A peninsula is a landform surrounded by water on the majority of its border while being connected to a mainland from which it extends. The surrounding water is understood to be continuous, though not named as a single body of water. Peninsulas are not always named as such. A point is considered a tapering piece of land projecting into a body of water, less prominent than a cape. A river which courses through a tight meander is sometimes said to form a "peninsula" within the loop of water. In English, the plural versions of peninsula are peninsulas and, less peninsulae. List of peninsulas Isthmus
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern known by its anglicized name Mecklenburg-West Pomerania, is a state of Germany. Of the country's 16 states, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern ranks 14th in population, 6th in area, 16th in population density. Schwerin is the state capital and Rostock is the largest city. Other major cities include Neubrandenburg, Greifswald, Wismar and Güstrow; the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern was established in 1945 after World War II through the merger of the historic regions of Mecklenburg and the Prussian Western Pomerania by the Soviet military administration in Allied-occupied Germany. Mecklenburg-Vorpommern became part of the German Democratic Republic in 1947, but was dissolved in 1952 during administrative reforms and its territory divided into the districts of Rostock and Neubrandenburg. Mecklenburg-Vorpommern was re-established in 1990 following German reunification, became one of the Federal Republic of Germany's new states. Mecklenburg-Vorpommern's coastline on the Baltic Sea features many holiday resorts and much unspoilt nature, including the islands such as Rügen and Usedom, as well as the Mecklenburg Lake District, making the state one of Germany's leading tourist destinations.
Three of Germany's fourteen national parks, as well as several hundred nature conservation areas, are in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The University of Rostock, established in 1419, the University of Greifswald, established in 1456, are among the oldest universities in Europe. Mecklenburg-Vorpommern was the site of the 33rd G8 summit in 2007. Due to its lengthy name, the state is abbreviated as MV or shortened to MeckPomm. In English, it is sometimes translated as "Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania" or "Mecklenburg-Cispomerania". Inhabitants are called either Mecklenburger or Pomeranians, the combined form is never used; the full name in German is pronounced. Sometimes, Mecklenburg is pronounced; this is. Mecklenburg however is within the historical Low German language area, the "c" appeared in its name during the period of transition to Standard, High German usage; the introduction of the "c" is explained as follows: Either the "c" signals the stretched pronunciation of the preceding "e", or it signals the pronunciation of the subsequent "k" as an occlusive to prevent it from falsely being rendered as a fricative following a Low German trend.
Another explanation is that the "c" comes from a mannerism in High German officialese of writing unnecessary letters, a so-called Letternhäufelung. In the aftermath of the Second World War and German reunification in 1990, the state was constituted from the historic region of Mecklenburg and Western Pomerania, both of which had long and rich independent histories. Human settlement in the area of modern Mecklenburg and Vorpommern began after the Ice Age, about 10,000 BC. About two thousand years ago, Germanic peoples were recorded in the area. Most of them left during the Migration Period, heading towards Spain and France, leaving the area deserted. In the 6th century Polabian Slavs populated the area. While Mecklenburg was settled by the Obotrites, Vorpommern was settled by the Rani. Along the coast and Slavs established trade posts like Reric and Menzlin. In the 12th century and Vorpommern were conquered by Henry the Lion and incorporated into the Duchy of Saxony, joining the Holy Roman Empire in the 1180s.
Parts of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern was settled with Germans in the Ostsiedlung process, starting in the 12th century. In the late 12th century, Henry the Lion, Duke of the Saxons, conquered the Obotrites, subjugated its Nikloting dynasty, Christianized its people. In the course of time, German monks, nobility and traders arrived to settle here. After the 12th century, the territory remained stable and independent of its neighbours. Mecklenburg first became a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire in 1348. Though partitioned and re-partitioned within the same dynasty, Mecklenburg always shared a common history and identity; the states of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz became Grand Duchies in 1815, in 1870 they voluntarily joined the new German Empire, while retaining their own internal autonomy. After the First World War and the abdication of the German Kaiser, the monarchies of the duchies were abolished and republican governments of both Mecklenburg states were established, until the Nazi government merged the two states into a unified state of Mecklenburg, a meaningless administrative decision under the centralised regime.
