in unpaid taxes from about 200 wealthy individuals advised by four Ernst & Young senior partners between 1999 and 2004.
In 2013, EY changed its brand name from Ernst & Young to EY and tagline to "Building a better working world". In 2013, the Pope of the Roman Catholic church hired EY to help review Vatican City State's finances and help “verify and consult” the institution's administration, including the museums, post office and tax-free department store. EY expanded further and acquired all of KPMG Denmark's operations including its 150 partners, 1500 employees and 21 offices. In 2015, EY opened its first global Security Operations Centre at Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala in India and will invest $20 million over 5 years to combat increasing threat of cybercrimes. In 2016 EY audited 947 public companies which are registered with the US SEC, more than any other auditing firm. In 2017 EY announced it was opening an executive support center in Tucson, creating over 125 new jobs. In 2017 the company began looking for a location for a new, $4.35 million professional services center in Louisville, creating 125 new jobs, due to open in mid-2018.
In 2017 the company opened the first Digital Security Operations Center worldwide, located it in Muscat, Oman to cover the MENA region as part of a $10 million investment. In 2018 EY announced it was opening an IT'Tech' Hub in Nashville, creating 600 new jobs for the region. In December 2018, Mark Weinberger, announced that he would step down from his role as EY Global
Cedar Mill, Oregon
Cedar Mill is a suburb in the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area of the United States. S. Route 26 and west of the Willamette Stone, it received its name from a sawmill on Cedar Mill Creek, which cut Western Redcedars that were once the dominant tree in the area. The mill's pond was near the intersection of 119th and Cornell Road, still could have been seen into the 1960s, although the mill itself had ceased operating in 1891; the name was established in 1874 with the opening of a U. S. post office named Cedar Mill. As of the 2010 census, the community population was 14,546. Before white settlement the land was inhabited by the Atfalati, a subgroup of the Kalapuya, called the "Tualatin" or "Wapato Lake Indians" by settlers. Nearby Beaverton was known by the Natives as "Cha Kepi", meaning "Place of the Beaver". While in 1782 the native population exceeded several thousand, due to diseases brought by the settlers sixty years in 1842, the population was six hundred. By 1890 the members of the tribe had been reduced to 28 and the last known speaker of the Tualatin language, Louis Kenoyer, died in 1936.
Early settlers in the area would recall Native Americans passing through the area, visiting their former lands. Most of the land in the area, as was typical in the Tualatin Valley, was settled in accord with the Donation Land Claim Act of 1850. Pioneer Samuel Walters was the first white settler to arrive in the area, doing so in 1847. William Cornell, namesake of Cornell Road, settled near what is now the easternmost part of Cedar Mill with his wife Emily in 1852; the area became a school district in 1856. The sawmill was established in 1859 by John Halsey Jones and his father and was the "first organized business" in what is now Cedar Mill. Plans for the mill, located on the south side of Cornell Road at McDaniel Road, were established as early as 1855 by the 23-year old Jones; the Jones Sawmill was sold in December 1869 to John Quincy Adams Young and William Everson, becoming the Young–Everson Mill. It was renamed the Young Brothers Sawmill after J. Q. A. Young's sons Jasper acquired it, it ceased operation in 1891 and was abandoned in 1892.
Many of Cedar Mill's early settlers were Irish Catholics. Thomas and Ann Leahy reached the Portland area in 1852 and in 1865 the Leahys, now including their infant son John, moved into a house on present-day Leahy Road, the family's namesake. Thomas died in 1874, Ann in 1913. Following Ann Leahy's death, the property was divided among his brother Hugh. After their deaths in logging accidents in 1929 and 1940 the property continued in the family and descendants of the Leahy family continue to reside there today. Owen and Mary Murray, the namesake of Murray Road, moved to Oregon in the early 1880s and established a 120-acre farm, their son Joseph Murray sold the farm due to debts brought on by the Great Depression in 1936. According to Oregon Geographic Names, a "Cedar Mill" post office was established in 1874, in the John Quincy Adams Young House, built in 1869, which still stands on Cornell Road and is owned by the Tualatin Hills Park & Recreation District; the name was chosen by Young, who had "been commissioned to establish a post office in the area" and been named the first postmaster.
