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Baltic states

The Baltic states known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations, or the Baltics, is a geopolitical term used to group the three sovereign states in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia and Lithuania. The term is not used in the context of cultural areas, national identity, or language, because while the majority of people in Latvia and Lithuania are Baltic people, the majority in Estonia are Finnic; the three countries do not form an official union, but engage in intergovernmental and parliamentary cooperation. The most important areas of cooperation between the three countries are foreign and security policy, defence and transportation. All three countries are members of NATO, the eurozone, the OECD, are members of the European Union. From 2020, Estonia will be a member of the United Nations Security Council. All three are classified as high-income economies by the World Bank and maintain a high Human Development Index; the term Baltic stems from the name of the Baltic Sea – a hydronym dating back to the 11th century and earlier.

Although there are several theories about its origin, most trace it to the Indo-European root *bhel meaning'white, fair'. This meaning is retained in modern Baltic languages, where baltas in Lithuanian and balts in Latvian mean'white'. However, the modern names of the region and the sea that originate from this root, were not used in either of the two languages prior to the 19th century. Since the Middle Ages, the Baltic Sea has appeared on maps in Germanic languages as the equivalent of'East Sea': German: Ostsee, Danish: Østersøen, Dutch: Oostzee, Swedish: Östersjön, etc. Indeed, the Baltic Sea lies to the east of Germany, Denmark and Sweden; the term was used to refer to Baltic Dominions of the Swedish Empire and, the Baltic governorates of the Russian Empire. Terms related to modern name Baltic appear in ancient texts, but had fallen into disuse until reappearing as the adjective Baltisch in German, from which it was adopted in other languages. During the 19th century, Baltic started to supersede Ostsee as the name for the region.

Its Russian equivalent Прибалтийский was first used in 1859. This change was a result of the Baltic German elite adopting terms derived from Baltisch to refer to themselves; the term Baltic states was, until the early 20th century, used in the context of countries neighbouring the Baltic Sea: Sweden and Denmark, sometimes Germany and the Russian Empire. With the advent of Foreningen Norden, the term was no longer used for Denmark. After World War I, the new sovereign states that emerged on the east coast of the Baltic Sea – Estonia, Latvia and during the Interwar period, Finland – became known as the Baltic states. Throughout the 18th century to the 20th century, the Baltic states were part of the Russian Empire until the three countries gained independence in 1918 near the end of World War I, they were occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany during World War II before the Soviets regained control of the Baltic states. Soviet rule ended when the three countries declared the occupation illegal and culminated with the restoration of independence to their pre-war status between 1991 when communism collapsed in Eastern Europe.

In the 13th century pagan and Eastern Orthodox Baltic and Finnic peoples in the region became a target of the Northern Crusades. In the aftermath of the Livonian crusade, a crusader state named Terra Mariana, but known as Livonia, was established in the territory of modern Latvia and Southern Estonia, it was divided into four autonomous lands of the Livonian Brothers of the Sword. After the Brothers of the Sword suffered defeat at the Battle of Saule to Lithuanians, the remaining Brothers were integrated into the Teutonic Order as the autonomous Livonian Order. Northern Estonia became a Danish dominion, but it was purchased by the Teutonic Order in the mid-14th century; the majority of the crusaders and clergy were German, Baltic Germans remained influential in Estonia and most of Latvia until the first half of the 20th century: they formed the backbone of the local gentry, German served both as a lingua franca and for record-keeping. The Lithuanians were targeted by the crusaders, it expanded to the east conquering former principalities of Kiev up to the Black sea.