Vorpommern Fore-Pomerania, is the smaller, western part of the former Prussian Province of Pomerania. In the Middle Ages, the area was ruled by the Pomeranian dukes as part of the Duchy of Pomerania. Pomerania was under Swedish rule after the Peace of Westphalia from 1648 until 1815 as Swedish Pomerania. Pomerania became a province of Prussia in 1815 and remained so until 1945. In May 1945, the armies of the Soviet Union and the Western allies met east of Schwerin. Following the Potsdam Agreement, the Western allies handed over Mecklenburg to the Soviets. Mecklenburg-West Pomerania was established on 9 July 1945, by order No. 5 of Red Army Marshal Georgy Zhuko
A power station referred to as a power plant or powerhouse and sometimes generating station or generating plant, is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power. Most power stations contain one or more generators, a rotating machine that converts mechanical power into electrical power; the relative motion between a magnetic field and a conductor creates an electrical current. The energy source harnessed to turn the generator varies widely. Most power stations in the world burn fossil fuels such as coal and natural gas to generate electricity. Others use nuclear power, but there is an increasing use of cleaner renewable sources such as solar, wind and hydroelectric. In 1878 a hydroelectric power station was built by Lord Armstrong at Cragside, England, it used water from lakes on his estate to power Siemens dynamos. The electricity supplied power to lights, produced hot water, ran an elevator as well as labor-saving devices and farm buildings. In the early 1870s Belgian inventor Zénobe Gramme invented a generator powerful enough to produce power on a commercial scale for industry.
In the autumn of 1882, a central station providing public power was built in England. It was proposed after the town failed to reach an agreement on the rate charged by the gas company, so the town council decided to use electricity, it used hydroelectric power for household lighting. The system was not the town reverted to gas. In 1882 the world's first coal-fired public power station, the Edison Electric Light Station, was built in London, a project of Thomas Edison organized by Edward Johnson. A Babcock & Wilcox boiler powered a 125-horsepower steam engine; this supplied electricity to premises in the area that could be reached through the culverts of the viaduct without digging up the road, the monopoly of the gas companies. The customers included the Old Bailey. Another important customer was the Telegraph Office of the General Post Office, but this could not be reached though the culverts. Johnson arranged for the supply cable to be run overhead, via Holborn Newgate. In September 1882 in New York, the Pearl Street Station was established by Edison to provide electric lighting in the lower Manhattan Island area.
The station ran until destroyed by fire in 1890. The station used reciprocating steam engines to turn direct-current generators; because of the DC distribution, the service area was small. In 1886 George Westinghouse began building an alternating current system that used a transformer to step up voltage for long-distance transmission and stepped it back down for indoor lighting, a more efficient and less expensive system, similar to modern system; the War of Currents resolved in favor of AC distribution and utilization, although some DC systems persisted to the end of the 20th century. DC systems with a service radius of a mile or so were smaller, less efficient of fuel consumption, more labor-intensive to operate than much larger central AC generating stations. AC systems used a wide range of frequencies depending on the type of load; the economics of central station generation improved when unified light and power systems, operating at a common frequency, were developed. The same generating plant that fed large industrial loads during the day, could feed commuter railway systems during rush hour and serve lighting load in the evening, thus improving the system load factor and reducing the cost of electrical energy overall.
Many exceptions existed, generating stations were dedicated to power or light by the choice of frequency, rotating frequency changers and rotating converters were common to feed electric railway systems from the general lighting and power network. Throughout the first few decades of the 20th century central stations became larger, using higher steam pressures to provide greater efficiency, relying on interconnections of multiple generating stations to improve reliability and cost. High-voltage AC transmission allowed hydroelectric power to be conveniently moved from distant waterfalls to city markets; the advent of the steam turbine in central station service, around 1906, allowed great expansion of generating capacity. Generators were no longer limited by the power transmission of belts or the slow speed of reciprocating engines, could grow to enormous sizes. For example, Sebastian Ziani de Ferranti planned what would have been the largest reciprocating steam engine built for a proposed new central station, but scrapped the plans when turbines became available in the necessary size.
