St Peter's College, Auckland
St Peter's College is a Catholic secondary school for boys, located in Auckland, New Zealand, in the central city suburb of Grafton. With a roll of over 1300, the school is one of the largest Catholic schools in New Zealand. St Peter's College was established in 1939 as a successor of Auckland's earliest school and of St Peter's School, founded in 1857; the Outhwaite family, who acquired the land around 1841, donated the site of the college. The Christian Brothers provided staff for the college for 70 years, it is the oldest Catholic boys' school in Auckland still on its original site. For nearly 50 years, the school had direct access to an adjacent railway station created for the college and known as the "St Peter's College station"; the school was integrated into the state system along with 240 other New Zealand Catholic schools in 1982. The school aims to achieve a diverse, family-oriented and good exam results. Auckland's first school of any sort was a Catholic school for boys, its first classes were held on 27 September 1841.
It was set up by Catholic laymen of Auckland following the first visit of Bishop Pompallier. The teacher was Edmund Powell, classes were first held in his residence in Shortland Crescent on 27 September 1841; this school appears to have existed only for a short time. In 1857, St Peter's School was established by a group of laymen led by Father O'Hara, the curate at St Patrick's Cathedral, as Auckland's first Catholic secondary school for boys. In that year Bishop Pompallier prepared a list of church schools for the Government and for "propaganda" which stated: "St Peter's Select School is established for the more advanced boys; the Greek, French and German languages are taught in it Geometry, Arithmetic, English Grammar etc... Terms per Annum 12.0.0 for each pupil." The school had a Board of Governors composed of its founders which included the Member of Parliament, Patrick Dignan. Classes commenced in rented accommodation in Drake St, Freemans Bay. John Logan Campbell donated a sum of £500 and a block of land on the corner of Pitt and Wellington Streets.
A brick school building was built there. The founding teacher was Richard O'Sullivan and, during his tenure, the school was identified with him. Amongst his students were John Sheehan, Joseph Tole, Peter Dignan and Charles and William Outhwaite. O'Sullivan resigned in 1861. In 1865 the teacher was Peter Morand. Bishop Pompallier made an annual inspection of the school. On 16 December 1864 he visited the school along with many parents; the proceedings were commenced by an address "to the Right Reverend Dr Pompallier, Bishop of Auckland", delivered by a pupil, Laurence Lorigan, on behalf of all the pupil's. Earlier in 1864, St Peter's School gave an address to Bishop Pompallier on his feast day, the feast of St John the Baptist; that address was delivered by Martin Maher on behalf of the pupils. St Peter's School was prominent in St Patrick's Day celebrations. On Friday 17 March 1865, St Peter's boys together with pupils of other Catholic schools began their celebrations with a Pontifical High Mass whose principal celebrant was Bishop Pompallier, in the Cathedral.
After addresses to the Bishop, the pupils went to the "paddocks" of Peter Grace Esq where "the sports for the youths consisted of feats of bat and ball, football etc. etc. A spirited cricket match came off between 11 students of St Francis de Sales School and a corresponding number of St Peter's School, the former being the victors in the game". In 1867 the celebration occurred on Monday 18 March. After Mass, the addresses to the bishop were read by a pupil of St Patrick's School and by "Master Anthony Martin, son of Mr Anthony Martin of Hobson St" on behalf of St Peter's; the pupils went to paddocks of Mr Dinnin on Ponsonby Road for sports, entertainments and "refreshments". In the 1870s and 1880s, Mr B Hammill was a well-known teacher, he was said to have a "first-class certificate from the Irish Board of Education" and to be "enthusiastically devoted to his profession". Mr Peter Leonard was another prominent teacher. In 1874, a report of the annual public examination of the boys attending St Peter's, presided over by Bishop Croke, stated that there was a "regular and good" attendance of about 70 pupils at the school.
