The Philadelphia/Baltimore Stars were a professional American football team which played in the United States Football League in the mid-1980s. Owned by real-estate magnate Myles Tanenbaum, they were the leagues dominant team. The Stars began in Philadelphia in the USFLs inaugural 1983 season and they compiled the leagues best regular season record of 15–3, and advanced to the 1983 USFL championship game. Their Doghouse Defense allowed only 204 points in an 18-game season—the least in the history of the league, the team featured TSN all-star rookie punter Sean Landeta. In the league game at Denvers Mile High Stadium on July 17. Just as they had against the Blitz, the Stars opened the game sluggishly, the Stars solid season led some to suggest that they could have been a fairly competitive NFL team, along with Michigan and Chicago. The fact this comparison was even being made gave the USFL much-needed credibility and they remained in Philadelphia for the 1984 season, but were forced to relocate postseason home games to Franklin Field due to a conflict with the Philadelphia Phillies.
The Stars roared through the season with the league best 16–2 record. It was the last traditional professional football championship for the city of Philadelphia, the Stars were becoming increasingly successful off the field, as average home attendance jumped from approximately 18,000 in 1983 to 28,000 in 1984. After the league game, the Stars played a rare post-season exhibition game with Tampa Bay in England on July 21. The leagues owners, led by Donald Trump of the New Jersey Generals, the Stars, who shared Veterans Stadium with both the Philadelphia Eagles and Philadelphia Phillies, would likely not be able to play in a modern stadium with the USFLs switch to a fall schedule. In response, Tanenbaum moved the team to Baltimore, unfortunately, he was unable to get a lease for Baltimores Memorial Stadium. This was all compounded by the Washington Redskins success during these years which included playing in the Super Bowl in January 1983 and 1984. At least in part due to all the moving, the Stars initially struggled in 1985, even if theyd notched a better record, they may have lost home-field advantage for the playoffs due to poor attendance.
Many Baltimoreans were not ready to make the 35-minute drive down Interstate 95 to see the Stars play in College Park, most were waiting for the team to begin play in the citys venerable Memorial Stadium a year later. Nevertheless, their games were broadcast on WBAL radio in Baltimore, ABC Sports, embarrassed at the attendance from around the league, told Usher it did not want to televise playoff games in near-empty stadiums. Since ABC had disproportionate influence on league affairs due to the structure of its contract with the USFL, Usher had little choice but to agree. However, the Stars managed to upend the favored New Jersey Generals, once there, the Baltimore Stars won the USFL title beating the Bobby Hebert-led Oakland Invaders, 28–24
Baltimore Colts relocation to Indianapolis
The Baltimore Colts relocation to Indianapolis was a successful effort by the then-owner of the Baltimore Colts to move the American football team from Baltimore, Maryland to Indianapolis, Indiana. The team began play as the Indianapolis Colts for the 1984 National Football League season, the Colts move was completely unannounced and occurred in the early hours of March 29,1984, after years of lobbying for a new stadium to replace the inadequate Memorial Stadium. Although the Colts had been successful since arriving in Baltimore for the 1953 NFL season, in May 1969, the city of Baltimore announced it would seek a substantial increase in Memorial Stadium rental fees from Colts owner Carroll Rosenbloom and the team itself. Rosenbloom had already called Memorial Stadium antiquated and had threatened to move all Colts home games out of the stadium unless improvements were made. Rosenbloom even considered using $12–20 million of his own money to fund the building of a new football only stadium on land in adjoining Baltimore County.
Real estate investor Will Keland was originally slated to buy the Colts from Rosenbloom, on July 13,1972, Irsay became owner of the Colts. Under the terms of the arrangement, he bought the Los Angeles Rams for $19 million, traded them to Rosenbloom for the Colts and $3 million in cash. In 1971, Baltimore mayor William Donald Schaefer and the governor, Marvin Mandel. Their report was a blow to Memorial Stadium, there was not enough office space for the front offices of either the Orioles or Colts, much less both teams combined. Both teams had to share rooms, the upper deck of Memorial Stadium did not circle the field. Any expansion plans for the stadium had usually mentioned less attractive end-zone seats, the number of bathroom facilities in Memorial Stadium was deemed inadequate. Marylands planners came up with an ambitious project, nicknamed the Baltodome, the original plan was to create a facility near the citys Inner Harbor known as Camden Yards. The new stadium would host 70,000 fans for games,55,000 for baseball.