Building power systems out of central stations required combinations of engineering skill and financial acumen in equal measure. Pioneers of central station generation include George Westinghouse and Samuel Insull in the United States and Charles Hesterman Merz in UK, many others. In thermal power stations, mechanical power is produced by a heat engine that transforms thermal energy from combustion of a fuel, into rotational energy. Most thermal power stations produce steam, so they are sometimes called steam power stations. Not all thermal energy can be transformed into mechanical power, according to the second law of thermodynamics. If this loss is employed as useful heat, for industrial processes or district heating, the power plant is referred to as a cogeneration power plant or CHP plant. In countries where district heating is common, there are dedicated he
Static VAR compensator
A static VAR compensator is a set of electrical devices for providing fast-acting reactive power on high-voltage electricity transmission networks. SVCs are part of the Flexible AC transmission system device family, regulating voltage, power factor and stabilizing the system. A static VAR compensator has no significant moving parts. Prior to the invention of the SVC, power factor compensation was the preserve of large rotating machines such as synchronous condensers or switched capacitor banks; the SVC is an automated impedance matching device, designed to bring the system closer to unity power factor. SVCs are used in two main situations: Connected to the power system, to regulate the transmission voltage Connected near large industrial loads, to improve power quality In transmission applications, the SVC is used to regulate the grid voltage. If the power system's reactive load is capacitive, the SVC will use thyristor controlled reactors to consume VARs from the system, lowering the system voltage.
Under inductive conditions, the capacitor banks are automatically switched in, thus providing a higher system voltage. By connecting the thyristor-controlled reactor, continuously variable, along with a capacitor bank step, the net result is continuously variable leading or lagging power. In industrial applications, SVCs are placed near high and varying loads, such as arc furnaces, where they can smooth flicker voltage. An SVC comprises one or more banks of fixed or switched shunt capacitors or reactors, of which at least one bank is switched by thyristors. Elements which may be used to make an SVC include: Thyristor controlled reactor, where the reactor may be air- or iron-cored Thyristor switched capacitor Harmonic filter Mechanically switched capacitors or reactors By means of phase angle modulation switched by the thyristors, the reactor may be variably switched into the circuit and so provide a continuously variable VAR injection to the electrical network. In this configuration, coarse voltage control is provided by the capacitors.
Smoother control and more flexibility can be provided with thyristor-controlled capacitor switching. The thyristors are electronically controlled. Thyristors, like all semiconductors, generate heat and deionized water is used to cool them. Chopping reactive load into the circuit in this manner injects undesirable odd-order harmonics and so banks of high-power filters are provided to smooth the waveform. Since the filters themselves are capacitive, they export MVARs to the power system. More complex arrangements are practical. Voltage regulation is provided by means of a closed-loop controller. Remote supervisory control and manual adjustment of the voltage set-point are common. Static VAR compensation is not done at line voltage; this reduces the size and number of components needed in the SVC, although the conductors must be large to handle the high currents associated with the lower voltage. In some static VAR compensators for industrial applications such as electric arc furnaces, where there may be an existing medium-voltage busbar present, the static VAR compensator may be directly connected in order to save the cost of the transformer.
Another common connection point for SVC is on the delta tertiary winding of Y-connected auto-transformers used to connect one transmission voltage to another voltage. The dynamic nature of the SVC lies in the use of thyristors connected in series and inverse-parallel, forming "thyristor valves"); the disc-shaped semiconductors several inches in diameter, are located indoors in a "valve house". The main advantage of SVCs over simple mechanically switched compensation schemes is their near-instantaneous response to changes in the system voltage. For this reason they are operated at close to their zero-point in order to maximize the reactive power correction they can provide when required, they are, in general, higher-capacity and more reliable than dynamic compensation schemes such as synchronous condensers. However, static VAR compensators are more expensive than mechanically switched capacitors, so many system operators use a combination of the two technologies, using the static VAR compensator to provide support for fast changes and the mechanically switched capacitors to provide steady-state VARs.
Similar devices include the static synchronous compensator and Unified Power Flow Controller
E. ON SE is a European holding company based in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, it runs one of the world's largest investor-owned electric utility service providers. The name comes from the Greek word aeon; the company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index, DAX stock index and a member of the Dow Jones Global Titans 50 index. It serves over 33 million customers, its chief executive officer is Dr. Johannes Teyssen. E. ON was created in 2000 through the merger of VEBA and VIAG. In 2016, it separated its conventional power generation and energy trading operations into a new company, while retaining retail and nuclear operations. E. ON sold its stake in Uniper through a stock market listing and sold the remaining stock to the Finnish utility Fortum. In March 2018, it was announced that E. ON will acquire renewable energy utility Innogy through a complex €43 billion asset swap deal between E. ON, Innogy and RWE. E. ON came into existence in 2000 through the merger of energy companies VEBA and VIAG.