In 1879 St Peter's had a roll of 43. In 1881, Mr Cronin was a teacher at St Peter's School which in an advertisement for pupils offered night classes to prepare pupils for "mercantile pursuits, civil service and teacher's examinations". In about 1884, St Peter's started to use a larger adjacent building as the number of pupils was exceeding the capacity of the brick school. In October 1884, William Mahoney, who received all his early education under Mr Hammill at St Peter's, paid a visit to the school on his return to New Zealand as a priest, he was Auckland's first New-Zealand-born priest. St Peter's School continued until the Marist Brothers established their own school on the site in 1885. Walter Herman Jacobus Steins S. J. third Catholic Bishop of Auckland thought, that as they were a French congregation, the Marist Brothers might not be welcome in Auckland and that it would be better to invite the Irish Christian Brothers as most of the Ca
Mount Roskill is both a volcanic peak and the suburban area in the city of Auckland, New Zealand. The mountain formed as a result of volcanic activity some 20,000 years ago, its peak, located in present-day Winstone Park towards the southwest end of the suburb, is 110 metres in height. It is one of the many extinct cones that dot the isthmus of Auckland, all part of the Auckland volcanic field; the scoria cone was built by fire-fountaining from two craters. Lava flowed from the base of the cone to the northwest, it was the site of a Māori pā, was known as Puketāpapa and as Pukewīwī. The main southern crater was excavated in 1961-1962 and filled with a water-supply reservoir; the reservoir is no longer in active service, is only maintained as an emergency supply. Since 2009 State Highway 20 has passed close to the cone; the effects of the new motorway on the cone had been the subject of significant discussion, a major mitigation package had been proposed to reduce the impact of the motorway. The funding of this mitigation and the missing cycleway section was in doubt in 2009, when a cost blowout to $2 million was criticised after Council had set aside $1.6 million.
Cycling advocates from Cycle Action Auckland, the Mount Roskill Community Board Chairman Richard Barter and Councillor John Lister however noted various elements unrelated to the cycleway that had driven up the cost, such as a toilet block, bluestone walls, extensive landscaping and artwork, much of it related to Winstone Park itself, or the effects of the motorway. The cycle-path section itself was priced at only $300,000; the path section was finished after six months of construction work and it opened to the public on 25 July 2010. The suburb, named after the Mount, is located seven kilometres to the south of the city centre, is surrounded by the neighbouring suburbs of Three Kings, Wesley and Mount Albert; the Mount Roskill shops are located at the intersection of Mount Dominion Roads. In the 1920s, a new subdivision off Dominion Road was established, it was named the Victory Estate after notable First World War personnel. One of the city's larger suburbs, it was farmland until after the Second World War.
It was a separate borough from 1947 until local government reorganisation in 1989 amalgamated it with Auckland City. In the past, Mount Roskill was referred to as the Bible Belt of Auckland, as it contained the highest number of churches per capita in New Zealand; the electorate was one of the last in the country to go "wet", in 1999, having formally been a dry area where the selling of alcohol was prohibited. Mount Roskill is one of the most ethnically diverse suburbs in New Zealand with a mix of Indians, Pacific Islanders and various East and South Asian peoples residing in the community and representing at least 54 different nationalities; the area has begun attracting people of African and Latin American origin. The local secondary school is Mount Roskill Grammar. Mount Roskill had a local government like other suburbs of Auckland at the time; the local government was called Mount Roskill Borough Council, which started in 1947 and merged into Auckland City Council in 1989 and eventually merged into Auckland Council in 2010.
Charles M. McCullough, 1947–1950 Philip Ernest Potter, 1950–1953 Keith W. Hay, 1953–1974 Richard Noel Fickling, 1974–1987 David J. Hay, 1987–1989 Mt Roskill Library was built and opened to public in August 1977, it was refurbished and the floor area extended in November 2011. Mt Roskill Library has English, Chinese, Tamil and Somali collections. Mount Roskill Rugby Football Club, Bay Roskill Vikings, Eden Roskill District Cricket Club are based in the suburb. Dominion Road School is a decile 3 primary school on Quest Terrace with a roll of 334 students; the principal is Marian Caulfield, who started in 2001. The school has 20 teaching spaces, it is located close to the central city. Mount Roskill has been home to many successful New Zealanders. Among them are: Rugby coach John Hart, Billionaire Graeme Hart, Rugby union international Doug Howlett and South Sydney Rabbitohs owner Russell Crowe, Evangelist Bill Subritzky, Reserve Bank Governor Alan Bollard, Tennis player Brett Steven, Labour MP Phil Goff, Balmain Tigers, Eastern Suburbs Roosters, Penrith Panthers and Parramatta Eels and New Zealand rugby league international, 1992 Dally M Medallist, former Kiwi coach and commentator