But the proposal did not receive support to pass the Maryland legislature, in spite of assurances that contributions from taxpayers would be limited strictly to city, on February 27,1974, Marylands Governor Mandel pulled the plug on the idea. Orioles owner Jerold Hoffberger was blunt, I will bow to the will of the people and they have told us what they want to tell us. First, they dont want a new park and second, they dont want a club, Robert Irsay was willing to wait. Its not a matter of saying there will be no stadium. Its a matter of getting the facts together so everybody is happy when they build the stadium
United States Football League
The United States Football League was an American football league that played for three seasons,1983 through 1985. The league played a schedule in each of its active seasons. The 1986 season was scheduled to be played in the autumn/winter, the USFL ceased operations before its fourth season was scheduled to begin. Dixon had been a key player in the construction of the Louisiana Superdome and he developed The Dixon Plan—a blueprint for the USFL based upon securing NFL-caliber stadiums in top TV markets, securing a TV deal, and controlling spending—and found investors willing to buy in. The USFL had no salary cap, and some teams quickly escalated player payrolls to unsustainable levels despite pledges to keep costs under control. These problems were worsened as some owners began engaging in bidding wars for star players against NFL teams and each other, on the field, the USFL was regarded as a relatively good product. The Michigan Panthers won the first USFL championship in 1983, in 1985, the USFL voted to move from a spring to a fall schedule in 1986 to compete directly with the NFL.
This was done at the urging of New Jersey Generals majority owner Donald Trump, as part of this strategy, the USFL filed an anti-trust lawsuit against the National Football League in 1986, and a jury ruled that the NFL had violated anti-monopoly laws. However, in a victory in only, the USFL was awarded a judgment of just $1. This court decision effectively ended the USFL, the league never played the 1986 season, and by the time it folded, it had lost over US$163 million. The USFL is historically significant in part for the level of talent that played in the league, a number of NFL veterans of all talent levels played in the USFL. It is true that some NFL backups such as quarterbacks Chuck Fusina and Cliff Stoudt, G Buddy Aydelette, many NFL backups struggled or did not make it in the USFL. The USFL was the brainchild of David Dixon, a New Orleans antiques dealer, in 1965, he envisioned football as a possible spring and summer sport. Over the next 15 years, he studied the last two challengers to the NFLs dominance of pro football—the American Football League and the World Football League, in 1980, he commissioned a study by Frank Magid Associates that found promising results for a spring and summer football league.
He assembled a list of prospective franchises located in markets attractive to a television partner. With respected college and NFL coach John Ralston as the first employee, Dixon signed up 12 cities—nine where there already were NFL teams, the Dixon Plan called for teams in top TV markets to entice the networks into offering the league a TV deal. All but two of the 12 initial teams were located in the top 13 media markets in the US. After almost two years of preparation, Dixon formally announced the USFLs formation at the 21 Club in New York City on May 11,1982, ESPN president Chet Simmons was named the leagues first commissioner in June 1982
BC Place is a multi-purpose stadium located at the north side of False Creek, in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. It is owned and operated by the BC Pavilion Corporation, a corporation of the province. It is currently the home of the BC Lions of the Canadian Football League, Vancouver Whitecaps FC of Major League Soccer, the stadium served as the main stadium for the 2010 Winter Olympics and 2010 Paralympics which Vancouver hosted. The stadium opened on June 19,1983 and was built as a structure with an air-supported roof. Once construction was completed, the new roof was the largest of its type. Construction of the started in 1981 and was completed in 1983. BC Place was built as part of the preparations for the 1986 Worlds Fair, the stadium was the worlds largest air-supported domed stadium until May 4,2010 when it was deflated for the last time in preparation for the erection of its new retractable roof. The first major event held in the stadium was on June 20,1983 when the Vancouver Whitecaps hosted the Seattle Sounders in a North American Soccer League game with attendance announced at 60,342.