The Young–Everson sawmill, specializing in cedar products, was still the only business operating in the area at the time and was located directly adjacent to the post office, making "Cedar Mill" a logical choice for the name of the new postal station. Around the same time, in 1874, Young retired from milling, sold the mill to Everson, moved his family into a new, larger house on the north side of Cornell Road, just across from the 1869-built house, now being used as a post office. Along with the post office, Young operated a small store on the ground floor of his former house. In 1976, the Russell family of Cedar Mill had owned the house since 1914. John Q. A. Young served as Cedar Mill postmaster until December 1881, his successor, George Reeves, moved the post office in 1882 to a new general store that Reeves opened in that year, located just northwest of the intersection of Barnes and Cornell Roads. The Cedar Mill post office, always located within a store, was moved two more times before closing on July 3, 1904.
The final stamp cancelled at the post office was owned in 1976 by Bernard P. Young, a descendant of John and Elizabeth Young; the present-day Leedy Grange #339 building, near the corner of Saltzman and Cornell Roads and near the Cedar Mill Library, was built in 1900. It housed a Modern Woodmen organization; the monthly Cedar Mill Flea Market is held at the grange the first Saturday of each month. The first Flea Market was held in June 2010. A Cedar Mill Heritage Quilt was created in the summer of 1976 by 15 local women, it detailed various aspects of Cedar Mill history. Former U. S. Senator Maurine Neuberger declared the winner of the quilting competition in September 1976. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 3.7 square miles, all land. The appropriately named Cedar Mill Creek flows through the area; the creek begins its course in the Forest Heights neighborhood in northwest Multnomah County passes through Cedar Mill before flowing into Beaverton Creek in Tualatin Hills Nature Park.
North Johnson Creek, another waterway in the area, begins south of Cedar Mill Creek and joins the main stream at the Nike World Campus. Cedar Mill Falls is the area's only waterfall, flowing near the Cedar Mill Greenway and JQA Young House; the waterfall, f
A hedge fund is an investment fund that pools capital from accredited investors or institutional investors and invests in a variety of assets with complex portfolio-construction and risk management techniques. It is administered by a professional investment management firm, structured as a limited partnership, limited liability company, or similar vehicle. Hedge funds are distinct from mutual funds, as their use of leverage is not capped by regulators, distinct from private equity funds, as the majority of hedge funds invest in liquid assets; the term "hedge fund" originated from the paired long and short positions that the first of these funds used to hedge market risk. Over time, the types and nature of the hedging concepts expanded, as did the different types of investment vehicles. Today, hedge funds engage in a diverse range of markets and strategies and employ a wide variety of financial instruments and risk management techniques. Hedge funds are made available only to certain sophisticated or accredited investors, cannot be offered or sold to the general public.
As such, they avoid direct regulatory oversight, bypass licensing requirements applicable to investment companies, operate with greater flexibility than mutual funds and other investment funds. However, following the financial crisis of 2007–2008, regulations were passed in the United States and Europe with intentions to increase government oversight of hedge funds and eliminate certain regulatory gaps. Hedge funds have existed for many decades and have become popular, they have now grown to be a substantial fraction of asset management, with assets totaling around $3.235 trillion in 2018. Hedge funds are always open-ended, allow additions or withdrawals by their investors; the value of an investor's holding is directly related to the fund net asset value. Many hedge fund investment strategies aim to achieve a positive return on investment regardless of whether markets are rising or falling. Hedge fund managers invest money of their own in the fund they manage. A hedge fund pays its investment manager an annual management fee, a performance fee.
