Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end
Mariehamn is the capital of Åland, an autonomous territory under Finnish sovereignty. Mariehamn is the seat of the Government and Parliament of Åland, 40% of the population of Åland live in the city. Like all of Åland, Mariehamn is unilingually Swedish-speaking and around 88% of the inhabitants speak it as their native language; the town was named after the Russian empress Maria Alexandrovna. Mariehamn was founded in 1861, around the village of Övernäs, in what was at the time part of the municipality of Jomala; the city has since incorporated more of Jomala territory. Mariehamn was built according to a regular scheme, well-preserved. One of the oldest streets is Södragatan where many wooden houses dating from the 19th century can be seen; the city is located on a peninsula. It has two important harbours, one located on the western shore and one on the eastern shore, which are ice-free for nearly the whole year, have no tides; the Western Harbour is an important international harbour with daily traffic to Sweden and mainland Finland.
A powerful incentive for Baltic ferries to stop at Mariehamn is that, with respect to indirect taxation, Åland is not part of the EU customs zone and so duty-free goods can be sold aboard. Åland and Mariehamn have a reputable heritage in shipping. The Flying P-Liner Pommern museum ship is anchored in the Western Harbour; the Eastern Harbour features one of the largest marinas in Scandinavia. The famous Dutch steamer Jan Nieveen can be found here. Mariehamn airport serves the city; the city is an important centre for Åland media. The islanders are traditionally fond of reading, had public libraries before 1920. A printing works was established in the town in 1891; the municipal library, built in 1989, is one of the most interesting modern buildings. Mariehamn features several buildings drawn by Finnish architect Lars Sonck, who moved to Åland as a child. Buildings drawn by him include the church of Mariehamn, the main building of the Åland Maritime College and the town hall. Hilda Hongell designed several buildings, although only a few are still standing.
A chart on population increase. Mariehamn has a transitional climate between humid continental climate with certain maritime influence as a result of the strong maritime moderation from being an island in the Baltic Sea; this renders summers to be cooler than both the Swedish and Finnish mainlands, with winters being similar in cold to the adjacent coastal part of Sweden but milder than Finland's mainland. Mariehamn is twinned with: Kópavogur, Iceland Kragerø, Norway Kuressaare, Estonia Lomonosov, Russia Slagelse, Denmark Tórshavn, Faroe Islands Valkeakoski, Finland Visby, Sweden Oberursel, Germany Anders Överström, professional footballer Official website Official Tourist Gateway of Mariehamn - Maarianhamina Mariehamn travel guide from Wikivoyage Map of Mariehamn Mariehamn. Tourist route
Grisslehamn is a locality and port located on the coast of the Sea of Åland in Norrtälje Municipality, Stockholm County, Sweden. The locality had 249 inhabitants in 2010; the name Grisslehamn was first mentioned in a document from 1376 about the mail route between Sweden and Finland. This Grisslehamn was located some 20 km south of today's location. In the mid-18th century, most of the old village was destroyed in a fire, it was decided to move Grisslehamn to its current location to make the mail route shorter. Conveying mail by row boat from Sweden to the Åland islands, whence it was transported to the Finnish mainland, together with fishing, one of the most important sources of income for the inhabitants of Grisslehamn and other parts of Roslagen for a long time, until steam ships took over the mail routes in the early 20th century. Today the port is the Swedish terminal of the Eckerö Linjen ferries which cross to Berghamn on the island of Eckerö in the Åland islands; the artist Albert Engström had a studio in Grisslehamn, where he painted oils and water colours of the Roslagen landscape.
He lived in the town for a number of years, his home is now a museum of his life and work. Nordisk familjebok, 2nd ed. Stockholm 1909
Tallinn is the capital and largest city of Estonia. It is on the shore of the Gulf of Finland in Harju County. From the 13th century until 1918, the city was known as Reval. Tallinn occupies an area of 159.2 km2 and has a population of 440,776. Tallinn, first mentioned in 1219, received city rights in 1248, but the earliest human settlements date back 5,000 years; the initial claim over the land was laid by the Danes in 1219, after a successful raid of Lindanise led by Valdemar II of Denmark, followed by a period of alternating Scandinavian and German rule. Due to its strategic location, the city became a major trade hub from the 14th to the 16th century, when it grew in importance as part of the Hanseatic League. Tallinn's Old Town is one of the best preserved medieval cities in Europe and is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Tallinn is the major political, financial and educational center of Estonia. Dubbed the Silicon Valley of Europe, it has the highest number of startups per person in Europe and is a birthplace of many international companies, including Skype.
The city is to house the headquarters of the European Union's IT agency. Providing to the global cybersecurity it is the home to the NATO Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence, it has been listed among the top 10 digital cities in the world. According to the Global Financial Centres Index Tallinn is the most competitive financial center in Northern Europe and ranks 52nd internationally; the city was a European Capital of Culture for 2011, along with Turku in Finland. In 1154, a town called قلون was put on the world map of the Almoravid by the Arab cartographer Muhammad al-Idrisi, who described it as "a small town like a large castle" among the towns of'Astlanda', it was suggested. The earliest names of Tallinn include Kolyvan, known from East Slavic chronicles and which may have come from the Estonian mythical hero Kalev. However, modern historians consider connecting al-Idrisi placename with Tallinn unfounded and erroneous. Up to the 13th century, the Scandinavians and Henry of Livonia in his chronicle called the town Lindanisa.