On July 24,1983, a crowd of 41,810 watched the BC Lions defeat the Saskatchewan Roughriders 44–28 in the Lions first game at the stadium, the venue would host the Soccer Bowl 83 that year. On September 18,1984 Pope John Paul II addressed an over-capacity crowd for A Celebration of Life, the celebration was part of the papal visit to the Archdiocese of Vancouver. It was one of the most heavily attended events in the stadium, the Popes Celebration of Life was followed a few months by the Canadian Pacific Billy Graham Crusade, which drew similar numbers each night. The stadium was used for the opening and closing ceremonies of the 1986 World Exposition on Transportation and Communication. Accepting an invitation by the Province of British Columbia, their Royal Highnesses Prince Charles, to great fanfare, they officially proclaimed the Worlds Fair open on May 2,1986. The stadium was the first air-supported structure and 24th venue to host the ceremonies of the Winter Olympics. It was both the third CFL venue and the third Canadian venue to have served as an Olympic Stadium, after Montreals Olympic Stadium, BC Place was a venue of the 2015 FIFA Womens World Cup, including the Championship Final match on July 5,2015.
It hosted round six of the HSBC World Rugby Sevens Series 2015-16 series, on January 5,2007, snow accumulated on the air-supported Teflon Fibreglass roof, despite strict zero accumulation of ice guidelines and ice accumulation structural warnings. The accumulation caused a tear in the roofs ETFE-coated fabric close to Gate G on the side where the roof meets the top of the concrete bowl. The tear grew quickly as air escaped through it, whereupon maintenance staff performed an intentional, as it was designed to do, the deflated roof rested on its steel support cables 6 metres above the seating and the field
Public address system
Simple PA systems are often used in small venues such as school auditoriums and small bars. Intercom systems, installed in buildings, have both speakers throughout a building, and microphones in many rooms allowing the occupants to respond to announcements. Sound reinforcement systems and PA systems may use some similar components, Sound reinforcement systems are for live music or performance, whereas PA systems are primarily for reproduction of speech. A short time the Automatic Enunciator Company was established in Chicago in order to market the new device, in August 1912 a large outdoor installation was made at a water carnival held in Chicago by the Associated Yacht and Power Boat Clubs of America. Seventy-two loudspeakers were strung in pairs at intervals along the docks. The system was used to announce race reports and descriptions, carry a series of speeches about The Chicago Plan, and provide music between races. Four years later, in 1915, they built a dynamic loudspeaker with a 1-inch voice coil, a 3-inch corrugated diaphragm, the electromagnet created a flux field of approximately 11,000 G.
Their first experiment used a carbon microphone, when the 12 V battery was connected to the system, they experienced one of the first examples of acoustic feedback. They placed the loudspeaker on the roof, and claims say that the amplified human voice could be heard 1 mile away. Jensen and Pridham refined the system and connected a phonograph to the loudspeaker to be able to broadcast recorded music and this demonstration was official presentation of the working system, and approximately 100,000 people gathered to hear Christmas music and speeches with absolute distinctness. The first outside broadcast was one week later, again supervised by Jensen. Jensen oversaw the governor using the microphone while Pridham operated the loudspeaker, the following year and Pridham applied for a patent for what they called their Sound Magnifying Phonograph. Over the next two years developed their first valve amplifier. In 1919 this was standardized as a 3-stage 25 watt amplifier, wilsons speech was part of his nationwide tour to promote the establishment of the League of Nations.
It was held on September 9,1919 at City Stadium, as with the San Francisco installation, Jensen supervised the microphone and Pridham the loudspeakers. Wilson spoke into two large horns mounted on his platform which channelled his voice into the microphone, similar systems were used in the following years by Warren G. Harding and Franklin D. Roosevelt. By the early 1920s, Marconi had established a department dedicated to public address, in 1925, George V used such a system at the British Empire Exhibition, addressing 90,000 via six long-range loudspeakers. This public use of loudspeakers brought attention to the possibilities of such technology, the 1925 Royal Air Force Pageant at Hendon Aerodrome used a Marconi system to allow the announcer to address the crowds, as well as amplify the band
The American League of Professional Baseball Clubs, or simply the American League, is one of two leagues that make up Major League Baseball in the United States and Canada. It developed from the Western League, a league based in the Great Lakes states. It is sometimes called the Junior Circuit because it claimed Major League status for the 1901 season,25 years after the formation of the National League. At the end of season, the American League champion plays in the World Series against the National League champion. Through 2016, American League teams have won 64 of the 112 World Series played since 1903, the 2016 American League champions are the Cleveland Indians. The New York Yankees have won 40 American League titles, the most in the history, followed by the Philadelphia/Kansas City/Oakland Athletics. Originally a minor league known as the Western League, the American League developed into a major league after the American Association disbanded, in its early history, the Western League struggled until 1894, when Ban Johnson became the president of the league.