Gary Freeman Rugby league and rugby union dual international Matthew Ridge Rugby league and rugby union dual international player Sonny Bill Williams Canterbury-Bankstown Bulldogs, South Sydney Rabbitohs and New Zealand Rugby League international, former captain of the latter two- Roy Asotasi Former rugby league international Dane O'Hara Former rugby league international and New Zealand Maori representative Bill Burgoyne Former New Zealand Warriors, Melbourne Storm, St George-Illawarra Dragons, Parramatta Eels and Cronulla-Sutherland Sharks rugby league international, New Zealand Maori representative and current NRL referee Henry Perenara Former Parramatta Eels rugby league player Marcus Perenara Manly-Warringah Sea Eagles and New Zealand rugby league international Steve Matai New Zealand Warriors captain, rugby league international and professional boxer Monty Betham Canterbury-Bankstown Bulldogs and Wests Tigers rugby league international Matt Utai Sydney Roosters, St. Helens and New Zealand rugby league international Sia Soliola New Zealand Warriors an
Kingsland, New Zealand
Kingsland is an inner-city suburb of Auckland, the largest and most populous urban area in New Zealand. Kingsland is under the local governance of the Auckland Council, it is the home of Eden Park, New Zealand's largest stadium, which hosted the finals for the 2011 Rugby World Cup. Kingsland has a village centre that contains a series of shops, restaurants and monthly markets. Kingsland was established in the 1880s with the sale of allotments. Kingsland has a heritage trail that features iconic buildings and sites of interest identified by plaques, which uses smartphone technology to provide information on the local history. New North Road is the main thoroughfare in Kingsland, running northeast–southwest from the Auckland Central Business District, with the suburb running along the ridge line. Kingsland's main street is located on New North Road next to the Kingsland railway station and directly across from Eden Park. Don Croot Street, established in the late 1960s, connects the Kingsland stretch of New North Road to the Western Springs stretch of Great North Road.
The Northwestern motorway was cut through in the 1970s, severing the cross streets that linked Kingsland to Surrey Crescent and Arch Hill, leaving Bond St as the sole direct connection to these suburbs. The presence of the motorway means a certain amount of noise, but for the most part Kingsland remains a remarkably quiet suburb. There has been a certain amount of gentrification in the area resulting in several cafes and boutique shops; the local secondary schools are Marist College and St Peter's College. The origins of Kingsland are linked to the European settlement of Auckland. In 1835, Thomas Mitchell, a Sydney trader, purchased land from Āpihai Te Kawau, rangatira of the local Māori tribe, Ngati Whatua, for £160, in a transaction which the Lands Claim Commission disallowed. In 1841, Te Kawau gifted 3,000 acres to the colonial government and Auckland began to take shape as a city. Land continued to be bought and sold, in 1852 John McElwain purchased 55 acres for the purpose of farming and received the adjoining 60 acres from his brother George in what is present-day Kingsland.
Cabbage Tree Swamp Road was one of the original streets in the area, but the settlers of Mt Albert and Kingsland appealed for a change of name, it became Kingsland Road. Auckland experienced significant growth in population between 1874 and 1886, putting pressure on the areas closest to the city; that population growth combined with the establishment of rail and bus connections into the city by the early 1880s created excellent conditions for John McElwain to subdivide his farm. In 1882, 227 allotments were laid out. Kingsland Avenue — along with First, Second and Fourth Avenues — provided road access to the properties. Prices for sections in the subdivision ranged from £28 to £100. By 1903 trams serviced the area, Kingsland was a well-established residential suburb. Public transportation extended from the inner city to the surrounding areas in the late 1870s and early 1880s with horse-drawn buses being the first mode of regular public transportation in the late 1870s. In 1881, the long-awaited railway came, connecting Newmarket with Helensville with stops in Mt Eden, Morningside and Mt Albert.
At the beginning of the 20th century, trams began connecting Mt Eden, Kingsland and Mt Albert with the city. The trams ran for the last time in the 1950s. Kingsland falls within the Mt Albert general constituency and the Tāmaki Makaurau Māori constituency for the national Parliament. In terms of local government, Kingsland comes under the Albert-Eden Local Board of Auckland Council; the Albert–Eden Local Board includes the suburbs of Waterview, Point Chevalier, Mount Albert, Owairaka, Kingsland, Mount Eden and Greenlane. Eden Park is New Zealand's largest stadium with a capacity of 50,000 seats; every year it hosts half a million local and international sports fans and patrons who attend matches and functions at the park. The park underwent a $240 million, three-year redevelopment prior to the 2011 Rugby World Cup. Including a temporary expansion to 60,000 seats and the addition of four giant Māori carvings at each of the four main public entrances; the carvings represent the spirit of the forest.