In the United Kingdom, Powergen was acquired by E. ON in January 2002. In 2003 E. ON entered the gas market through the acquisition of Ruhrgas. E. ON Ruhrgas was represented in more than 20 countries in Europe. E. ON acquired Sydkraft in Sweden and OGK-4 in Russia. Sydkraft, OGK-4 were rebranded to E. ON Sverige, E. ON UK, E. ON Russia respectively. In the United States, E. ON inherited Louisville, Kentucky-based Louisville Gas & Electric Energy, via the acquisition of Powergen, operated it as E. ON US, until 2010, when E. ON US was sold to Pennsylvania-based PPL for $7.625 billion. The sale was closed on 1 November 2010, with E-ON US becoming KU Energy. E. ON attempted to acquire Endesa in 2006, however this acquisition was overtaken by a joint bid from Italian utility Enel in conjunction with Spanish company Acciona. E. ON acquired about €10 billion of assets that the enlarged Enel was required to divest under EU competition rulings. In July 2009, the European Commission fined GDF Suez and E. ON €553 million each over arrangements on the MEGAL pipeline.
It was the second biggest fines imposed by the European Commission and first one on the energy sector. In 1975, Ruhrgas and Gaz de France concluded a deal according to which they agreed not to sell gas in each other's home market; the deal was abandoned in 2005. In 2009, E. ON and RWE established an owned joint venture Horizon Nuclear Power to develop around 6,000 MWe of new nuclear capacity in the United Kingdom by 2025 at the Wylfa and Oldbury sites. However, in March 2012 E. ON and RWE announced. In August 2011, the company announced a possible loss of 10,000 of its 85,600 employees due to the German decision to close all the country's nuclear power stations by 2022, instead of by 2036 as the Bundestag had decided on 28 October 2010. In May 2014 the UK energy sector regular Ofgem ordered the company to pay 330,000 of its customers a total sum of £12 million due to poor sales practices the company engaged in between June 2010 and December 2013. At the time it was the largest penalty. In November 2014, E.
ON announced to abstain from fossil energy in the future. It transferred its fossil energy businesses into a new company Uniper, which started operating on 1 January 2016. E. ON sold a 53% stake in the business through a listing on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange in September 2016. In 2017, it agreed to sell its remaining stake in Uniper to the Finnish power company Fortum; the deal was finalized in June 2018. In March 2018, it was announced that E. ON will acquire renewable energy utility Innogy from its controlling shareholder RWE; the deal will result in E. ON becoming a pure retail and distribution company; this is achieved through a complex €43 billion asset swap deal between E. ON, Innogy and RWE where E. ON takes over Innogy's retail and distribution business whereas RWE takes over both Innogy's renewable energy generation portfolio as well as E. ON's remaining energy generation assets. In addition, RWE will take a 16.7% stake in E. ON and E. ON will receive a cash payment of €1.5 billion. In July 2018, E.
ON announced that 500 jobs would be lost in the United Kingdom, blaming the energy price cap due to be implemented by Ofgem. E. ON is one of the major public utility companies in Europe and the world's largest investor-owned energy service provider; as result of mergers, E. ON inherited the subsidiaries of VEBA, VIAG and Ruhrgas in Eastern Europe. E. ON is present in most of Scandinavia. E. ON is organized into the following business areas: Customer Solutions Energy Networks Renewables E. ON subsidiary PreussenElektra GmbH operates the Brokdorf and Isar 2 nuclear power plants, it is decommissioning Unterweser nuclear power plants. It holds minority stakes in the RWE-operated Gundremmingen and Emsland nuclear power plants. According to the assets swap deal between E. ON and RWE, RWE will acquire these minority stakes. Eon is a major wind energy player across multiple countries, it has assets in the UK, Germany and the USA. Notably E. ON UK, owns 30% of the London Array project, a 630 MW wind generation farm in the Thames estuary.
