Baltimore and Ohio Railroad

The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad was the first common carrier railroad and the oldest railroad in the United States, with its first section opening in 1830. Merchants from the city of Baltimore, which had benefitted to some extent from the construction of the National Road early in the century, wanted to continue to compete for trade with trans-Appalachian settlers with the newly constructed Erie Canal, another canal being proposed by Pennsylvania, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, the James River Canal, which directed traffic toward Richmond and Norfolk, Virginia. At first the B&O was located in the state of Maryland, its original line extending from the port of Baltimore west to Sandy Hook; because of competition with the C&O canal for trade with coal fields in western Maryland, it could not use the C&O right of way. Thus, to continue westward while minimizing high-cost track through the Appalachian Mountains, the B&O chose to cross the Potomac River into Virginia, near the confluence of the Potomac and Shenandoah rivers.

From there track continued through Virginia from Harpers Ferry to a point just west of the junction of Patterson Creek and the North Branch Potomac River, where it crossed back into Maryland to reach Cumberland, the terminus of the National Road. From there the B&O extended to the Ohio River at Wheeling and a few years also to Parkersburg, West Virginia, it proved crucial to Union success during the American Civil War, although the conflict caused considerable damage. After the war's end, the B&O consolidated several feeder lines in Virginia and West Virginia, as well as expanded westward into Ohio and Illinois. B&O advertising carried the motto: "Linking 13 Great States with the Nation." After several mergers, the B&O became part of the CSX Transportation network. The B&O includes the Leiper Railroad, the first permanent horse-drawn railroad in the U. S. At the end of 1970, the B&O operated 5,552 miles of road and 10,449 miles of track, not including the Staten Island Rapid Transit or the Reading and its subsidiaries.

It includes the oldest operational railroad bridge in the United States. When CSX established the B&O Railroad Museum as a separate entity from the corporation, it donated some of the former B&O Mount Clare Shops in Baltimore, including the Mt. Clare roundhouse, to the museum, while selling the rest of the property; the B&O Warehouse at the Camden Yards rail junction in Baltimore now dominates the view over the right-field wall at the Baltimore Orioles' current home, Oriole Park at Camden Yards. Part of the B&O Railroad's immortality has come from being one of the four featured railroads on the U. S. version of the board game Monopoly. The fast-growing port city of Baltimore, faced economic stagnation unless it opened routes to the western states, as New York had done with the Erie Canal in 1820. On February 27, 1827, twenty-five merchants and bankers studied the best means of restoring "that portion of the Western trade, diverted from it by the introduction of steam navigation." Their answer was to build a railroad—one of the first commercial lines in the world.

Their plans worked well, despite many political problems from other railroads. The railroad grew from a capital base of $3 million in 1827 to a large enterprise generating $2.7 million of annual profit on its 380 miles of track in 1854, with 19 million passenger miles. The railroad fed tens of millions of dollars of shipments to and from Baltimore and its growing hinterland to the west, thus making the city the commercial and financial capital of the region south of Philadelphia. Two men — Philip E. Thomas and George Brown — were the pioneers of the railroad, they spent the year 1826 investigating railway enterprises in England, which were at that time being tested in a comprehensive fashion as commercial ventures. Their investigation completed, they held an organizational meeting on February 12, 1827, including about twenty-five citizens, most of whom were Baltimore merchants or bankers. Chapter 123 of the 1826 Session Laws of Maryland, passed February 28, 1827, the Commonwealth of Virginia on March 8, 1827, chartered the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company, with the task of building a railroad from the port of Baltimore west to a suitable point on the Ohio River.

The railroad, formally incorporated April 24, was intended to provide a faster route for Midwestern goods to reach the East Coast than the hugely successful but slow Erie Canal across upstate New York. Thomas was elected as Brown the treasurer; the capital of the proposed company was fixed at five million dollars, but the B&O was capitalized in 1827 with a three million dollar issue of stock. Every citizen of Baltimore owned a share, as the offering was oversubscribed. Construction began on July 4, 1828, when Charles Carroll of Carrollton performed the groundbreaking by laying the cornerstone; the initial tracks were built with granite stringers topped by strap iron rails. The first section, from Baltimore west to Ellicott's Mills, opened on May 24, 1830. A horse pulled the first cars 26 miles and back, since the B&O did not decide to use steam power for several years. Railroad men in South Carolina had earlier commissioned a steam locomotive from a New York foundry (which would

Tule River (Shasta County, California)

The Tule River is a 5.7-mile-long river tributary to the Fall River. The river is a complex of spring-fed lakes and waterways originating in Ahjumawi Lava Springs State Park in north-eastern Shasta County in northern California. From the Fall River, its waters continue to the Pit River and the Sacramento River to the Pacific Ocean; the Tule River sources in Ahjumawi Lava Springs State Park, the ancestral homeland of a band of the Pit River Indians known as the Achomawi whose name translates to "where the waters come together". The Achomawi are one of eleven bands of the Pit River Tribe of native peoples; the park lands were deeded to the state in 1975 by Ivy Horr, whose family logged and raised cattle in the area after they bought it in 1944. The Tule River is named for a common bulrush or cattail known as "tule"; the Fall River Conservancy and the Fall River Resource Conservation District both work to restore the Fall River and its tributary, the Tule River. The lake complex and marshlands are an important stopover on the Pacific Flyway for Canada and snow geese as well as American white pelicans, blue-winged teals.