The carvings were designed by Arekatera Maihi. Eden Park was located at the low point of Cabbage Tree Swamp, with the road running on a causeway across it. Eden Park has been used as a sports ground since 1900, by 1914 the ground was drained and turned into two ovals for cricket. Eden Park has been the home of Auckland Cricket since 1910 and Auckland Rugby since 1925, its 100-year history boasts some of New Zealand's proudest sporting moments, including the 1950 Empire Games, the inaugural 1987 Rugby World Cup, the 1992 Cricket World Cup. Since the early 1900s it has hosted major rugby and cricket matches, is now a regular host of the Bledisloe Cup, ITM Cup, the Super Rugby games. Most Eden Park hosted the finals for the 2011 Rugby World Cup and it has been named the co-host for 2015 Cricket World Cup; the underground rivers that run through the area are known by the Māori as Ngā Ana Wai, which translates to ‘the watery caves.’ These ancient lava caverns were created 30,000 years ago during the eruption of Mount Albert and Maungawhau / Mount Eden.
Water springs up at various locations including Eden Park grounds, swamp land. Many of Kingsland's older buildings have survived by adapting to contemporary uses. Shooters B
A royal family is the immediate family of a king or queen regnant, sometimes his or her extended family. The term imperial family appropriately describes the family of an emperor or empress, the term papal family describes the family of a pope, while the terms baronial family, comital family, ducal family, archducal family, grand ducal family, or princely family are more appropriate to describe the relatives of a reigning baron, duke, grand duke, or prince. However, in common parlance members of any family which reigns by hereditary right are referred to as royalty or "royals." It is customary in some circles to refer to the extended relations of a deposed monarch and his or her descendants as a royal family. A dynasty is sometimes referred to as "the House of...". As of July 2013, there are 26 active sovereign monarchies in the world who rule or reign over 43 countries in all. A royal family includes the spouse of the reigning monarch, surviving spouses of a deceased monarch, the children, brothers and paternal cousins of the reigning monarch, as well as their spouses.
In some cases, royal family membership may extend to great grandchildren and more distant descendants of a monarch. In certain monarchies where voluntary abdication is the norm, such as the Netherlands, a royal family may include one or more former monarchs. In certain instances, such as in Canada, the royal family is defined by who holds the styles Majesty and Royal Highness. There is a distinction between persons of the blood royal and those that marry into the royal family. Under most systems, only persons in the first category are dynasts, that is, potential successors to the throne; this is not always observed. In addition, certain relatives of the monarch possess special privileges and are subject to certain statutes, conventions, or special common law; the precise functions of a royal family vary depending on whether the polity in question is an absolute monarchy, a constitutional monarchy, or somewhere in between. In certain monarchies, such as that found in Saudi Arabia or Kuwait, or in political systems where the monarch exercises executive power, such as in Jordan, it is not uncommon for the members of a royal family to hold important government posts or military commands.
In most constitutional monarchies, members of a royal family perform certain public, social, or ceremonial functions, but refrain from any involvement in electoral politics or the actual governance of the country. The specific composition of royal families varies from country to country, as do the titles and royal and noble styles held by members of the family; the composition of the royal family may be regulated by statute enacted by the legislature, the sovereign's prerogative and common law tradition, or a private house law. Public statutes, constitutional provisions, or conventions may regulate the marriages and personal titles of royal family members; the members of a royal family may not have a surname or dynastic name. In a constitutional monarchy, when the monarch dies, there is always a law or tradition of succession to the throne that either specifies a formula for identifying the precise order of succession among family members in line to the throne or specifies a process by which a family member is chosen to inherit the crown.