Another notable wind farm is Roscoe, the largest in the world at the time of completion, for a number of years afterwards. The website of Enerjisa which owns Tufanbeyli, a coal fired power station in Turkey, says Eon is a shareholder and includes the Eon logo. E. ON Business Services (previously E. ON IT (until 30 Septembe
The volt is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference, electromotive force. It is named after the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta. One volt is defined as the difference in electric potential between two points of a conducting wire when an electric current of one ampere dissipates one watt of power between those points, it is equal to the potential difference between two parallel, infinite planes spaced 1 meter apart that create an electric field of 1 newton per coulomb. Additionally, it is the potential difference between two points that will impart one joule of energy per coulomb of charge that passes through it, it can be expressed in terms of SI base units as V = potential energy charge = J C = kg ⋅ m 2 A ⋅ s 3. It can be expressed as amperes times ohms, watts per ampere, or joules per coulomb, equivalent to electronvolts per elementary charge: V = A ⋅ Ω = W A = J C = eV e; the "conventional" volt, V90, defined in 1987 by the 18th General Conference on Weights and Measures and in use from 1990, is implemented using the Josephson effect for exact frequency-to-voltage conversion, combined with the caesium frequency standard.
For the Josephson constant, KJ = 2e/h, the "conventional" value KJ-90 is used: K J-90 = 0.4835979 GHz μ V. This standard is realized using a series-connected array of several thousand or tens of thousands of junctions, excited by microwave signals between 10 and 80 GHz. Empirically, several experiments have shown that the method is independent of device design, measurement setup, etc. and no correction terms are required in a practical implementation. In the water-flow analogy, sometimes used to explain electric circuits by comparing them with water-filled pipes, voltage is likened to difference in water pressure. Current is proportional to the amount of water flowing at that pressure. A resistor would be a reduced diameter somewhere in the piping and a capacitor/inductor could be likened to a "U" shaped pipe where a higher water level on one side could store energy temporarily; the relationship between voltage and current is defined by Ohm's law. Ohm's Law is analogous to the Hagen–Poiseuille equation, as both are linear models relating flux and potential in their respective systems.
The voltage produced by each electrochemical cell in a battery is determined by the chemistry of that cell. See Galvanic cell § Cell voltage. Cells can be combined in series for multiples of that voltage, or additional circuitry added to adjust the voltage to a different level. Mechanical generators can be constructed to any voltage in a range of feasibility. Nominal voltages of familiar sources: Nerve cell resting potential: ~75 mV Single-cell, rechargeable NiMH or NiCd battery: 1.2 V Single-cell, non-rechargeable: alkaline battery: 1.5 V. Some antique vehicles use 6.3 volts. Electric vehicle battery: 400 V when charged Household mains electricity AC: 100 V in Japan 120 V in North America, 230 V in Europe, Asia and Australia Rapid transit third rail: 600–750 V High-speed train overhead power lines: 25 kV at 50 Hz, but see the List of railway electrification systems and 25 kV at 60 Hz for exceptions. High-voltage electric power transmission lines: 110 kV and up Lightning: Varies often around 100 MV.
In 1800, as the result of a professional disagreement over the galvanic response advocated by Luigi Galvani, Alessandro Volta developed the so-called voltaic pile, a forerunner of the battery, which produced a steady electric current. Volta had determined that the most effective pair of dissimilar metals to produce electricity was zinc and silver. In 1861, Latimer Clark and Sir Charles Bright coined the name "volt" for the unit of resistance. By 1873, the British Association for the Advancement of Science had defined the volt and farad. In 1881, the International Electrical Congress, now the International Electrotechnical Commission, approved the volt as the unit for electromotive force, they made the volt equal to 108 cgs units of voltage
Lower Saxony is a German state situated in northwestern Germany. It is the second-largest state by land area, with 47,624 km2, fourth-largest in population among the 16 Länder federated as the Federal Republic of Germany. In rural areas, Northern Low Saxon and Saterland Frisian are still spoken, but the number of speakers is declining. Lower Saxony borders on the North Sea, the states of Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia and North Rhine-Westphalia, the Netherlands. Furthermore, the state of Bremen forms two enclaves within Lower Saxony, one being the city of Bremen, the other, its seaport city of Bremerhaven. In fact, Lower Saxony borders more neighbours than any other single Bundesland; the state's principal cities include the state capital Hanover, Braunschweig, Lüneburg, Osnabrück, Hildesheim, Wolfenbüttel, Göttingen. The northwestern area of Lower Saxony, which lies on the coast of the North Sea, is called East Frisia and the seven East Frisian Islands offshore are popular with tourists.
