Bamum script

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Bamum
Shumom-text.jpg
A book in the 6th Bamum script, ca. 1910.
Type
Languages Bamum
Time period
c. 1896, moribund c. 1931, revived c. 2007
Child systems
Bagam?
Direction Left-to-right
ISO 15924 Bamu, 435
Unicode alias
Bamum

The Bamum scripts are an evolutionary series of six scripts created for the Bamum language by King Njoya of Cameroon at the turn of the 19th century. They are notable for evolving from a pictographic system to a partially alphabetic syllabic script in the space of 14 years, from 1896 to 1910. Bamum type was cast in 1918, but the script fell into disuse around 1931. A project began around 2007 to revive the Bamum script.[citation needed]

History[edit]

In its initial form, Bamum script was a pictographic mnemonic aid (proto-writing) including 500 to 600 glyphs, as Njoya revised the script, he introduced logograms (word symbols). The sixth version, completed by 1910, is a semi-syllabary with 80 glyphs, it is also called a-ka-u-ku after its first four glyphs. The version in use by 1906 was called mbima[1].

The script was further refined in 1918, when Njoya had copper sorts cast for printing, the script fell into disuse in 1931 with the exile of Njoya to Yaoundé, Cameroon.[2]

At present, Bamum script is not in any significant use. However, the Bamum Scripts and Archives Project is attempting to modernize and revive the script. The project is based in the old Bamum capital of Foumban.[3]

Phase A[edit]

The initial form of Bamum script, called Lewa ("book"), was developed in 1896-7, it consisted of 465 pictograms (511 according to other sources) and 10 characters for the numbers 1-10. The writing direction could be top-to-bottom, left-to-right, or bottom-to-top. (Right-to-left was avoided because that was the direction of the Arabic script used by the neighboring Hausa people.)

Phase B[edit]

The second system, called Mbima ("mixed"), was developed in 1899-1900, it was a simplification of the first; Njoya omitted 72 characters but added 45 new ones. The writing direction was left-to-right in this and all subsequent phases.

Phase C[edit]

The third system, called Nyi Nyi Nfa' after its first three characters, was developed around 1902, this simplification omitted 56 characters, leaving 371 and 10 numbers. Njoya used this system to write his History of the Bamun People and in correspondence with his mother.

Phase D[edit]

The fourth system, called Rii Nyi Nsha Mfw' after its first four characters, was developed around 1907-8, it has 285 characters and 10 numbers and is a further simplification of the previous version.

Phase E[edit]

The fifth system, called Rii Nyi Mfw' Men, was also developed around 1907-8, it has 195 characters and 10 numbers and was used for a Bible translation. These first five systems are closely related: All were pictographic and progressive simplifications of the former.

Phase F[edit]

The sixth system, called A Ka U Ku after its first four characters, was developed around 1910, it has 82 characters and 10 numbers. This phase marks a shift to a mixed alphabetic and syllabic system allowing the expression of 160 phonemes, it was used to record births, marriages, deaths, and court rulings.

Phase G[edit]

The seventh and final system, called Mfemfe ("new") or A Ka U Ku Mfemfe, was developed around 1918, it has only 80 characters, ten of which double as both syllables and numbers. Like the previous system, this one is a mix of letters and syllables. Missing syllables are written using combinations of characters.

Description[edit]

The Bamum syllabary, less diacritics, digraphs, and the nʒɛmli
Map of the Kingdom of Bamun in present-day Cameroon

The 80 glyphs of modern Bamum are not enough to represent all of the consonant-vowel syllables (C V syllables) of the language, this deficiency is made up for with a diacritic or by combining glyphs having CV1 and V2 values, for CV2. This makes the script alphabetic for syllables not directly covered by the syllabary. Adding the inherent vowel of the syllable voices a consonant: tu + u = /du/, fu + u = /vu/, ju + u = /ʒu/, ja + a = /ʒa/, ʃi + i = /ʒi/, puə + u = /bu/.