After the Union of Krewo in 1385, Grand Duchy of Lithuania created a dynastic union with Kingdom of Poland, they became more integrated and merged into the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1569. After victory in the Battle of Grunwald in 1410, the Polish–Lithuanian union became a major political and military power in the region; the Lithuanians were targeted by the crusaders. Mindaugas was the first Lithuanian ruler. During the reign of successors of Mindaugas, Kęstutis and Algirdas, followed by Vytautas Grand Duchy of Lithuania expanded to the east conquering former principalities of Kiev up to the Black sea. GDL became one of the most influential powers in Northern and Eastern Europe i

Flying rings

Flying rings was a gymnastics event similar to still rings, but with the performer gripping a pair of rings shoulder width apart, swinging— from the point of suspension of the rings— while executing a series of stunts. Whereas still rings are now 9.8 feet from the point of attachment, flying rings – used as still rings in the past – were on cables up to 22 feet in length - the extra 12 feet allowing the gymnast to swing through an impressive arc. The rings themselves were at times larger and heavier than competition still rings today, designed on a steel core covered by rubber or leather. There is some evidence that the event took place in an international contest in the late 1800s, if not earlier. Records from Princeton University indicate one of its students, H. G. Otis, won the Eastern Intercollegiate Championships in flying rings in 1902. In America, the event persisted on a regular basis in both NCAA and AAU gymnastic competitions until the early 1960s, when those governing bodies eliminated the flying rings in future meets in an effort to correlate apparatus and performances with those in the modern Olympic Games.

Another reason flying rings was removed from intercollegiate competitions is the dangerous nature of the event, with the gymnast soaring to a height of 15 feet or so at each end of a swing. Frank Snay, of Navy, was the last winner in the NCAA event in 1961, it is difficult to ascertain if flying rings existed in the Olympic Games, for records cite medalists in "flying rings" when in fact the event may have been the still rings. To start a routine, the gymnast was lifted until he could grasp the rings. At the end of each arc the gymnast would do pikes, dislocates or front or back-uprises to build up height. A typical routine would show a number of "flying" inlocates; the performer might do additional moves typical of the still rings while in flight, such as a flying cross. After several passes the routine would end with a spectacular dismount off a front swing - with fellow gymnasts in place, prepared to help break a fall if the move failed. No nets or other safety devices, apart from standard gym mats, were used in competition, when training, gymnasts used a flying mechanic.

"Complete Book of Gymnastics" by N. Loken & R. Willoughby, Prentice-Hall, Inc. NCAA Sports Records HIstory of Gymnastic Judging

Seongdong District

Seongdong District is one of the 25 gu which make up the city of Seoul, South Korea. It is situated on the north bank of the Han River, it is divided into 20 dong. Seongdong District consists of 20 administrative dongs Doseon-dong Hongik-dong: legal dong Eungbong-dong Haengdang-dong 1∼2 Geumho-dong 1∼4 Majang-dong Oksu-dong 1∼2 Sageun-dong Seongsu 1ga 1 dong Seongsu 1ga 2 dong Seongsu 2ga 1-dong Seongsu 2ga 3-dong Songjeong-dong Yongdap-dong Wangsimni-dong 1∼2 Sangwangsimni-dong: legal dong Hawangsimni-dong: legal dong KORAILJungang Line ← WangsimniEungbongOksuBundang LineWangsimni ─ Seoul Forest → Seoul MetroSeoul Underground Line 2 ← Sangwangsimni ─ Wangsimni ─ Hanyang UniversityTtukseomSeongsu → Seoul Underground Branch for Sinseol-dong of Line 2Seongsu ─ YongdapSindapSeoul Underground Line 3 ← Geumho ─ Oksu → Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit CorporationSeoul Underground Line 5 ← SingeumhoHaengdang─ Wangsimni ─ Majang → When Seoul was expanding outward on its size, many parts of Gyeonggi Province were merged to Seongdong District.

However, due to its extraordinarily huge size, Seoul Metropolitan Government divided the district into 5, made Seongdong District cede some part of the district to Jung District. Yeongdeungpo District, Seodaemun District, Seongbuk District, Dongdaemun District underwent similar changes. Hampyeong County, South Jeolla Huairou District, China Jincheon County, North Chungcheong Seocheon County, South Chungcheong Cobb County, United States ^ This explains why Gangdong District Office is located in a corner of Gangdong District; the building was used as Seongdong District Office. Official site Official site