This name may have been derived from Linda, the mythical wife of Kalev and the mother of Kalevipoeg, who in an Estonian legend carried rocks to her husband's grave, which formed the Toompea hill. It has been suggested that the archaic Estonian word linda is similar to the Votic word lidna'castle, town'. According to this suggestion, nisa would have the same meaning as niemi'peninsula', producing Kesoniemi, the old Finnish name for the city. Another ancient historical name for Tallinn is Rääveli in Finnish; the Icelandic Njal's saga mentions Tallinn and calls it Rafala, based on the primitive form of Revala. This name originated from the adjacent ancient name of the surrounding area. After the Danish conquest in 1219, the town became known in the German and Danish languages as Reval. Reval was in use until 1918; the name Tallinn is Estonian. It is thought to be derived from Taani-linn, after the Danes built the castle in place of the Estonian stronghold at Lindanisse. However, it could have come from tali-linna, or talu-linna.
The element -linna, like Germanic -burg and Slavic -grad / -gorod meant'fortress', but is used as a suffix in the formation of town names. The previously-used official names in German Reval and Russian Revel were replaced after Estonia became independent in 1918. At first, both forms Tallinn were used; the United States Board on Geographic Names adopted the form Tallinn between June 1923 and June 1927. Tallinna in Estonian denotes the genitive case of the name, as in Tallinna Reisisadam. In Russian, the spelling of the name was changed from Таллинн to Таллин by the Soviet authorities in the 1950s, this spelling is still sanctioned by the Russian government, while Estonian authorities have been using the spelling Таллинн in Russian-language publications since the restoration of independence; the form Таллин is used in several other languages in some of the countries that emerged from the former Soviet Union. Due to the Russian spelling, the form Tallin is sometimes found in international publications.
Other variations of modern spellings include Tallinna in Finnish, Tallina in Latvian and Talinas in Lithuanian. The first traces of human settlement found in Tallinn's city center by archeologists are about 5,000 years old; the comb ceramic pottery found on the site dates to about 3000 BCE and corded ware pottery c. 2500 BCE. Around 1050, the first fortress was built on Tallinn Toompea; as an important port for trade between Russia and Scandinavia, it became a target for the expansion of the Teutonic Knights and the Kingdom of Denmark during the period of Northern Crusades in the beginning of the 13th century when Christianity was forcibly imposed on the local population. Danish rule of Tallinn and Northern Estonia started in 1219. In 1285, the city known as Reval, became the northern most member of the Hanseatic League – a mercantile and military alliance of German-dominated cities in Northern Europe; the Danes sold Reval along with their other land possessions in northe
Suomenlinna, or Sveaborg, literal translation in Finnish is Castle of Finland and in Swedish Castle of Sweden is an inhabited sea fortress built on six islands and which now forms part of the city of Helsinki, the capital of Finland. Suomenlinna is a UNESCO World Heritage site and popular with tourists and locals, who enjoy it as a picturesque picnic site. Named Sveaborg, or Viapori as called by Finnish-speaking Finns, it was renamed in Finnish to Suomenlinna in 1918 for patriotic and nationalistic reasons, though it is still known by its original name in Sweden and by Swedish-speaking Finns; the Swedish crown commenced the construction of the fortress in 1748 as protection against Russian expansionism. The general responsibility for the fortification work was given to Augustin Ehrensvärd; the original plan of the bastion fortress was influenced by the ideas of Vauban, the foremost military engineer of the time, the principles of star fort style of fortification, albeit adapted to a group of rocky islands.
In addition to the island fortress itself, seafacing fortifications on the mainland would ensure that an enemy would not acquire a beach-head from which to stage attacks. The plan was to stock munitions for the whole Finnish contingent of the Swedish Army and Royal Swedish Navy there. In the Finnish War the fortress surrendered to Russia on May 3, 1808, paving the way for the occupation of Finland by Russian forces in 1809. Early on in the Great Northern War, Russia used the Swedish weakness in the Ingermanland and captured the area near river Neva as well as the Swedish forts, Nyen and Nöteborg, built to protect it. In 1703 Peter the Great had founded his new capital, Saint Petersburg, in that furthest-flung corner of the Gulf of Finland. In the approach to it he built the fortified naval base of Kronstadt. Russia soon became a force to be reckoned with in the Baltic Sea; the situation posed a threat to Sweden, which until that time had been the dominant power in the Baltic. This was visibly demonstrated by the use of naval forces in the Russian capture of Viborg in 1710.