In the former case the exact line of hereditary succession among royal individuals may be identified at any given moment during prior reigns whereas in the latter case the next sovereign may be selected only during the reign or shortly after the demise of the preceding monarch. Some monarchies employ a mix of these selection processes, providing for both an identifiable line of succession as well as authority for the monarch, dynasty or other institution to alter the line in specific instances without changing the general law of succession; some countries have abolished royalty altogether, as in post-revolutionary Russia. Whilst mediatization occurred in other countries such as France and Russia, only the certain houses within the former Holy Roman Empire are collectively called the Mediatized Houses. Arenberg ducal family Fürstenberg princely family Ligne princely family Merode princely family Schwarzenberg princely family Thurn und Taxis princely family Media related to Royal families at Wikimedia Commons
Balmoral Castle is a large estate house in Royal Deeside, Scotland, near the village of Crathie, 6.2 miles west of Ballater and 6.8 miles east of Braemar. Balmoral has been one of the residences of the British royal family since 1852, when the estate and its original castle were purchased by Prince Albert, the husband of Queen Victoria, it is not part of the Crown Estate. Soon after the estate was purchased by the royal family, the existing house was found to be too small and the current Balmoral Castle was commissioned; the architect was William Smith of Aberdeen. The castle is an example of Scottish baronial architecture, is classified by Historic Environment Scotland as a category A listed building; the new castle was completed in the old castle demolished shortly thereafter. The Balmoral Estate has been added to by successive members of the royal family, now covers an area of 50,000 acres, it is a working estate, including grouse moors and farmland, as well as managed herds of deer, Highland cattle, ponies.
King Robert II of Scotland had a hunting lodge in the area. Historical records indicate that a house at Balmoral was built by Sir William Drummond in 1390; the estate is recorded in 1451 as "Bouchmorale", was tenanted by Alexander Gordon, second son of the 1st Earl of Huntly. A tower house was built on the estate by the Gordons. In 1662, the estate passed to Charles Farquharson of Inverey, brother of John Farquharson, the "Black Colonel"; the Farquharsons were Jacobite sympathisers, James Farquharson of Balmoral was involved in both the 1715 and 1745 rebellions. He was wounded at the Battle of Falkirk in 1746; the Farquharson estates were forfeit, passed to the Farquharsons of Auchendryne. In 1798, James Duff, 2nd Earl Fife, leased the castle. Sir Robert Gordon, a younger brother of the 4th Earl of Aberdeen, acquired the lease in 1830, he made major alterations to the original castle at Balmoral, including baronial-style extensions that were designed by John Smith of Aberdeen. Queen Victoria and Prince Albert first visited Scotland in 1842, five years after her accession to the throne and two years after their marriage.
During this first visit they stayed at Edinburgh, at Taymouth Castle in Perthshire, the home of the Marquess of Breadalbane. They returned in 1844 to stay at Blair Castle and, in 1847, when they rented Ardverikie by Loch Laggan. During the latter trip they encountered weather, rainy, which led Sir James Clark, the queen's doctor, to recommend Deeside instead, for its more healthy climate. Sir Robert Gordon died in his lease on Balmoral reverted to Lord Aberdeen. In February 1848 an arrangement was made—that Prince Albert would acquire the remaining part of the lease on Balmoral, together with its furniture and staff—without having seen the property first; the royal couple arrived for their first visit on 8 September 1848. Victoria found the house "small but pretty", recorded in her diary that: "All seemed to breathe freedom and peace, to make one forget the world and its sad turmoils"; the surrounding hilly landscape reminded them of Albert's homeland in Germany. The house was confirmed to be too small and, in 1848, John and William Smith were commissioned to design new offices and other ancillary buildings.
Improvements to the woodlands and estate buildings were being made, with the assistance of the landscape gardener, James Beattie, by the painter, James Giles. Major additions to the old house were considered in 1849, but by negotiations were under way to purchase the estate from the trustees of the deceased Earl Fife. After seeing a corrugated iron cottage at the Great Exhibition of 1851, Prince Albert ordered a pre-fabricated iron building for Balmoral from E. T. Bellhouse & Co. to serve as a temporary ballroom and dining room. It was in use by 1 October 1851, would serve as a ballroom until 1856; the sale was completed in June 1852, the price being £32,000, Prince Albert formally took possession that autumn. The neighbouring estate of Birkhall was bought at the same time, the lease on Abergeldie Castle secured as well. To mark the occasion, the Purchase Cairn was erected in the hills overlooking the castle, the first of many; the growing family of Victoria and Albert, the need for additional staff, the quarters required for visiting friends and official visitors such as cabinet members, meant that extension of the existing structure would not be sufficient and that a larger house needed to be built.