Other bird species include Lewis’s woodpeckers, northern pygmy owls, bald eagles and a large population of ospreys which nest in juniper trees, a situation unique to the area. Black-tailed deer and coyote frequent the grasslands. Non-native muskrats can be seen in water's edges; the indigenous Shasta crayfish is considered endangered by state and federal agencies. Only three inches long at maturity, Shasta crayfish numbers have diminished since the introduction of non-native crayfish species. Big Lake and Horr Pond are used for waterfowl hunting and supports a warm water fishery year round and a trout fishery during the general trout season. In addition sportfisherman angle for non-native largemouth black bass Micropterus salmoides, brown bullheads; the watershed hosts Sacramento suckers and self-sustaining populations of native rainbow trout and non-native brown trout. McArthur Swamp is a 7,400-acre area of reclaimed wetlands and open water north of the town of McArthur and south of Big Lake and the Tule River.

It provides valuable waterfowl habitat on the Pacific Flyway and is grazed. PG&E proposes to donate McArthur Swamp and the nearby parcel acquired by a land trade with State Parks to the Fall River Resource Cosnervation District, to manage it subject to a strict easement; the Tule River and lakes complex drains over 11,000 acres and is more a series of lakes than river. Ahjumavi Lava Springs is the source in northern Big Lake, from which waters flow southwest into Horr Pond and thence to the Fall River, after picking up flows from Ja She Creek and Little Tule River; the Little Tule River flows originate as Lava Creek Eastman Lake before the Little Tule River confluence with the Tule River. The lava springs feeding the Big Lake Complex, the headwaters of the Tule River, are the source of 75% of the water in the Fall River and supply about 85% of the flow of the Pit River during the summer months. Fall River Pit River Fall River Conservancy home page Fall River Resource Conservation District home page


Nagyatád is a town in Somogy County and the seat of Nagyatád District. Bodvica, Henész and Kivadár are parts of Nagyatád, its name derives from the Turkish word ata. It lies on the southern side of Inner Somogy, 60 km south of Lake Balaton on the main road 68. Nagyatád was established during the Hungarian conquest by the Horka tribe; however this region was inhabited in prehistoric times. It was first mentioned in 1190 in official documents. At that time the settlement was situated at the northern part of today's Nagyatád, it was mentioned in 1382 as Populi et cives in villa Athad and was part of Segesd County. It was of Queen Elizabeth it belonged to the Anthimi to the Batthyány family. In 1395 György Kis de Kővágóörs got the village, but in 1403 it was in the hands of János Anthimi. It got market town rights in 1475 from Matthias Corvinus and therefore it became an important commercial centre. Boldizsár Batthyány and András Alapi owned the settlement in 1475. In 1550 it belonged to Kristóf Batthyány.

Thanks to its favorable location vivid trade flourished there until the Turkish occupation when it perished. According to the Turkish tax register there were only 8 households in 1554. Between 1565 and 1571 it listed just 12 houses. Meanwhile, the Hungarian nobles still claimed it as their territory. In 1573 Pál Czindery owned it. Between 1598 and 1599 Kristóf Pethő was its owner. According to the tithe register of the Pannonhalma Archabbey the settlement was divided in to parts, Atád and Kis-Atád and belonged to the Diocese of Székesfehérvár. After the expulsion of the Turkish forces Slovene and Croatian settlers arrived. In 1697 Serbians plundered the village. During Rákóczi's War of Independence the Franciscans left Nagyatád in 1703, they returned in 1731. It experienced a rapid economic development during the 18th century. In 1744 it got market town rights again; the town changed hands several times. New operating facilities opened in there. In 1906 thermal water was found 410 m deep from; the villages of Bodvica, Henész and Kivadár became parts of Nagyatád in 1941.

On April 28, 1971 Nagyatád became a town. Between 1984 and 1994 Ötvöskónyi was part of Nagyatád. Several companies have production facilities in the town like the Italian-owned wood manufacturer Diófa, the Hungarian Nagyatádi Konzervgyár, the Hungarian sweet manufacturer Chocoland, the Hungarian metal producer Büttner, the Hungarian fruit producer Agromarker 2000 and the German deep-frozen bakery producer DEH. only one long distance triathlon championship in Hungary in every July Franciscan Monastery Holy Cross Church Saint Roch Chapel Mándl Mansion Statue Park Town Museum Military Park Thermal Bath and Spa of Nagyatád - 32°C, 38°C and 42°C warm water for treating Rheam and articular problems Beach and Camping of Nagyatád Imre Mudin, Hungarian teacher, soldier and field athlete József Ángyán, Hungarian agriculture engineer, politician Szeréna Stern, Hungarian politician Nicholas Zámbó, Hungarian treasurer, judge József Babay, Hungarian writer, journalist József Somssich, Hungarian politician, Minister of Foreign Affairs István Szabó de Nagyatád, Hungarian politician, Minister of Agriculture Péter Árvai, Hungarian author Balázs Ander, Hungarian politician Timuzsin Schuch, Hungarian handballer Anikó Kovacsics, Hungarian handballer Péter Szakály, Hungarian footballer Ivett Kurucz, Hungarian handballer Tamás Borsos, Hungarian handballer Ferenc Füzesi, Hungarian handballer Kornél Kulcsár, Hungarian footballer Dénes Szakály, Hungarian footballer Renáta Tobai-Sike, Hungarian shooter Dóra Pásztory, Hungarian swimmer Nagyatádi FC, association football club Nagyatád is twinned with: Târgu Secuiesc, Romania San Vito al Tagliamento, Italy Nußloch, Germany Križevci, Croatia Official website in Hungarian Street map