Johnson led the Western League into major league status and soon became the president of the newly renamed American League, babe Ruth, noted as one of the most prolific hitters in Major League Baseball history, spent the majority of his career in the American League. The American League has one notable difference versus the National League, in 1902, the Milwaukee Brewers moved to St. Louis and were renamed the St. Louis Browns. In 1902, The Cleveland Bluebirds were renamed the Cleveland Broncos, in 1903, the Broncos were renamed the Cleveland Naps. In 1915, the Naps were renamed the Cleveland Indians, in 1903, the Baltimore Orioles moved to New York and were renamed the New York Highlanders. In 1913, the Highlanders were renamed the New York Yankees, in 1904, the Chicago White Stockings were renamed the Chicago White Sox. In 1908, the Boston Americans were renamed the Boston Red Sox, in 1954, the St. Louis Browns moved to Baltimore and were renamed as the Baltimore Orioles. In 1955, the Philadelphia Athletics moved to Kansas City and were renamed as the Kansas City Athletics, in 1961, the league expanded and added two teams as the Los Angeles Angels and the Washington Senators, expanding the league to 10 teams.
The original Senators team moved to Minneapolis/St, Paul in 1961 and were renamed as the Minnesota Twins. The Angels team name changed to the California Angels in 1966, to the Anaheim Angels in 1997, the Kansas City Royals and the Seattle Pilots were added to the American League, expanding the league to 12 teams. In 1970, the Seattle Pilots moved to Milwaukee and were renamed the Milwaukee Brewers, in 1972, the Washington Senators relocated to the Dallas/Fort Worth area and were renamed the Texas Rangers. In 1977, the league expanded to fourteen teams, when the Seattle Mariners, in 1998, the Tampa Bay Rays was added to the American League and at the same time, the Milwaukee Brewers were switched to the National League, leaving the American League with 14 teams
Ottawa Rough Riders
The Ottawa Rough Riders were a Canadian Football League team based in Ottawa, founded in 1876. Formerly one of the oldest and longest lived professional sports teams in North America and their most dominant era was the 1960s and 1970s, a period in which they won five Grey Cups. The teams fortunes waned in the 1980s and 1990s and they ceased operations following the 1996 season. Five years later, a new CFL team known as the Ottawa Renegades was founded, the Ottawa Redblacks, who own the Rough Riders intellectual properties, joined the league in 2014. Founded,1876 Folded,1996 Formerly known as, Ottawa Football Club 1876 to 1897, the teams colours were cerise and navy blue. The club adopted the name Ottawa Rough Riders on Friday, September 9,1898 and changed its colours to red. Since then and black have been Ottawas traditional sporting colours, the team changed its nickname to Ottawa Senators from 1925 to 1930. The teams had historically belonged to leagues, which were not truly merged until the late 1950s.
When the CFL was formed they were allowed to keep their long-standing names, on four occasions, the two teams met in the Grey Cup. Ottawas first Canadian championship came in 1898, the Ottawa Football Club transferred from the Quebec Union to the Ontario League that season. In those days, Ottawa athletes played in sports and the Riders had athletes famous in other sports, such as Harvey Pulford. The Riders moved back to the Quebec Union, winning the 1903 Quebec championship, in 1905, Ottawa won the Quebec title, only to lose to the Toronto Varsity team 11–9 in the Canadian championship. The club absorbed the Ottawa St. Pats when the Riders helped found the Interprovincial Rugby Football Union in 1907, the Riders would win the IRFU championship in 1909 over the Hamilton Tigers, but lost in the Canadian final in Toronto to Toronto Varsity. During the decline of the Riders, another Ottawa team, Ottawa St. Brigids, was on an ascent, St. Brigids, which played in the Ottawa City league, and the Ontario league, was developing top talent.