Both co-investment and performance fees serve to align the interests of managers with those of the investors in the fund. Some hedge funds have several billion dollars of assets under management; the word "hedge", meaning a line of bushes around the perimeter of a field, has long been used as a metaphor for placing limits on risk. Early hedge funds sought to hedge specific investments against general market fluctuations by shorting the market, hence the name. Nowadays, many different investment strategies are used, many of which do not "hedge risk". During the US bull market of the 1920s, there were numerous private investment vehicles available to wealthy investors. Of that period the best known today is the Graham-Newman Partnership, founded by Benjamin Graham and his long-time business partner Jerry Newman; this was cited by Warren Buffett in a 2006 letter to the Museum of American Finance as an early hedge fund, based on other comments from Buffett, Janet Tavakoli deems Graham's investment firm the first hedge fund.
The sociologist Alfred W. Jones is credited with coining the phrase "hedged fund" and is credited with creating the first hedge fund structure in 1949. Jones referred to his fund as being "hedged", a term commonly used on Wall Street to describe the management of investment risk due to changes in the financial markets. In the 1970s, hedge funds specialized in a single strategy with most fund managers following the long/short equity model. Many hedge funds closed during the recession of 1969–70 and the 1973–1974 stock market crash due to heavy losses, they received renewed attention in the late 1980s. During the 1990s, the number of hedge funds increased with the 1990s stock market rise, the aligned-interest compensation structure and the promise of above high returns as causes. Over the next decade, hedge fund strategies expanded to include: credit arbitrage, distressed debt, fixed income and multi-strategy. US institutional investors such as pension and endowment funds began allocating greater portions of their portfolios to hedge funds.
During the first decade of the 21st century hedge funds gained popularity worldwide, by 2008 the worldwide hedge fund industry held US$1.93 trillion in assets under management. However, the 2008 financial crisis caused many hedge funds to restrict investor withdrawals and their popularity and AUM totals declined. AUM totals rebounded and in April 2011 were estimated at $2 trillion; as of February 2011, 61% of worldwide investment in hedge funds came from institutional sources. In June 2011, the hedge fund management firms with the greatest AUM were Bridgewater Associates, Man Group, Paulson & Co. Brevan Howard, Och-Ziff. Bridgewater Associates had $70 billion in assets under management as of 1 March 2012. At the end of that year, the 241 largest hedge fund firms in the United States collectively held $1.335 trillion. In April 2012, the hedge fund industry reached a record high of US$2.13 trillion total assets under management. In the middle of the 2010s, the hedge fund industry experienced a general decline in the "old guard" fund managers.
Dan Loeb called it a "hedge fund killing field" due to the classic long/short falling out of favor because of unprecedented easing by central banks. The US equity market correlation became untenable to short
The Dallas Morning News
The Dallas Morning News is a daily newspaper serving the Dallas–Fort Worth area of Texas, with an average of 271,900 daily subscribers. It was founded on October 1, 1885, by Alfred Horatio Belo as a satellite publication of the Galveston Daily News, of Galveston, Texas. Today it has one of the 20 largest paid circulations in the United States. Throughout the 1990s and as as 2010, the paper has won nine Pulitzer Prizes for reporting and photography, George Polk Awards for education reporting and regional reporting, an Overseas Press Club award for photography; the company has its headquarters in downtown Dallas. The Dallas Morning News was founded in 1885 as a spin-off of the Galveston Daily News by Alfred Horatio Belo. In 1926, the Belo family sold a majority interest in the paper to its longtime publisher, George Dealey. In 1904, The Dallas Morning News began publishing the Texas Almanac, published intermittently during the 1800s by the Galveston Daily News. After over a century of publishing by the Morning News, the Almanac's assets were gifted to the Texas State Historical Association in May 2008.