The two diacritics are a circumflex (ko'ndon) that may be added to any of the 80 glyphs, and a macron (tukwentis) that is restricted to a dozen. The circumflex generally has the effect of adding a glottal stop to the syllable, for instance is read /kaʔ/, though the vowel is shortened and any final consonant is dropped in the process, as in pûə /puʔ/ and kɛ̂t /kɛʔ/. Prenasalization is also lost: ɲʃâ /ʃaʔ/, ntê /teʔ/, ntûu /tuʔ/. Sometimes, however, the circumflex nasalizes the vowel: /nɛn/, /pin/, /rɛn/, jûʔ /jun/, mɔ̂ /mɔn/, ɲʒûə /jun/ (loss of NC as with glottal stop). Others are idiosyncratic: ɲʒə̂m /jəm/ (simple loss of NC), tə̂ /tɔʔ/ (vowel change), ɲî /ɲe/, riê /z/, /n/, ʃɯ̂x /jɯx/, nûə /ŋuə/, kɯ̂x /ɣɯ/, rə̂ /rɔ/, ŋkwə̂n /ŋuət/, fɔ̂m /mvɔp/, mbɛ̂n /pɛn/, /tɯ/, kpâ /ŋma/, /fy/, ɣɔ̂m /ŋɡɔm/.[4]

The macron is a 'killer stroke' that deletes the vowel from a syllable and so forms consonants and NC clusters (/nd, ŋɡ/) that can be used for syllable codas. Consonantal /n/ is used both as a coda and to prenasalize an initial consonant, the two irregularities with the macron are ɲʒūə, read as /j/, and ɔ̄, read as /ə/.

The script has distinctive punctuation, including a 'capitalization' mark (nʒɛmli), visually similar to an inverted question mark, for proper names, and a decimal system of ten digits; the old glyph for ten has been refashioned as a zero.

Modern syllabary (phase G)[edit]

Bamum syllabary (diacritics in gray)[5]
a ka u ku e re ɔ nyi i la pa rii rie lee mee
ꚠ꛰ ꚡ꛰ ꚢ꛰ ꚣ꛰ ꚤ꛰ ꚥ꛰ ꚦ꛰ ꚧ꛰ ꚨ꛰ ꚩ꛰ ꚪ꛰ ꚫ꛰ ꚬ꛰ ꚭ꛰ ꚮ꛰ ꚯ꛰
kaʔ wuʔ kuʔ rɛn tɔʔ ɔʔ nye laʔ paʔ riʔ z leʔ meʔ
ꚧ꛱
ə
taa ndaa nʒəm m suu mu ʃii si ʃɯx sɯx kye kɛt nuə nu nʒuə yɔʔ
ꚰ꛰ ꚱ꛰ ꚲ꛰ ꚳ꛰ ꚴ꛰ ꚵ꛰ ꚶ꛰ ꚷ꛰ ꚸ꛰ ꚹ꛰ ꚺ꛰ ꚻ꛰ ꚼ꛰ ꚽ꛰ ꚾ꛰ ꚿ꛰
taʔ ndaʔ yəm n suʔ muʔ ʃiʔ siʔ yɯx sɯʔ kyeʔ keʔ ŋuə nuʔ yuən yɔʔ
ꚱ꛱ ꚶ꛱ ꚷ꛱ ꚾ꛱
nd ʃ s y
ʃu yu ya nʃa kɯx pɯx nʒe nte pe fe ru lu mi ni
ꛀ꛰ ꛁ꛰ ꛂ꛰ ꛃ꛰ ꛄ꛰ ꛅ꛰ ꛆ꛰ ꛇ꛰ ꛈ꛰ ꛉ꛰ ꛊ꛰ ꛋ꛰ ꛌ꛰ ꛍ꛰ ꛎ꛰ ꛏ꛰
ʃuʔ yun yaʔ ʃaʔ ɣɯ pɯʔ nʒeʔ teʔ püʔ üʔ peʔ feʔ ruʔ luʔ miʔ nɛn
rɯx kɛn ŋkwən ŋga ŋa ʃɔ puə fu fɔm wa na li pi lɔʔ
ꛐ꛰ ꛑ꛰ ꛒ꛰ ꛓ꛰ ꛔ꛰ ꛕ꛰ ꛖ꛰ ꛗ꛰ ꛘ꛰ ꛙ꛰ ꛚ꛰ ꛛ꛰ ꛜ꛰ ꛝ꛰ ꛞ꛰ ꛟ꛰
rɯʔ kɛn ŋuət ŋgaʔ ŋaʔ ʃɔʔ puʔ fuʔ mvɔp waʔ naʔ liʔ pin lɔʔ kɔʔ
ꛔ꛱ ꛖ꛱ ꛘ꛱ ꛛ꛱ ꛜ꛱ ꛟ꛱
ŋg ʃ f n l k
mbɛn
 
