Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli
Technical and further education
In Australia and further education or TAFE institutions provide a wide range of predominantly vocational courses qualifying courses under the National Training System/Australian Qualifications Framework/Australian Quality Training Framework. Fields covered include business, hospitality, construction, visual arts, information technology and community work. Individual TAFE institutions are known as either colleges or institutes, depending on the state or territory. TAFE colleges are owned and financed by the various state and territory governments; this is in contrast to the university sector, whose funding is predominantly the domain of the federal government and whose universities are predominantly owned by the state governments. T. A. F. E colleges award Australian Qualifications Framework qualifications accredited in the Vocational Education and Training sector that align to Certificate I, Certificate II, Certificate III, Certificate IV, Advanced Diploma, Graduate Certificate and Graduate Diploma qualifications.
In many instances TAFE study can be used as partial credit towards bachelor's degree-level university programs. From 2002 the TAFE education sector has been able to offer bachelor's degrees and post-graduate diploma courses to fill niche areas vocationally focused areas of study based on industry needs; as at June 2009 10 TAFE colleges now confer their own degree-level awards and post graduate diplomas, though not beyond the level of bachelor's degree. However Melbourne Polytechnic has been accredited in 2015 to offer two master's degree courses; some universities, e.g. Charles Darwin University and Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, offer vocational education courses; some high schools deliver courses developed and accredited by TAFEs. Students who enrol in these undergraduate degree courses at TAFE are required to pay full fees and are not entitled to Commonwealth Government supported student fee loans, known as HECS loans, but may access a FEE-HELP loan scheme. While Universities have the ability and power to design and offer their own degree courses, each TAFE degree course must be assessed and approved by the Higher Education Accreditation Committee.
TAFEs in some states can teach senior high school qualifications, like the VCE, Victorian Certificate of Applied Learning, the Higher School Certificate. Some universities, e.g. Charles Darwin University and Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, offer TAFE courses; some high schools deliver courses developed and accredited by TAFEs. Some private institutions offer courses from TAFEs, however they more offer other vocational education and training courses. Many Australians refer to all sub-degree courses as "TAFE" courses, no matter what institution creates or delivers the course. Before the 1990s, the TAFEs had a near monopoly in the sector. TAFE courses provide students an opportunity for certificate and advanced diploma qualifications in a wide range of areas. In most cases, TAFE campuses are grouped into TAFE institutions along geographic lines. Most TAFEs are given a locally recognised region of the country where they operate covering a wide range of subjects. A few TAFEs specialise in a single area of study.
These are found near the middle of the capital cities, service the whole state or territory. For example, the Trade and Technician Skills Institute in Brisbane, specialises in automotive and construction, manufacturing and engineering, electrical/electronic studies for students throughout Queensland. Or the William Angliss Institute of TAFE in Melbourne which specialises in food and tourism courses for Victoria. In the Australian Capital Territory these include: Canberra Institute of Technology There are ten TAFE NSW Institutes in NSW which include: Hunter Institute Illawarra Institute New England Institute North Coast Institute Northern Sydney Institute Riverina Institute South Western Sydney Institute Sydney Institute Western Institute Western Sydney Institute, including OTEN In the Northern Territory these include: Charles Darwin University Batchelor Institute of Indigenous Tertiary Education In Queensland, TAFE Queensland includes: As of May 2014, the TAFE institutes have amalgamated into six regions of the central TAFE Queensland.
The regions of TAFE Queensland are: Brisbane Gold Coast East Coast South West North SkillsTech In South Australia: TAFE SA In Tasmania, there are two government TAFE organisations: TAFE Tasmania includes: Institute of TAFE Tasmania Drysdale Institute Australian Maritime College TAFE In Victoria these include: Bendigo Regional Institute of TAFE Box Hill Institute of TAFE Chisholm Institute East Gippsland Institute of TAFE Central Gippsland Institute of TAFE Go
Weipa is a mining town on the Gulf of Carpentaria coast of the Cape York Peninsula in Queensland, is the largest town on the Cape. At the 2011 census, Weipa had a population of 3,334, it exists because of the enormous bauxite deposits along the coast. The Port of Weipa is involved in exports of bauxite. Over the last decade or so there have been occasional shipments of live cattle from the port. Weipa is just south of Duyfken Point, a location now agreed to be the first recorded point of European contact with the Australian continent. Dutch explorer Willem Janszoon, on his ship the Duyfken, sighted the coast here in 1606; this was 164 years. In 1895 Presbyterian missionary Reverend Nicholas John Hey established a mission at the junction of Embley River and Spring Creek which he called Weipa, believed to derive from the Anhathangayth word meaning fighting ground. In 1932 the mission relocated 28 kilometres to Jessica Point continuing under the same name. Restrictive legislation was enacted by the state of Queensland in 1911, making the Protector the legal guardian of every Aborigine and half-caste child, the right to confine any such person within any reserve or Aboriginal institution, the right to imprison any Aborigine or half-caste for 14 days if, in the Protector's judgement, they were guilty of neglect of duty, gross insubordination or wilful preaching of disobedience.
It gave powers to the police to confine Aborigines to reserves to "protect them from corruption". This latter power was given by Comalco in 1957 to justify the removal of Weipa Aborigines. In 1932 the community had to relocate to its present site, at Jessica Point now called Napranum because of malaria, it is about 12 kilometres south of the present town of Weipa. At this time most of the people were Awngthim but soon different tribes and clans were brought from Old Mapoon, other communities. In 1955 a geologist, Henry Evans, discovered that the red cliffs on the Aboriginal reserve remarked on by the early Dutch explorers and Matthew Flinders, were enormous deposits of bauxite – the ore from which aluminium is made – and to a lesser extent tungsten; the "Comalco Act of 1957" revoked the reserve status, giving the company 5,760 square km of Aboriginal reserve land on the west coast of the Peninsula and 5,135 square km on the east coast of Aboriginal-owned land. Mining commenced in 1960; the mission became a government settlement in 1966 with continued attempts by Comalco to relocate the whole community elsewhere.
The company built a new town for its workers on the other side of the bay. Weipa has a tropical savanna climate, with hot temperatures above 30 °C throughout the year. Three distinct seasons exist; the wet season, which runs from January to April, is characterised by heavy downpours on an daily basis. Monsoon lows and tropical cyclones cause more extreme rainfall, up to 200 mm in 24 hours; the dry season, running from May to September, features dry days. The build-up season, running from October to December, is oppressively hot and humid, with frequent days over 35 °C. Dewpoints in the wet season average 24 °C. Rainfall during the build-up is infrequent, but when it does occur, it falls in brief, heavy downpours associated with severe thunderstorms; these seasons are not always set, however. Extreme temperatures have ranged from 10.2 °C to 38.4 °C. The highest daily rainfall recorded was 327.8 mm during the passage of Tropical Cyclone Oswald in January 2013. The present town was constructed by Comalco, a large aluminium company, which began making trial shipments of bauxite to Japan in 1962.
A railway was constructed to transport the ore from the mine at Andoom to the dump of the export facility at Lorim Point. The bauxite mine is the world's largest with planned expansions increasing the margin over other mines in 2010. There are two schools in Weipa; the Western Cape College is a government co-educational school. It is on the corner of Eastern Avenues in Rocky Point. In 2015, the school had an enrolment of 1,073 students with 93 teachers. St Joseph's Parish School is a Roman Catholic co-educational primary school at 2 Boundary Road, Rocky Point. Opened in 2016, the school only offered enrolment in years P-3 but expects in 2018 to be able to offer enrolment across all primary levels. Weipa has a visitor's centre, swimming pool, bowling green, golf club and squash courts. There are basketball courts as well as football fields. Weipa Town Authority operates a public library at Hibberd Drive in Weipa. At Nanum the shopping precinct has a Woolworths supermarket, coffee shop, travel agent, clothing shop, post office, newsagency / sports shop and butchers.
There is a chemist and fishing store and within walking distance is a gift shop and whitegoods store, credit union and government social security office. At Evans Landing there are a
New Mapoon, Queensland
New Mapoon is a town in the Northern Peninsula Area Region and a locality split between the Northern Peninsula Region and Shire of Torres, Australia. At the 2016 census, New Mapoon had a population of 383. New Mapoon is an area south of Seisia and west of Bamaga at the tip of Cape York Peninsula, adjoining the Lockerbie Scrub; the people who live at New Mapoon were forcibly moved from Marpuna in the early 1960s to accommodate mining expansion on their traditional country. They now have historical association and administrative responsibility for a DOGIT area on the traditional country of the Gudang people; the residents of New Mapoon have a ranger service, which works with the Injinoo and other Northern Peninsula Area community rangers to undertake land management practices in the NPA. New Mapoon has Tackle' shop. New Mapoon is 1 of the 5 communities; the NPA consists of 1,030 km2 in the northern most region of Cape York in far north Queensland. Injinoo, Umagico and Bamaga communities make up the remainder of the NPA.
New Mapoon is located near Bamaga, was called Hidden Valley. The site was locally known as Charcoal Burner or Mandingu; the government established New Mapoon to accommodate residents from Mapoon Mission, some of whom accepted an offer to relocate there following the closure of Mapoon Mission in July 1963. Mapoon Mission was established under the name Batavia River Mission at Cullin Point in 1891 by the Presbyterian Church of Australia on the traditional lands of the Tjungundji people, its residents included the Tjungundji, descendants of other local language groups whose lands were incorporated into the Mapoon reserve over time, people forcibly removed to the mission from the Gulf of Carpentaria area and descendants of South Sea Islanders brought to the mission by Presbyterian missionaries. In 1954, the Presbyterian Church and Department of Native Affairs attended a conference at Mapoon to discuss the mission’s future. Director of Native Affairs, Cornelius O’Leary, rejected the Presbyterian Church’s proposal to maintain the mission and a policy decision was made to close the mission.
Other problems at Mapoon had been brought to his attention prior to the conference including financial and staffing difficulties, resident dissatisfaction. O’Leary had advised the government of his preference to close the mission before attending the conference. Residents of Mapoon were not consulted about the closure of Mapoon and most protested against the initial plan to relocate residents to other Presbyterian missions or to "assimilate those ready for exemption into the Australian way of life elsewhere". At the time the community became aware of the closure plan in 1954, around 285 people lived at Mapoon; the church administration did not commit to the government’s closure policy until 1960, after experiencing persistent pressure caused by under-funding and uncertainty after the discovery of bauxite deposits in the Mapoon-Weipa area in 1955. Between 1961 and 1962, the Presbyterian Church began deliberately reducing services to mission residents; the government had begun to build houses at New Mapoon.
By July 1963, the last Presbyterian staff member had resigned, the Department of Native Affairs had appointed one of its staff as Superintendent of Mapoon and around 100 Mapoon residents had relocated to New Mapoon. At the end of 1962, around 162 people still remained at Mapoon continuing their campaign against the closure and setting up alternative schooling, food supplies and transport; the Queensland Government reported in May 1963 that the "balance of the inhabitants of Mapoon of their own volition moved to New Mapoon". However, the official records indicate. On 14 November 1963, the Director of Native Affairs, Patrick Killoran, instructed the Thursday Island police to remove 23 people from Mapoon to Bamaga and "commence demolition of the vacated shanties on the reserve"; the next night, two Queensland police officers arrived at Mapoon on the MV Gelam, together with several Saibai Island Community Police officers. A police report of the event has never been located; the bulk of the demolition of the Mapoon mission occurred in mid-1964.
Presbyterian Church records indicate that the remaining 70 residents at Mapoon were transported to Weipa and New Mapoon aboard the MV Gelam between January and May 1964 After the 1964 closure of Mapoon, former residents continued to lobby for the re-opening of their community. In 1974, Jerry and Ina Hudson and several other families returned to ‘old Mapoon’ and in 1984, established the Marpuna Aboriginal Corporation which built up community facilities. On 30 March 1985, the New Mapoon community elected 5 councillors to constitute the New Mapoon Aboriginal Council established under the Community Services Act 1984; the Act conferred local government type powers and responsibilities upon Aboriginal councils for the first time. Umagico, Cowal Creek and Bamaga elected council representatives at this time. On 27 October 1986, the New Mapoon council area an Aboriginal reserve held by the Queensland Government, was transferred to the trusteeship of the New Mapoon Aboriginal Council under a Deed of Grant in Trust lease.
On 1 January 2005, the New Mapoon Aboriginal Council became the New Mapoon Aboriginal Shire Council. In 2007, the Local Government Reform Commission recommended that the 3 NPA Aboriginal councils and the 2 NPA Torres Strait Islander councils be abolished and a Northern Peninsula Area Regional Council be establishe
A telephone card, calling card or phonecard for short, is a credit card size plastic or paper card, used to pay for telephone services. It is not necessary to have the physical card except with a stored-value system. Standard cards which can be purchased and used without any sort of account facility give a fixed amount of credit and are discarded when used up; the system for payment and the way in which the card is used to place a telephone call vary from card to card. Calling cards come equipped with PIN for user protection and security. Most companies require user to enter the PIN before granting access to the calling card's funds. PINs are printed on a piece of paper found inside the calling card's packaging. Once the users makes their first call, some companies offer the option of eliminating the PIN altogether to speed up the calling process. Companies that sell virtual calling cards online PIN via email. A stored-value phonecard contains the balance available on the card; this balance can be read by a public payphone machine when the card is inserted into the payphone's card reader.
This is superficially similar to a bank automated teller machine, but a stored-value card is more analogous to a change purse. While ATMs use the card to identify the associated account and record changes in a central database, stored-value systems make a physical alteration to the card to reflect the new balance after a call. Used for payphones, stored-value systems avoid the time lag and expense of communication with a central database, which would have been prohibitive before the 1990s. There are several ways; the earliest system used a magnetic stripe as information carrier, similar to the technology of ATMs and key cards. The first magnetic strip phonecard, manufactured by SIDA, was issued in 1976 in Italy; the next technology used optical storage. Optical phonecards get their name from optical structure embossed inside the cards; this optical structure is destroyed after use of the units. Visible marks are left on the top of the cards, so that the user can see the balance of remaining units.
Optical cards were produced by Landis+Gyr and Sodeco from Switzerland and were popular early phonecards in many countries with first optical phonecards introduced in 1977 in Belgium. Such technology was secure and not hackable but chip cards phased out the optical phone cards around the world and the last Landis+Gyr factory closed in May 2006 when optical phonecards were still in use in few countries like Austria and Egypt; the third system of stored-value phonecards is chip cards, first launched on a large scale in 1986 in Germany by Deutsche Bundespost after three years of testing, in France by France Télécom. Many other countries followed suit, including Ireland in 1990 and the UK circa 1994-1995, which phased out the old green Landis+Gyr cards in favor of the chip cards; the initial microchips were easy to hack by scratching off the programming-voltage contact on the card, which rendered the phone unable to reduce the card's value after a call. But by the mid-to-late 1990s secure technology aided the spread of chip phonecards worldwide.
Making a prepaid or calling card call requires the user to make two calls. Regardless of the type of card it is necessary to dial an access telephone number to connect to the calling card system. There are several methods. One is with larger companies offering this internationally. Access through a local number has become popular in recent years. Toll-free calls are paid for by the recipient; when travelling through several local areas a toll-free service may be preferable. Once connected to the access number, the account is identified by keying in a PIN or by swiping a card with embedded chip or magnetic stripe. After validation the balance remaining on the card may be announced, the desired number may be keyed in; the available minutes may be announced, the call is connected. Many cards make a verbal announcement. Prepaid or calling cards are much cheaper than other telephone services for travelers who do not have easy access to other services. Hotel telephones can be expensive for long-distance calls.
Cellular services may attract high roaming charges away from the home area. The second main technology of phonecards is remote memory, which uses a toll or toll-free access number to reach the database and check for balance on product; as the United States never had a single nationalized telephone service, with the deregulation of its major telecommunications providers, there was no incentive to be consistent with the rest of the world. The ease of use of sliding a card into a machine just as in a teller machine was countered by fears of vandalism of the machines; the first public prepaid remote memory phonecard was issued in the United States in December 1980 by Phone Line. As telecom industries around the world became deregulated, remote memory cards were issued in various countries. Remote memory phonecards can be used from any tone-mode phone and do not require special card readers. Since remote memory cards are more accessible and have lower costs, remote memory phone cards have proliferated.
Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia
The Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia is one of the largest and most comprehensive aeromedical organisations in the world. It provides emergency and primary health care services for those living in rural and regional areas of Australia, it is a non-profit organisation which provides health care to people who cannot access a hospital or general practice due to the vast distances of the Outback. The Reverend John Flynn had worked in rural and remote areas of Victoria and was commissioned by the Presbyterian Church to look at the needs of Outback people, his report to the Presbyterian Assembly in 1912 resulted in the establishment of the Australian Inland Mission, of which he was appointed Superintendent. In 1928, he formed the AIM Aerial Medical Service, a one-year experiment based in Cloncurry, Queensland; this experiment became The Royal Flying Doctor Service. Flynn's missionary work involved the establishment of hospitals in bush communities. This, did not help those who lived far from any major community.
In his public speaking he would retell the tragic circumstances that had befallen several bush settlers. The fate of Jimmy Darcy, in 1917, was one of these stories. Darcy was a stockman at Ruby Plains, a remote cattle station in Western Australia. After being found injured, with a ruptured bladder, by some friends, he was transported over 30 miles, to the nearest town, Halls Creek. Here, Darcy was met by FW Tuckett, the Postmaster, the only man in the settlement trained in first aid. Tuckett said there was nothing he could reliably do for injuries so serious, tried unsuccessfully to contact doctors at Wyndham, Derby, by telegraph, he got through to a doctor in Perth. Through communication by morse code, Dr Holland guided Tuckett through two rather messy bladder operations using the only sharp instrument available, a pen knife. Due to the total absence of any medical facilities, Darcy had been operated on strapped to the Post Office counter, having first been made insensible with whisky. Holland travelled 10 days to Halls Creek on a boat for cattle transport, a Model T Ford, a horse-drawn carriage, on foot, only to find that Darcy had died the day before.
The operations had been successful, but the stockman had died from an undiagnosed case of malaria and a ruptured abscess in his appendix. It was from stories such as this that Flynn, his following at the AIM, became inspired to develop a route of communications that could solve the problem of remoteness. However, no feasible technology seemed apparent. Victorian pilot Lieutenant Clifford Peel had heard Flynn's public speeches, on being shipped out to France for World War I in 1917, sent Flynn a letter explaining how he had seen a missionary doctor visiting isolated patients using a plane. Assisted by costing estimates by Peel, Flynn took the idea of using aircraft to begin his idea, published Peel's idea in the church's newsletter. Peel died in combat in September 1918 not knowing the impact he had in the creation of an Australian icon. Along with motorised flight, another new technology was being developed that could replace the complicated means of communication by telegraph. Together with Alfred Traeger, Flynn began experiments with radio in the mid-1920s to enable remote outposts to contact a centralised medical base.
The pedal radio was the first result of this collaboration. These were distributed to stations and other human residences around Cloncurry, the base site for a 50-watt transmitter. Experimental aerial medical services commenced in 1926 and an injured miner was transported by air from Mount Isa to Cloncurry in November 1927. By 1928, Flynn had gathered sufficient funds through fundraising activities to launch the experiment of the AMS on 15 May, its supporters included industrialist HV McKay, medical doctor George Simpson, Hudson Fysh, one of the founders of Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services, the company which would go on to become Qantas. Qantas supplied the first aircraft to the fledgling organisation, VH-UER a De Havilland DH.50, dubbed "Victory". On 17 May 1928, two days after inception, the service's first official flight piloted by Arthur Affleck departed from Cloncurry, 85 miles to Julia Creek in Central Queensland, where the plane was met by over 100 people at the airstrip.
Qantas charged two shillings per mile for use of the Victory during the first year of the project. Within the first year of operations, the service flew 20,000 miles in 50 flights, becoming the first comprehensive air ambulance service in the world; the service persisted through difficult first years, dealing with postwar Australia and the Great Depression of the 1930s. During its first few decades the service relied on community fundraising, volunteer support and donations. Nowadays, the service is supported by the Commonwealth and Territory Governments, but still relies on fundraising and donations from the community to purchase and medically equip its aircraft, to finance other major capital initiatives; until the 1960s the service predominantly hired aircraft and service technicians from contractors. After this point, the service moved on to purchasing its own equipment and employing its own pilots and mechanics. In 1932, the success from its operations in Cloncurry, the increasing public awareness to this vital rural service, resulted in a push for a national network of flying doctors with sponsorship from the government.
In 1934 this was realised with the new Australian Aerial Medical Service opening up "Sections" across the nation. Bases were set up in Wyndham, Port Hedland, Broken Hill, Alice Springs and Meekatharra; the Queensland experi