In early 1852, this was commissioned from William Smith. The son of John Smith, William Smith was city architect of Aberdeen from 1852. On learning of the commission, William Burn sought an interview with the prince to complain that Smith had plagiarised his work, Burn was unsuccessful in depriving Smith of the appointment. William Smith's designs were amended by Prince Albert, who took a close interest in details such as turrets and windows. Construction began during summer 1853, on a site some 100 yards northwest of the original building, considered to have a better vista. Another reason for consideration was, that whilst construction was ongoing, the family would still be able to use the old house. Queen Victoria laid the foundation stone on 28 September 1853, during her annual autumn visit. By the autumn of 1855, the royal apartments were ready for occupancy, although the tower was still under construction and the servants had to be lodged in the old house. By coincidence, sh
A suburb is a mixed-use or residential area, existing either as part of a city or urban area or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city. In most English-speaking countries, suburban areas are defined in contrast to central or inner-city areas, but in Australian English and South African English, suburb has become synonymous with what is called a "neighborhood" in other countries and the term extends to inner-city areas. In some areas, such as Australia, China, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, a few U. S. states, new suburbs are annexed by adjacent cities. In others, such as Saudi Arabia, Canada and much of the United States, many suburbs remain separate municipalities or are governed as part of a larger local government area such as a county. Suburbs first emerged on a large scale in the 19th and 20th centuries as a result of improved rail and road transport, which led to an increase in commuting. In general, they have lower population densities than inner city neighborhoods within a metropolitan area, most residents commute to central cities or other business districts.
Suburbs tend to proliferate around cities that have an abundance of adjacent flat land. The English word is derived from the Old French subburbe, in turn derived from the Latin suburbium, formed from sub and urbs; the first recorded usage of the term in English, was made by John Wycliffe in 1380, where the form subarbis was used, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. In Australia and New Zealand, suburbs have become formalised as geographic subdivisions of a city and are used by postal services in addressing. In rural areas in both countries, their equivalents are called localities; the terms inner suburb and outer suburb are used to differentiate between the higher-density areas in proximity to the city center, the lower-density suburbs on the outskirts of the urban area. The term'middle suburbs' is used. Inner suburbs, such as Te Aro in Wellington, Eden Terrace in Auckland, Prahran in Melbourne and Ultimo in Sydney, are characterised by higher density apartment housing and greater integration between commercial and residential areas.
In New Zealand, most suburbs are not defined which can lead to confusion as to where they may begin and end. Although there is a geospatial file defining suburbs for use by emergency services developed and maintained by Fire and Emergency New Zealand, in collaboration with other government agencies, to date this file has not been released publicly. New Zealand company Koordinates Limited requested access to the geospatial file under the Official Information Act 1982 but this request was rejected by the New Zealand Fire Service on the basis that it would prejudice the health & safety of, or cause material loss, to the public. In September 2014 a decision was made by the Ombudsman of New Zealand ruling that the New Zealand Fire Service refusal to release the geospatial file without agreeing to terms which included, among other restrictions, a prohibition on redistribution of the geospatial file, was reasonable. In the United Kingdom and in Ireland, suburb refers to a residential area outside the city centre, regardless of administrative boundaries.
Suburbs, in this sense, can range from areas that seem more like residential areas of a city proper to areas separated by open countryside from the city centre. In large cities such as London and Leeds, suburbs include separate towns and villages that have been absorbed during a city's growth and expansion, such as Ealing and Guiseley. In the United States and Canada, suburb can refer either to an outlying residential area of a city or town or to a separate municipality or unincorporated area outside a town or city; the earliest appearance of suburbs coincided with the spread of the first urban settlements. Large walled towns tended to be the focus around which smaller villages grew up in a symbiotic relationship with the market town; the word'suburbani' was first used by the Roman statesman Cicero in reference to the large villas and estates built by the wealthy patricians of Rome on the city's outskirts. Towards the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, the capital, was occupied by the emperor and important officials.