rɛn
 
mɛn
 
ma
 
ti
 
ki
 

1
mbaa
2
tɛt
3
kpa
4
tɛn
5
ntuu
6
sa
7
faa
8

9
ɣɔm
0
ꛠ꛰ ꛡ꛰ ꛢ꛰ ꛣ꛰ ꛤ꛰ ꛥ꛰ ꛦ꛰ ꛧ꛰ ꛨ꛰ ꛩ꛰ ꛪ꛰ ꛫ꛰ ꛬ꛰ ꛭ꛰ ꛮ꛰ ꛯ꛰
pɛn rɛn mɛn maʔ kiʔ mɔn mbaʔ tɛt ŋma tɛn tuʔ saʔ faʔ ŋgɔm
ꛤ꛱ ꛦ꛱
t m

Punctuation[edit]

Bamum punctuation[5][6]
introduces proper names or
changes the meaning of a word[4]
.
period
 :
colon
,
comma
 ;
semicolon
 ?
question mark

Numbers[edit]

The last ten base characters in the syllabary are used for both letters and numbers:[5]

Bamum digits

1
mbaa
2
tɛt
3
kpa
4
tɛn
5
ntuu
6
sa
7
faa
8

9
ɣɔm
0

Historically, was used for ten but was changed to zero when decimal mathematics were introduced.[5]

All versions (phases A–G)[edit]