In 1923, St. Brigids and the Riders merged, with St. Brigids manager Jim McCaffery becoming the manager of the Riders, McCaffery would be a member of the Riders executive for several decades. The team won the Grey Cup in 1925 and 1926, a time when they were known as the Ottawa Senators, in 1925, Ottawa defeated three-time defending champion Queens in the Eastern semi-final. Ottawa defeated Winnipeg 24–1 in the championship, held in Ottawa, the team was led by top players such as Eddie Emerson, Joe Tubman, Joe Miller, Jess Ketchum, Jack Pritchard, Harold Starr and Don Young. The Riders went back into a decline after the championships, another Ottawa team, the Ottawa Rangers, was developing talent and enjoying success, winning the Quebec title
The Cleveland Browns are a professional American football team based in Cleveland, Ohio. The Browns compete in the National Football League as a club of the American Football Conference North division. The Browns play their games at FirstEnergy Stadium, which opened in 1999, with administrative offices and training facilities in Berea. The Browns official colors are brown and white and they are unique among the 32 member franchises of the NFL in that they do not have a logo on their helmets and are the only team named after a specific person, original coach Paul Brown. The franchise was founded in 1945 by businessman Arthur B, McBride and coach Paul Brown as a charter member of the All-America Football Conference. The Browns dominated the AAFC, compiling a 47–4–3 record in the four active seasons. When the AAFC folded after the 1949 season, the Browns joined the National Football League along with the San Francisco 49ers, from 1965 to 1995, they made the playoffs 14 times, but did not win another championship or appear in the Super Bowl in that period.
In 1995, owner Art Modell, who had purchased the Browns in 1961, announced plans to move the team to Baltimore, Maryland. The Browns intellectual property, including name, training facility, and history, were kept in trust. A new team would be established by 1999 either by expansion or relocation, the Browns were announced as an expansion team in 1998 and resumed play in 1999. Since resuming operations in 1999, the Browns have struggled to find success and they have had only two winning seasons, one playoff appearance, and no playoff wins. The franchise has noted for a lack of stability with quarterbacks. To date, the Browns overall win-loss record since 1999 is 88–200, the Browns origins date to 1944, when taxicab magnate Arthur B. Mickey McBride secured the rights to a Cleveland franchise in the newly formed All-America Football Conference. S, early in 1945, McBride named 36-year-old Ohio State Buckeyes coach Paul Brown as the teams head coach and general manager and gave him a share in its profits.
The move surprised and upset Buckeye fans, who had hoped he would resume his successful run at the school after the war, the name of the team was at first left up to Paul Brown, who rejected calls for it to be christened the Browns. The franchise and the Cleveland Plain Dealer held a naming contest to publicize the team, in June 1945, a committee selected Panthers as the new teams name, named after a failed American Football League franchise in Cleveland which only lasted a single season in 1926. It is unclear whether Panthers was the highest vote-getter, or if it was second-highest behind Browns, the owner of the failed AFL Panthers franchise, General C. X. Zimmerman, indicated that he owned the name Cleveland Panthers, at this point, Paul Brown bowed to popular sentiment and agreed to the Browns name
Baltimore is the largest city in the U. S. state of Maryland, and the 29th-most populous city in the country. It was established by the Constitution of Maryland and is not part of any county, thus, it is the largest independent city in the United States, with a population of 621,849 as of 2015. As of 2010, the population of the Baltimore Metropolitan Area was 2.7 million, founded in 1729, Baltimore is the second largest seaport in the Mid-Atlantic. Baltimores Inner Harbor was once the leading port of entry for immigrants to the United States. With hundreds of identified districts, Baltimore has been dubbed a city of neighborhoods, in the War of 1812, Francis Scott Key wrote The Star-Spangled Banner, the American national anthem, in Baltimore. More than 65,000 properties, or roughly one in three buildings in the city, are listed on the National Register, more than any city in the nation. The city has 289 properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the historical records of the government of Baltimore are located at the Baltimore City Archives.