As populations grew during the Early Modern Period in Europe, urban towns swelled with a steady influx of people from the countryside. In some places, nearby settlements were swallowed up as the main city expanded; the peripheral areas on the outskirts of the city were inhabited by the poorest. Due to the rapid migration of the rural poor to the industrialising cities of England in the late 18th century, a trend in the opposite direction began to develop; this trend accelerated through the 19th century in cities like London and Manchester that were growing and the first suburban districts sprung up around the city centres to accommodate those who wanted to escape the squalid conditions of the industrial towns. Toward the end of the century, with the development of public transit systems such as the underground railways and buses, it became possible for the majority of the city's population to reside outside the city and to commute into the
The Auckland Council is the local government council for the Auckland Region in New Zealand. The governing body consists of 20 councillors, elected from 13 wards. There are 149 members of 21 local boards who make decisions on matters local to their communities, it is the largest council in Oceania, with a $3 billion annual budget, $29 billion of ratepayer equity, 9,870 full-time staff as of 30 June 2016. The council began operating on 1 November 2010, combining the functions of the previous regional council and the region's seven city and district councils into one "super council" or "super city"; the Council was established by a number of Acts of Parliament, an Auckland Transition Agency created by the central government. Both the means by which the Council was established and its structure came under repeated criticism from a broad spectrum during the establishment period; the initial Council elections in October 2010 returned a centre-left council with Len Brown as mayor. Brown was re-elected in October 2013, again with a supportive council.
The 2016 mayoral election was won by Labour MP Phil Goff, who had a landslide victory with his nearest rivals, Victoria Crone in second place, followed by Chlöe Swarbrick. The Auckland Council took over the functions of the Auckland Regional Council and the region's seven city and district councils: Auckland City Council, Manukau City Council, Waitakere City Council, North Shore City Council, Papakura District Council, Rodney District Council and most of Franklin District Council; the Auckland Regional Council was formed in 1989. One of the mainstays of its work was expanding the parks network, it brought into the Auckland Council 26 regional parks with more than 40,000 hectares, including many restored natural habitats and sanctuaries developed in co-operation with the Department of Conservation and volunteers. A variety of public transport-focused projects like the Northern Busway as well as significant rail and public transport investments were realised through the Auckland Regional Transport Authority, much of it supported by retaining Ports of Auckland in public hands to fund the improvements with the dividends.
Until 2010, the Auckland Region had seven "City/District" authorities, plus one "Regional" authority. In the late 2000s, New Zealand's central government and parts of Auckland's society felt that this large number of Councils, the lack of strong regional government were hindering Auckland's progress, that a form of stronger regional government, or an amalgamation under one local council, would be beneficial. Others pointed to the fact that a previous integration of the many much smaller Borough Councils did not bring the promised advantages either, reduced local participation in politics, with editorialists pointing out that the proponents of the'super city' have not made any promises of savings in light of past rises in rates and utilities bills. In 2007, the government set up a Royal Commission on Auckland Governance to report on what restructuring should be done; the report was released on 27 March 2009 and the government subsequently announced that a "super city" would be set up to include the full metropolitan area under an Auckland Council with a single mayor and 20–30 local boards, by the time of the local body elections in 2010, though it changed some key recommendations of the Royal Commission.
Some recommendations of the Royal Commission which have not been adopted or implemented: 6A The Auckland Council should include a vision for the region in its spatial plan. 6B The Mayor of Auckland's annual "State of the Region" address should describe progress towards the attainment of the vision. 19C: "Leadership support and development programmes for elected councillors should be strengthened." 21D: Auckland Council CCOs and their statements of intent should be subject to performance review by the proposed Auckland Services Performance Auditor. 21A 22A Two Māori members should be elected to the Auckland Council by voters who are on the parliamentary Māori Electoral Roll. 22B There should be a Mana Whenua Forum, the members of which will be appointed by mana whenua from the district of the Auckland Council. 22D The Auckland Council should ensure that each local council has adequate structures in place to enable proper engagement with Māori and consideration of their views in the local councils’ decision-making processes.
Where appropriate, current structures and/or memoranda of understanding should be transferred to local councils. 24F Auckland Council should consider creating an Urban Development Agency, to operate at the direction of the Auckland Council, with compulsory acquisition powers. The Auckland Council should determine the extent to which responsibilities for the delivery of stormwater services are shared between local councils and Watercare Services Limited. 26I Watercare Services Limited should be required by legislation to promote demand management. 26M Watercare Services Limited should be required to prepare a stormwater action plan. 27D The Auckland Council should prepare an e-government strategy as an intrinsic part of its proposed unified service delivery and information systems plan. 28A The Auckland Council should work with consumers, the industry, central government agencies to develop a climate change and energy strategy for the region, including monitoring and reviewing electricity security of supply performance, industry planning and regulation impacting the Auckland region.
30A The Auckland Council should develop a Regional Waste Management Strategy, including strategies for management of organic waste and integration o