By the late 1940s, the Morning News had built and opened a new office and printing plant at Houston and Young Streets on the southwest side of downtown Dallas. A notable part of the facade above the front doors includes a quote etched in the stony exterior: BUILD THE NEWS UPONTHE ROCK OF TRUTHAND RIGHTEOUSNESSCONDUCT IT ALWAYSUPON THE LINES OFFAIRNESS AND INTEGRITYACKNOWLEDGE THE RIGHTOF THE PEOPLE TO GETFROM THE NEWSPAPERBOTH SIDES OF EVERYIMPORTANT QUESTION G. B. DEALEYThe complex at 508 Young Street would house all or part of the Morning News operations for the next six decades. In late 1991, The Dallas Morning News became the lone major newspaper in the Dallas market when the Dallas Times Herald was closed after several years of circulation wars between the two papers over the then-burgeoning classified advertising market. In July 1986, the Times Herald was purchased by owner of MediaNews Group. After 18 months of efforts to turn the paper around, Singleton sold it to an associate. On December 8, 1991, Belo bought the Times Herald for $55 million.
It was not the first time the Belo family had bought a paper named The Herald in Dallas....1879 Alfred H. Belo was investigating the possibility of establishing a sister paper in developing North Texas; when Belo's efforts to purchase the Herald failed, he sent George Bannerman Dealey to launch a new paper, the Morning News, which began publication on October 1, 1885. From the outset the Morning News enjoyed the double advantage of strong financial support and an accumulation of journalistic experience, within a month and a half had absorbed its older rival. In 2003, a Spanish-language newspaper was launched by The Dallas Morning News, called Al Día. Al Día came with a purchase price, but in recent years the newspaper has been made available free of charge, it is published twice a week, on Saturday. Between 2003 and 2011, a tabloid-sized publication called Quick was published by The Dallas Morning News, which focused on general news in a quick-read, digest form, but in years covered entertainment and lifestyle stories.
In late 2013, The Dallas Morning News ended its longtime newsgathering collaboration with previously-co-owned TV station WFAA. The newspaper entered into a new partnership with KXAS at that time; the Morning News has tilted conservative, mirroring Texas′ drift to the Republican Party. However, on September 7, 2016 it endorsed Hillary Clinton for president, the first time it had endorsed a Democrat for president since Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1940; this came a day after it ran a scathing editorial declaring Republican candidate Donald Trump "not qualified to serve as president." It was the first time that the paper had refused to endorse a Republican since 1964. In wake of the approaching 2018 Midterm Elections, the Morning News once again endorsed a Democratic candidate in that of Beto O'Rourke, the challenger to incumbent Senator Ted Cruz. In late 2016 it was announced that The Dallas Morning News would move away from its home of 68 years on Young Street, to a building on Commerce Street used by the Dallas Public Library for its downtown branch.
The Commerce Street address is one-third the size of the Young Street complex. Reasons given for the move included technology innovations, fewer staff, as well as printing presses no longer co-located with the newsroom and main offices. By December of 2017, the move was completed; the former property at 508 Young was sold by October 2018 to a business partnership, looking into possible redevelopment opportunities for the complex, but in December 2018 the partnership backed out of the deal. Changes were announced in January 2019 which included staff layoffs and reducing the paper's Business section to one separate section per week, on Sunday. A total of 43 employees were affected by the move. In late February 2019, several printing agreements were not renewed at the Morning News suburban printing plant, 92 positions were affected by the change there. Publications that had to find a different printing partner included Dallas Observer and Fort Worth Weekly. List of newspapers in Texas Gelsanliter, David.
Fresh Ink: Behind the Scenes of a Major Metropolitan Newspaper. Denton, Texas: University of North Texas Press. ISBN 092939884X. Reed, Roy. "State of The American N
The Town of Danville is located in the San Ramon Valley in Contra Costa County, California. It is one of the incorporated municipalities in California that uses "town" in its name instead of "city"; the population was 44,631 in 2016. Danville hosts a farmers' market each Saturday next to the Museum of the San Ramon Valley, located in the historic Southern Pacific Railroad Train Depot; the Iron Horse Regional Trail runs through Danville. It was first a railroad, converted to an 80-foot wide corridor of bike and hike trails as well as controlled intersections. Extending from Pleasanton to Concord, the trail passes through Danville. Danville is home to the Village Theatre and Art Gallery, hosting children's theatre and art discussions. Referred to as the "Heart of the San Ramon Valley," Danville was first populated by Native Americans who lived near creeks and camped on Mount Diablo in the summer, it was part of Mission San José's grazing land and a Mexican land grant called Rancho San Ramon. A farming community, the Town of Danville switched from wheat to fruits and nuts after the Southern Pacific Railroad built a spur line through the area in 1891.