The city is named after Cecil Calvert, second Lord Baltimore, of the Irish House of Lords, Baltimore Manor was the name of the estate in County Longford on which the Calvert family lived in Ireland. Baltimore is an anglicization of the Irish name Baile an Tí Mhóir, in 1608, Captain John Smith traveled 210 miles from Jamestown to the uppermost Chesapeake Bay, leading the first European expedition to the Patapsco River. The name Patapsco is derived from pota-psk-ut, which translates to backwater or tide covered with froth in Algonquian dialect, a quarter century after John Smiths voyage, English colonists began to settle in Maryland. The area constituting the modern City of Baltimore and its area was first settled by David Jones in 1661. He claimed the area today as Harbor East on the east bank of the Jones Falls stream. In the early 1600s, the immediate Baltimore vicinity was populated, if at all. The Baltimore area had been inhabited by Native Americans since at least the 10th millennium BC, one Paleo-Indian site and several Archaic period and Woodland period archaeological sites have been identified in Baltimore, including four from the Late Woodland period.
During the Late Woodland period, the culture that is called the Potomac Creek complex resided in the area from Baltimore to the Rappahannock River in Virginia. It was located on the Bush River on land that in 1773 became part of Harford County, in 1674, the General Assembly passed An Act for erecting a Court-house and Prison in each County within this Province. The site of the house and jail for Baltimore County was evidently Old Baltimore near the Bush River. In 1683, the General Assembly passed An Act for Advancement of Trade to establish towns, one of the towns established by the act in Baltimore County was on Bush River, on Town Land, near the Court-House
The Arizona Cardinals are a professional American football franchise based in the Phoenix metropolitan area. The Cardinals compete in the National Football League as a member of the leagues National Football Conference West division, the Cardinals were founded as the Morgan Athletic Club in 1898, and are the oldest continuously run professional football team in the United States. The Cardinals play their games at the University of Phoenix Stadium. The team was established in Chicago in 1898 and was a member of the NFL in 1920. Along with the Chicago Bears, the club is one of two NFL charter member franchises still in operation since the leagues founding, the club moved to St. Louis in 1960 and played in that city through 1987. Before the 1988 season, the team moved west to Tempe, Arizona, a suburb east of Phoenix. In 2006, the club playing all home games at the newly constructed University of Phoenix Stadium in Glendale. The franchise has won two NFL championships, both while it was based in Chicago, the first occurred in 1925, but is the subject of controversy, with supporters of the Pottsville Maroons believing that Pottsville should have won the title.
Their second title, and the first to be won in a game, came in 1947. They returned to the game to defend in 1948. In 2012 the Cardinals became the first NFL franchise to lose 700 games since its inception, the franchises all-time win-loss record at the conclusion of the 2016 season is 549–741–40. They have been to the ten times and have won seven playoff games. During that season, they won their only NFC Championship Game since the 1970 AFL–NFL merger, the team has won five division titles since their 1947–1948 NFL championship game appearances. From 1988 through 2012, the Cardinals conducted their summer training camp at Northern Arizona University in Flagstaff. The Cardinals moved their camp to University of Phoenix Stadium in 2013. The stadium was the site of the 2015 Pro Bowl, unlike in past years, the stadium played host to Super Bowls XLII and XLIX. The franchises inception dates back to 1898, when a group gathered to play in the Chicago South Side. Chicago painting and building contractor Chris OBrien acquired the team, which he relocated to Normal Field on Racine Avenue, the team was known as Racine Normals until 1901, when OBrien bought used jerseys from the University of Chicago
The Grey Cup is the name of both the championship game of the Canadian Football League and the trophy awarded to the victorious team playing Canadian football. It is contested between the winners of the CFLs East and West Divisional playoffs and is one of Canadian televisions largest annual sporting events, the Toronto Argonauts have 16 championships, more than any other team. The latest, the 104th Grey Cup, took place in Toronto, Ontario, on November 27,2016, the trophy was commissioned in 1909 by the Earl Grey, Canadas governor general, who originally hoped to donate it for the countrys senior amateur hockey championship. After the Allan Cup was donated for that purpose, Grey instead made his trophy available as the Canadian Dominion Football Championship of Canadian football. The trophy has a silver chalice attached to a base on which the names of all winning teams, players. The Grey Cup has been broken on several occasions, stolen twice and it survived a 1947 fire that destroyed numerous artifacts housed in the same building.