The main Swedish naval base at Karlskrona was far to the south in accordance with Swedish needs for its navy in the 17th century which resulted in Swedish ships reaching the coast of Finland only after Russian ships and troops had either started or completed their spring campaigns. Lack of coastal defenses was keenly felt with Russian landings on spring of 1713 to Helsingfors and with Swedish failure to blockade Hanko Peninsula in 1714. A Russian naval campaign against Swedish coast towards the end of the Great Northern War further outlined the need of developing Finnish coastal defenses. After the war had ended first plans were set into motion in Sweden to construct an archipelago fleet and a base of operations for it in Finland. However, nothing with regard to Sveaborg took place until the end of Russo-Swedish War of 1741–1743. Fortifications were left unfinished at Hamina and at Lappeenranta while Hämeenlinna was being built into a supply base. Lack of funds, unwillingness to devote funds for defending Finland and just before the war belief that Russia would be pushed away from the Baltic Sea were the main causes for the lack of progress.
In the following Russo-Swedish War of 1741–1743 which turned from Swedish attack into Russian occupation of Finland again underlined the importance of developing fortifications to Finland. Lack of base of operations for naval forces made it difficult for the Swedish navy to operate in the area. Other European states were concerned about developments France, with which Sweden had concluded a military alliance. After lengthy debate the Swedish parliament decided in 1747 to fortify the Russian frontier and to establish a naval base at Helsinki as a counter to Kronstadt; the frontier fortifications were established in Svartholm near the small town of Lovisa. Sweden started building the fortress in 1748. Augustin Ehrensvärd and his gigantic fortification work on the islands off the town of Helsinki brought the district a new and unexpected importance; the fortification of Helsinki and its islands began in January 1748, when Ehrensvärd, as a young lieutenant colonel, came to direct the operations. Fortifications were built on the Russian side of the new border during the 18th century and some of the Swedish ones were added to.
There were two main aspects to Ehrensvärd's design for the fortress: a series of independent fortifications on each of the linked islands and, at the heart of the complex, a navy dockyard. The soldiers were housed in the vaults of the fortifications, while the officers had specially built quarters integrated into the baroque cityscape composition of the overall plan; the most ambitious plan was left only half complete: a baroque square on Iso Mustasaari based on the model of Place Vendôme in Paris. As the construction work progressed, more residential buildings were built, many following the shape of the fortification lines. Ehrensvärd and some of the other officers were keen artists and painted oil paintings presenting a view of life in the fortress during its construction, giving the impression of a lively "fortress town" community. Ehrensvärd's plan contained two fortifications: a sea fortress at Svartholm and place d'armes at Helsingfors. Sveaborg was to be just the sea fortress with additional landside fortifications making up for the rest.
Additional plans were made for fortifying the Hanko Peninsula
Fehmarn Belt, is a strait connecting the Bay of Kiel and the Bay of Mecklenburg in the western part of the Baltic Sea between the German island of Fehmarn and the Danish island of Lolland. Ferries operated by Rødby on the two islands; the strait features an 18-kilometre wide area with depths of 20–30 metres. Currents in the strait are weak and dependent on wind, it was swum across by Christof Wandratsch. The Danish and German governments agreed on 29 June 2007 to build a fixed link to replace the ferry route, it is to save an hour on crossing the strait, provide more crossing capacity. In 2011, the Danish parliament voted overwhelmingly for the €5.1 billion project, intended to open in 2020. The tunnel is to have three separate bores, two containing two motorway lanes each, one with a double-track railway line. 21 July 1932 School ship Niobe Fehmarn Belt Lightship
Eckerö Line is a Finnish shipping company owned by the Åland-based Rederiaktiebolaget Eckerö. Eckerö Line operates one ferry between Tallinn. Eckerö Line should not be confused with the named Eckerö Linjen owned by Rederiaktiebolaget Eckerö, which operates ferry services between Berghamn in the Åland Islands and Grisslehamn in Sweden. In 1992 Rederiaktiebolaget Eckerö and Birka Line founded a jointly-owned subsidiary Eestin Linjat to operate MS Alandia on the fast-growing route between Helsinki and Tallinn; the name of the company was selected for practical reasons as it required the change of only a few letters to re-paint Eckerölinjen into Eestin Linjat. The livery of Eestin Linjat was similar to that of Eckerö Linjen. However, due to the use of the word Eesti instead of the Finnish word Viro, the Finnish public presumed the new company was an Estonian one; this was made worse after the Estonia-disaster in 1994 when many people in Finland began associating Eestin Linjat with EstLine, owners of the ill-fated MS Estonia.
As a result of this Eestin Linjat changed its name into Eckerö Line in 1995. At the same time a second ship, MS Apollo was added to the route. In 1998 Eckerö Line acquired its first genuine cruiseferry, MS Nordlandia which replaced both of the previous ships sailing on the route; the Nordlandia brought with it a slight change in livery as the typeface used in the ship's hull was changed from a heavy serif into a light, italicized sans-serif. In May 2004 Eckerö Line purchased the freight/passenger ferry MS Translandia as a second ship for the Helsinki–Tallinn route in response to the high demand for freight capacity after Estonia joined the European Union. Eckerö Viking Line Tallink Transport on the Åland Islands St. Peter Line Eckerö Line official website Eckerö Linjen official website "Eckerölinjen". at "Fakta om Fartyg"