It developed as a residential suburb in 1947 when the first sizable housing tracts were constructed and its population boomed in the 1970s and 1980s. The Danville Post Office opened in 1860 with hotel owner Henry W. Harris as the first postmaster. Churches, farmers unions and fraternal lodges began as the community grew; the Union Academy, a private high school begun by the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, served the County from 1859 to 1868, until it burned down. Danville Presbyterian Church was dedicated in 1875. Many early Danville buildings remain standing today; the original 1874 Grange Hall exists as well, the original Danville Hotel remains downtown and is being renovated as of 2014. Many of the early pioneer names appear on the streets and schools, including Baldwin, Wood, Hemme, Boone and Meese; when the Southern Pacific Railroad came to the Valley in 1891, Danville continued to grow. Farmers built warehouses and shipped crops by rail, residents were able to travel to and from Danville.
John Hartz sold 8.65 acres of his land for the Danville Depot and granted land access to the station. He subdivided and sold lots east of the station, shifting the town's focus from Front Street to Hartz Avenue. A bank, drug store, doctor's office and Chinese laundry joined the houses lining the street; the Danville Hotel sat across from the station and was moved to face Hartz avenue in 1927. The twentieth century found Danville affected by the wars, the Spanish flu, the depression, new immigrants. In 1910, a public high school district was organized and San Ramon Valley Union High School was built. A library opened in 1913 with 104 books. St. Isidore's Catholic Church was first established in 1910. An Improvement League funded the first streetlights and paved roads in 1915. Danville continued as farm country into the 1940s; the Valley had a population of 2,120 people in 1940, growing to 4,630 by 1950. Developments such as Montair and Cameo Acres were built, the water and sewer districts extended their boundaries, the new I-680 freeway which cut through Danville in the mid-1960.
In 1982, Danville citizens voted to incorporate their community. In 2000, Danville's population reached 40,484. In 2018, the Town of Danville was ranked as the safest city in California. Adjoining towns and cities are San Ramon to the south and Alamo to the north. Walnut Creek is 9 miles north. Interstate 680 serves as the main means of transport out of the town. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 18.0 square miles, all of it land. Danville is set in a narrow section of the San Ramon Valley with the Las Trampas Ridge to the west and the Diablo Range to the east; the most prominent landmark of Danville is the backdrop of Mount Diablo, which stands to the east at 3,849 feet and provides a picturesque backdrop for Danville and neighboring towns and cities. Sycamore Creek drains some of the Mount Diablo flows through Danville. Extreme temperatures range from 115 °F, recorded in 1950, to 18 °F, recorded in 1990. According to Business Insider, Danville's 94506 is the 14th wealthiest zip code in America.
Danville is one of the wealthiest suburbs of San Francisco. Danville ranks as the 2nd highest-income place in the United States with a population of at least 40,000, it is home to some of the most expensive real estate in the San Francisco Bay Area and the United States. According to CNN Money, Danville's 94506 has the fourth highest percentage of six-figure income earners in the nation, with 78% of Danville households having at least a six-figure income; the 2010 United States Census reported that Danville had a population of 42,039. The population density was 2,331.9 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Danville was 34,942 White, 372 African American, 67 Native American, 4,417 Asian, 68 Pacific Islander, 509 from other races, 1,664 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2,879 persons; the Census reported that 41,796 people lived in households, 56 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 187 were institutionalized. There were 15,420 households, out of which 6,034 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 10,389 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 1,140 had a female householder with no husband present, 449 had a male householder with no wife present.
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi