Bambara known as Bamana or Bamanankan is a lingua franca and national language of Mali spoken by 15 million people, natively by 5 million Bambara people and about 10 million second-language users. It is estimated that about 80 percent of the population of Mali speak Bambara as a first or second language, it has two lexical tones. The native name bamanankan means "the language of heathens, people who refuse Islam", as opposed to speakers of Dyula, who are Muslim. Bambara is a variety of a group of related languages called Manding, whose native speakers trace their cultural history to the medieval Mali Empire. Varieties of Manding are considered to be mutually intelligible – dependent on exposure or familiarity with dialects between speakers – and spoken by 30 to 40 million people in the countries Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Ivory Coast and the Gambia. Manding is part of the larger Mandé family of languages, it uses seven vowels a, e, ɛ, i, o, ɔ and u, each of which can be nasalized and murmured, giving a total number of 21 vowels.
Writing with the Latin alphabet began during the French occupation, the first orthography was introduced in 1967. Literacy is limited in rural areas. Although written literature is only evolving, there exists a wealth of oral literature, tales of kings and heroes; this oral literature is tradited by the griots who are a mixture of storytellers, praise singers, human history books who have studied the trade of singing and reciting for many years. Many of their songs are old and are said to date back to the old empire of Mali. Bambara is spoken throughout Mali as a lingua franca; the language is most spoken in the areas east and north of Bamako, where native speakers and/or those that identify as members of the Bambara ethnic group are most densely populated. These regions are usually considered to be the historical geographical origin of Bambara people Ségou, after diverging from other Manding groups; the main dialect is Standard Bamara. Bambara has many local dialects: Tambacounda. Since 1967, Bambara has been written in the Latin script, using some additional phonetic characters.
The vowels are a, ɛ, i, o, ɔ, u. The former digraph ny is now written ɲ. Following the 1966 Bamako spelling conventions, a nasal velar glide "ŋ" is written as "ŋ", although in early publications it was transcribed as ng or nk; the N'Ko alphabet is a script devised by Solomana Kante in 1949 as a writing system for the Manding languages of West Africa. Kante created N’Ko in response to what he felt were beliefs that Africans were a "cultureless people" since prior to this time there had been no indigenous African writing system for his language. N'ko came first into use in Kankan, Guinea as a Maninka alphabet and disseminated from there into other Manding-speaking parts of West Africa. N'ko and the Arabic script are still in use for Bambara, although the Latin script is much more common; each consonant represents a single sound. Although, there are some exceptions: "W" is pronounced as in English, but placed at the end of a word, "w" is the plural mark and is pronounced as "S" is pronounced most as in the English word "see", but sometimes it can be pronounced as "sh" as in the word "shoe", or again as "G" is pronounced most as in the English word "go", but within a word it can be pronounced as in the Spanish word "abogado", sometimes at the beginning Like Turkish and Japanese, it is an agglutinative language, meaning that morphemes are glued together to form a word.
The basic sentence structure is Subject Object Verb. Take the phrase, "n t'a don". "n" is the subject, "a" is the object, " don" is the verb. The "t'" is from the present tense marker "té." "té" is the negative present tense marker and "bé" is the affirmative present tense marker. Therefore, "n b'a don" would mean "I know it". Bambara has two tones; the typical argument structure of the language consists of a subject, followed by an aspectival auxiliary, followed by the direct object, a transitive verb. If the verb is intransitive, the direct object is absent. Bambara does not inflect for gender. Gender for a noun can be specified by adding an - cɛ or - kɛ for male and - muso for female; the plural is formed by attaching a vocalic suffix -u, most with a low tone to nouns or adjectives. Bambara uses postpositions in much the same manner as languages like English and French use prepositions; these postpositions are found after the verb and are used to express direction, in some cases, possession. In urban areas, many Bamanankan conjunctions have been replaced in everyday use by French
Daddy at Home is a Singaporean television series which debuted on the local Chinese language channel Channel 8 on 2 November 2009. It stars Chen Hanwei, Li Nanxing, Dawn Yeoh, Ann Kok, Cynthia Koh & Adam Chen as the casts of the series, it was screened every night at 9pm from Monday to Friday. The series' Chinese title means "penguin father"; as the series is about house husbands, the title was derived from the fact that Emperor penguins are the only penguin species of which the male is responsible for incubating the eggs. Liu Bang takes great pride in his social standing, his friend Ye Zhengkang is a house husband who looks after the household and children while his wife Meihui owns a beauty parlour. Liu Bang, being a traditionalist, disapproves of this arrangement but Zhengkang is undaunted by the unwanted attention he receives due to his unusual "occupation". However, the financial crisis hits Singapore and both Liu Bang and Zhengkang find themselves cash-strapped. Liu Bang in particular was the worst affected.
As he had offended a superior years ago, he became a target in the mass entrenchment. His wife Xinbei is forced to find a job to support the family. Liu Bang has to swallow his ego as he is forced to take over homemaker duties from his wife. Meanwhile, Meihui's younger brother Jinfeng moves in with the family; the carefree happy-go-lucky Jinfeng falls head over heels for his nephew's tuition teacher Ruxuan and tries his best to woo her. Daddy at Home earned several nominations at the 2010 Star Awards; the other dramas nominated for Best Drama Series are Together, Housewives' Holiday, Perfect Cut 2 & Reunion Dinner and Best Theme Songs are Together, Perfect Cut 2,Table of Glory and The Ulimatum The Series is repeating every weekend at 7am to 9am on Mediacorp Channel 8
Irregardless is a word sometimes used in place of regardless or irrespective, which has caused controversy since the early twentieth century, though the word appeared in print as early as 1795. Most dictionaries list it as non-standard or incorrect usage, recommend that "regardless" should be used instead; the origin of irregardless is not known for certain, but the speculation among dictionary references suggests that it is a blend, or portmanteau word, of the standard English words irrespective and regardless. The blend creates a word with a meaning not predictable from the meanings of its constituent morphemes. Since the prefix ir- means "not", the suffix -less means "without", the word contains a double negative; the word irregardless could therefore be expected to have the meaning "in regard to", therefore being an antonym, rather than a synonym, of regardless. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, irregardless was first acknowledged in 1912 by the Wentworth American Dialect Dictionary as originating from western Indiana, though the word was in use in South Carolina before Indiana became a territory.
The usage dispute over irregardless was such that, in 1923, Literary Digest published an article titled "Is There Such a Word as Irregardless in the English Language?" The OED goes on to explain the word is a North American colloquialism. One way to follow the progress of and sentiments toward irregardless is by studying how it is described in references throughout the twentieth century. Webster's New International Dictionary described the word as an erroneous or humorous form of regardless, attributed it to the United States. Although irregardless was beginning to make its way into the American lexicon, it was still not universally recognized and was missing from Fowler's Modern English Usage, published in 1965, nor was irregardless mentioned under the entry for regardless. In the last twenty-five years, irregardless has become a common entry in dictionaries and usage reference books, although marked as substandard or dialect, it appears in a wide range of dictionaries including Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language Unabridged, The Barnhart Dictionary of Etymology, The American Heritage Dictionary, Microsoft Encarta College Dictionary, Webster's New World College Dictionary.
The definition in most dictionaries is listed as regardless. Merriam–Webster states, "Use regardless instead." The Chicago Manual of Style calls irregardless "n error" and instructs writers to "se regardless."Australian linguist Pam Peters suggests that irregardless has become fetishized because natural examples of this word in corpora of written and spoken English are outnumbered by examples where it is in fact only cited as an incorrect term. The approach taken by lexicographers when documenting a word's uses and limitations can be prescriptive or descriptive; the method used with irregardless is overwhelmingly prescriptive. Much of the criticism comes from the double negative pairing of the prefix and suffix, which stands in contrast to the negative polarity exhibited by most standard varieties of English. Critics use the argument that irregardless is not – or should not be – a word at all, because it lacks the antecedents of a "bona fide nonstandard word." A counterexample is provided in ain't, which has an "ancient genealogy" at which scholars have not leveled such criticisms
Producers Sales Organization was an independent motion picture production and sales company founded in 1977. Initiated by Mark Damon, an actor-turned-producer, PSO handled foreign sales of independent films, it was a partnership between Damon, producer Sandy Howard, Richard St. Johns, who worked for Arthur Guinness Son & Co. At one point, it was a subsidiary of Guinness. In its final years of existence, PSO became a full-fledged production company. Despite releasing many successful films, PSO ran into financial problems and was forced into bankruptcy in 1986 ending the company. Many of its employees were soon hired by Vestron Pictures to run a new foreign sales unit dubbed Producers Distribution Organization renamed Interaccess Film Distribution, Inc. A year after PSO ended, Damon founded a new company, with Peter Guber and Jon Peters, called Vision International. A majority of the PSO library would end up with Lionsgate, Mel Gibson and his Icon International company. Among the most notable films PSO represented or financed include: Matilda The Wanderers A Change of Seasons Little Lord Fauntleroy The Final Countdown Das Boot An American Werewolf in London Dead and Buried Endless Love Young Doctors in Love Cujo The Day After Fire and Ice Never Say Never Again The Outsiders Silkwood La Traviata The Adventures of Buckaroo Banzai Across the Eighth Dimension The Defective Detective The Neverending Story Once Upon a Time in America Prizzi's Honor Heavenly Bodies 8 Million Ways to Die 9½ Weeks Short Circuit Flight of the Navigator Mark Damon.
London Midland and Scottish Railway Jubilee Class No. 5690 Leander is a preserved British steam locomotive. 5690 was built at Crewe in March 1936 and named Leander after HMS Leander, which in turn was named after the Greek hero Leander. From March 1936 it was based at Crewe North shed where it remained until 1947 when it was transferred to the former LMS engine shed at Bristol. After nationalisation in 1948, it was renumbered 45690 by British Railways. After being withdrawn in 1964, Leander was sold to Woodham Brothers scrapyard in South Wales. Rescued by Brian Oliver in May 1972, it was restored by the Leander Locomotive Society at Derby and kept at the Dinting Railway Museum, Glossop. After purchase by and running on the Severn Valley Railway, Leander was sold to Dr Peter Beet, restored to running condition on the East Lancashire Railway in LMS Crimson Lake livery; as of 2008, Leander was owned by Chris Beet and operated by the West Coast Railway Company from their Carnforth MPD base. In 2008, Leander provided motive power for the Scarborough Spa Express heritage service.
It spent October at the Great Central Railway "Steam Railway" gala, alongside BR Standard 7 Britannia Class No. 70013 Oliver Cromwell and LNER Peppercorn Class A1 No. 60163 Tornado. In September 2010, Leander visited the Severn Valley Railway for their 40th anniversary Autumn steam gala alongside fellow visiting locomotives and former Severn Valley based engines GWR 2251 Class 0-6-0 No. 3205, GWR 3700 Class 4-4-0 No. 3717 City of Truro, GWR 4575 Class 2-6-2T No. 5542 and SR West Country Pacific 4-6-2 No. 34070 Manston. Leander departed from the SVR at the beginning of October hauling the Severn Valley Limited to Blackpool North one way only as the locomotive was en route to the East Lancashire Railway for a few weeks stay during their Autumn Steam Gala. Shortly afterwards, Leander returned to mainline operation. In April 2012, Leander was withdrawn early for overhaul due to its poor condition. Chris Beet managed the overhaul, assisted by the team at West Coast Railway Company from their Carnforth MPD base.
She returned to operation in October 2014, painted in BR Lined Black, the livery that it carried between 12 April 1949 and 15 November 1952, and, carried by 46 other members of the class from August 1948. Her first revenue earning run was to be over Shap Summit to Carlisle and back along the Settle & Carlisle line on 24 January, but she failed her FTR exam so her first revenue earning run was over Shap Summit to Carlisle, Newcastle upon Tyne, York and Preston on 7 March 2015. In August 2019, To mark the re-opening of the Conwy Valley Line following a closure period after suffering from multiple washouts inflicted from Storm Gareth. Leander double headed the Conwy Quest railtour from Chester to Blaenau Ffestiniog via Llandudno Junction while double heading with 48151, she was covering for the unavailable LMS Royal Scot no 46115 Scots Guardsman, failed days before with a hot axlebox during a test run. With the route's gradient being 1 in 45 heading towards Blaenau Ffestiniog, no members of the class ran along the branch in LMS & BR days and until Aug 2019 none had been down the branch in preservation.
45690 was therefore the first member of the class to run along the Conwy Valley Line and visit Blaenau Ffestiniog. Jubilees detail Railuk database 45690 Leander & 45699 Galatea double heading over Copy Pit on Sun 11 Oct 2015 48151 & 45690 Leander up the Conwy Valley line Sat 3 Aug 2019 48151 & 45690 Leander onboard reopening train
Irish medical families were hereditary practitioners of professional medicine in Gaelic Ireland, between 1100 and 1700. Professional medical practitioners in the Gaelic world of Ireland and Scotland was the preserve of a small number of learned families who passed the profession down generation by generation; this principle was practised by other learned families of poets, musicians, lawyers. According to Aoibheann Nic Dhonnchadha: "These kindreds were involved in medical practise over successive generations, collectively, were responsible for the organisation and regulation of medical schools, the formation and development of a curriculum, the practical training of students, the translation and transmission of medical texts. Physicians enjoyed a high legal status in Gaelic society, were supported by the hereditary tenure of lands that were granted to them by the landowning aristocracy in exchange for medical services... While the precise nature and effectiveness of the treatment they gave their patients is unclear, the quality of the intellectual training Irish doctors received in their professional medicals schools was high.
They were well equipped to offer their aristocratic employers a medical service, informed by the best of contemporary scientific learning." Each province in Ireland had a number of families associated with medical practise. This list is not exhaustive: Connacht: Mac an Leagha. 1700. These documents, most of which are housed in Irish libraries, are the most important written record extant for the institutional organisation and medical practise of physicians in late medieval and early modern Ireland and Scotland." Among those that survive are: RIA MS 439 – written by Risteard Ó Conchubhair and Giolla Pádraig mac Donnchadh Óg Ó Conchubhair NLS 73.1.22 – by Donnchadh Albanach Ó Conchubhair RIA ms 996 TCD ms 1372 – written by Giolla Pádraig mac Giolla na Naomh Ó Conchubhair NLI G 11 – written by Donnchadh Ó Bolgaidhe, fl. 1466–75. NLI G 12 RIA MS 23 P 10 ii – The Book of the Ó Lee's or The Book of Hy Brasil Liber Flavus Fergusiorum – compiled by in the 14th century by the Ó Fearghusa of Connacht. Crichaireacht cinedach nduchasa Muintiri Murchada lists the families of Ó Ceanndubháin and Ó Laoi as physicians to Ó Flaithbhertaigh Medieval medicine Domhnall Albanach Ó Troighthigh, Irish scribe and physician Donnchadh Óg Ó Conchubhair Corc Ó Cadhla, fl.
1577-78 Cormac MacDonlevy Diarmaid O Cathain John Fergus MD: Eighteenth-century Doctor, Book Collector and Irish Scholar in J. R. I. A. 118 Aoibheann Nic Dhonnchadha Medical Writing in Irish, 1400–1700, School of Celtic Studies. Aoibheann Nic Dhonnchadha Medical writing in Irish, J. B. Lyons, Two thousand years of Irish medicine, Dublin. Aoibheann Nic Dhonnchadha The medical school of Aghmacat, Queen's County, Ossory and Leinster 2, 11–43. Katherine Simms, Medical Schools, p. 37, Medieval Ireland:An Encyclopedia, ed. Sean Duffy, 2005. Royal Irish Academy MS 23 p. 10 Irish Medical Doctors