In the extreme west of Lower Saxony is the Emsland, a traditionally poor and sparsely populated area, once dominated by inaccessible swamps. The northern half of Lower Saxony known as the North German Plains, is invariably flat except for the gentle hills around the Bremen geestland. Towards the south and southwest lie the northern parts of the German Central Uplands: the Weser Uplands and the Harz mountains. Between these two lie the Lower Saxon Hills, a range of low ridges. Thus, Lower Saxony is the only Bundesland that encompasses both mountainous areas. Lower Saxony's major cities and economic centres are situated in its central and southern parts, namely Hanover, Osnabrück, Salzgitter, Göttingen. Oldenburg, near the northwestern coastline, is another economic centre; the region in the northeast is called the Lüneburg Heath, the largest heathland area of Germany and in medieval times wealthy due to salt mining and salt trade, as well as to a lesser degree the exploitation of its peat bogs until about the 1960s.
To the north, the Elbe River separates Lower Saxony from Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Brandenburg. The banks just south of the Elbe are known as Altes Land. Due to its gentle local climate and fertile soil, it is the state's largest area of fruit farming, its chief produce being apples. Most of the state's territory was part of the historic Kingdom of Hanover, it was created by the merger of the State of Hanover with three smaller states on 1 November 1946. Lower Saxony has a natural boundary in the north in the North Sea and the lower and middle reaches of the River Elbe, although parts of the city of Hamburg lie south of the Elbe; the state and city of Bremen is an enclave surrounded by Lower Saxony. The Bremen/Oldenburg Metropolitan Region is a cooperative body for the enclave area. To the southeast, the state border runs through the Harz, low mountains that are part of the German Central Uplands; the northeast and west of the state, which form three-quarters of its land area, belong to the North German Plain, while the south is in the Lower Saxon Hills, including the Weser Uplands, Leine Uplands, Schaumburg Land, Brunswick Land, Untereichsfeld and Lappwald.
In northeast, Lower Saxony is Lüneburg Heath. The heath is dominated by the poor, sandy soils of the geest, whilst in the central east and southeast in the loess börde zone, productive soils with high natural fertility occur. Under these conditions—with loam and sand-containing soils—the land is well-developed agriculturally. In the west lie the County of Bentheim, Osnabrück Land, Oldenburg Land, Oldenburg Münsterland, on the coast East Frisia; the state is dominated by several large rivers running northwards through the state: the Ems, Weser and Elbe. The highest mountain in Lower Saxony is the Wurmberg in the Harz. For other significant elevations see: List of hills in Lower Saxony. Most of the mountains and hills are found in the southeastern part of the state; the lowest point in the state, at about 2.5 m below sea level, is a depression near Freepsum in East Frisia. The state's economy and infrastructure are centred on the cities and towns of Hanover, Celle, Wolfsburg and Salzgitter. Together with Göttingen in southern Lower Saxony, they form the core of the Hannover–Braunschweig–Göttingen–Wolfsburg Metropolitan Region.
Lower Saxony has clear regional divisions that manifest themselves geographically, as well as and culturally. In the regions that used to be independent the heartlands of the former states of Brunswick, Hanover and Schaumburg-Lippe, a marked local regional awareness exists. By contrast, the areas surrounding the Hanseatic cities of Bremen and Hamburg are much more oriented towards those centres. Sometimes and transition areas happen between the various regions of Lower Saxony. Several of the regions listed here are part of other, larger regions, that are included in the list. Just under 20% of the land area of Lower Saxony is designated as nature parks, i.e.: Dümmer, Elbhöhen-Wendland, Elm-Lappwald, Harz, Lüneburger Heide, Münden, Terra.vita, Solling-Vogler, Lake Steinhude, Südheide, Weser Uplands, Wildeshausen Geest, Bourtanger Moor-Bargerveen. L