The Grey Cup was first won by the University of Toronto Varsity Blues, play was suspended from 1916 to 1918 due to the First World War and in 1919 due to a rules dispute. The game has typically been contested in an east versus west format since the 1920s, the Edmonton Eskimos formed the Grey Cups longest dynasty, winning five consecutive championships from 1978 to 1982. While the Stanley Cup was created in 1893 as the Canadian amateur hockey championship, Grey instead offered an award to the Dominion amateur rugby football championship beginning in 1909. He initially failed to follow through on his offer, the trophy was not ordered until two weeks prior to the first championship game. The first Grey Cup game was held on December 4,1909, the trophy was not ready for presentation following the game, and the Varsity Blues did not receive it until March 1910. They retained the trophy in the two years, defeating the Hamilton Tigers in 1910 and the Toronto Argonauts in 1911. The University of Toronto failed to reach the 1912 Grey Cup, the Varsity Blues refused to hand over the trophy on the belief they could keep it until they were defeated in a title game.
They kept the trophy until 1914 when they were defeated by the Argonauts, Canadas participation in the First World War resulted in the cancellation of the championship from 1916 to 1918, during which time the Cup was forgotten. Montreal Gazette writer Bob Dunn claimed that the trophy was rediscovered as one of the heirlooms of an employee of the Toronto trust company where it had been sent for storage. Competition finally resumed in 1920 with the 8th Grey Cup game and it was the University of Torontos fourth, and final, championship. Competition for the Grey Cup was limited to member unions of the CRU, the Western Canada Rugby Football Union joined in 1921, allowing the Edmonton Eskimos to challenge. Facing the Argonauts in the 9th Grey Cup, the Eskimos became the first western team –, the Argonauts entered the game with an undefeated record, having outscored their opposition 226 to 55 during the season
The states largest city is Baltimore, and its capital is Annapolis. Among its occasional nicknames are Old Line State, the Free State, the state is named after Henrietta Maria of France, the wife of Charles I of England. George Calvert was the first Lord of Baltimore and the first English proprietor of the colonial grant. Maryland was the state to ratify the United States Constitution. Maryland is one of the smallest U. S. states in terms of area, as well as one of the most densely populated, Maryland has an area of 12,406.68 square miles and is comparable in overall area with Belgium. It is the 42nd largest and 9th smallest state and is closest in size to the state of Hawaii, the next largest state, its neighbor West Virginia, is almost twice the size of Maryland. Maryland possesses a variety of topography within its borders, contributing to its nickname America in Miniature. The mid-portion of this border is interrupted by Washington, D. C. which sits on land that was part of Montgomery and Prince Georges counties and including the town of Georgetown.
This land was ceded to the United States Federal Government in 1790 to form the District of Columbia, the Chesapeake Bay nearly bisects the state and the counties east of the bay are known collectively as the Eastern Shore. Close to the town of Hancock, in western Maryland, about two-thirds of the way across the state. This geographical curiosity makes Maryland the narrowest state, bordered by the Mason–Dixon line to the north, portions of Maryland are included in various official and unofficial geographic regions. Much of the Baltimore–Washington corridor lies just south of the Piedmont in the Coastal Plain, earthquakes in Maryland are infrequent and small due to the states distance from seismic/earthquake zones. The M5.8 Virginia earthquake in 2011 was felt moderately throughout Maryland, buildings in the state are not well-designed for earthquakes and can suffer damage easily. The lack of any glacial history accounts for the scarcity of Marylands natural lakes, laurel Oxbow Lake is an over one-hundred-year-old 55-acre natural lake two miles north of Maryland City and adjacent to Russett.
Chews Lake is a natural lake two miles south-southeast of Upper Marlboro. There are numerous lakes, the largest of them being the Deep Creek Lake. Maryland has shale formations containing natural gas, where fracking is theoretically possible, as is typical of states on the East Coast, Marylands plant life is abundant and healthy. Middle Atlantic coastal forests, typical of the southeastern Atlantic coastal plain, grow around Chesapeake Bay, moving west, a mixture of Northeastern coastal forests and Southeastern mixed forests cover the central part of the state