Bamum characters found through Phase A
Phase
A
Interpretation   Phase
A
Interpretation   Phase
A
Interpretation   Phase
A
Interpretation
𖠀 ŋkü mfɔn 𖠒 ntɔʔpɛn 𖠤 mgbasa 𖠶 mɔɔmɯt
𖠁 gbie fɔn 𖠓 kɯkɯtnda 𖠥 mɯnʒɔmndɯʔ 𖠷 ʃum
𖠂 pɔn mfɔn pipəmgbie 𖠔 nkindi 𖠦 mɔɔmpuʔ 𖠸 lɔmmə
𖠃 pɔn mfɔn pipəmba 𖠕 suu 𖠧 kafa 𖠹 fir'i
𖠄 naa mfɔn 𖠖 ŋkünzɯm 𖠨 pa lerəwa 𖠺 rɔm
𖠅 ʃünʃüt 𖠗 lapaʔ 𖠩 nda lerəwa 𖠻 kpɔʔ
𖠆 tita mfɔn 𖠘 lɛt kut 𖠪 pɛt 𖠼 sɔʔ
𖠇 nza mfɔn 𖠙 ntap mfaa 𖠫 məmkpɛn 𖠽 map piet
𖠈 ʃinda pa nʒi 𖠚 məkɯp 𖠬 nika 𖠾 ʃirə
𖠉 pɔn pa nʒi pipəmgbie 𖠛 paʃə 𖠭 pup 𖠿 ntap
𖠊 pɔn pa nʒi pipəmba 𖠜 ɣɯərə 𖠮 tuəp 𖡀 ʃɔʔ nʃut yum
𖠋 məmgbie 𖠝 pamʃə 𖠯 luəp 𖡁 nyit mɔŋkɯəʔ
𖠌 tu məmba 𖠞 mɔn ŋgɯət 𖠰 sɔnʒam 𖡂 paarə
𖠍 ŋaŋu 𖠟 nzun mɯt 𖠱 tɯtɯwɛn 𖡃 nkaarə
𖠎 məmvɯx 𖠠 u yuʔ nə 𖠲 mənyi 𖡄 (unknown)
𖠏 mansuə 𖠡 ɣɯəɣɯə 𖠳 kɛt
𖠐 mvɯəŋam 𖠢 ntap ntaa 𖠴 ndaaŋgɯət
𖠑 sɯnyam 𖠣 sisa 𖠵 kuɔʔ
A Interpretation A Interpretation A Interpretation A Interpretation
Bamum characters found through Phase B
Phase Interpretation   Phase Interpretation   Phase Interpretation
A B A B A B
𖡗 𖡗 nʃüt 𖡨 𖡨 tu nsie 𖡹 𖡹 mɯʔ
𖡘 𖡘 tu məmgbie 𖡩 𖡩 ʃɛt nʒaʔ 𖡺 𖡺 ŋguɔʔ ("small termite")
𖡙 𖡙 sie 𖡪 𖡪 ʃɯəʔtu 𖡻 𖡻 ŋguɔʔ ("large termite")
𖡚 𖡚 sɛt tu 𖡫 𖡫 mfɔn tɯəʔ 𖡼 mfiyaʔ
𖡛 𖡛 lɔm ntɯm 𖡬 mbit mbaakɛt 𖡽 𖡽
𖡜 𖡜 mba məle 𖡭 𖡭 nyi ntɯm 𖡾 𖡾 mbɯri
𖡝 𖡝 kiem 𖡮 kɯpuʔ 𖡿 𖡿 mɔntien
𖡞 𖡞 yɯrə 𖡯 𖡯 ɣɯɣɛn 𖢀 𖢀 nyəmə
𖡟 𖡟 mbaarə 𖡰 𖡰 kɯyɯx 𖢁 𖢁 puŋaam
𖡠 𖡠 kam 𖡱 𖡱 laanə 𖢂 𖢂 mɯt ŋget
𖡡 𖡡 peʃi 𖡲 𖡲 parum 𖢃 𖢃 fɯx
𖡢 𖡢 yafu lerəwa 𖡳 𖡳 vɯm 𖢄 𖢄 mbuɔʔ
𖡣 𖡣 lam nʃut nyam 𖡴 𖡴 ŋkindi mvɔp 𖢅 𖢅 fe
𖡤 𖡤 ntie ʃɯɔʔ 𖡵 𖡵 ŋgɯ mbu 𖢆 kɯəm
𖡥 𖡥 ndu nʒaa 𖡶 𖡶 wuət 𖢇 𖢇 ma nʒɯəna
𖡦 𖡦 ɣɯɣɯəm 𖢈 𖢈 ma nʒuʔa 𖡷 𖡷 sakɯə
𖡧 𖡧 pit 𖡸 𖡸 taam
A B Interpretation A B Interpretation A B Interpretation
Bamum characters found through Phase C
Phase Interpretation   Phase Interpretation   Phase Interpretation
A B C A B C A B C
𖢏 𖢏 𖢏 ŋkü məmba 𖢫 𖢫 𖢫 ndida 𖣇 𖣇 𖣇 nsuɔt ŋɔm
𖢐 𖢐 𖢐 nza 𖢬 𖢬 𖢬 taaʃə 𖣈 𖣈 𖣈 nʒee
𖢑 𖢑 𖢑 yum 𖢭 𖢭 𖢭 nʒüʔ 𖣉 𖣉 𖣉 kɛt
𖢒 𖢒 𖢒 waŋkuɔʔ 𖢮 𖢮 𖢮 tita yü 𖣊 𖣊 𖣊 ŋgu
𖡅 𖢓 𖢓 ŋgɛn 𖢯 𖢯 𖢯 suət 𖡆 𖣋 𖣋 məsi
𖢔 𖢔 𖢔 ndɯəre 𖢰 𖢰 𖢰 ŋguən nyam 𖣌 𖣌 mbuəm
𖢕 𖢕 𖢕 ŋkaʔ 𖢱 𖢱 𖢱 vɯx 𖣍 𖣍 𖣍 lu
𖢖 𖢖 𖢖 ɣarə 𖢲 𖢲 𖢲 nansanaʔ 𖣎 𖣎 𖣎 kut
𖢗 𖢗 𖢗 mbeket 𖢳 𖢳 𖢳 ma kɯəri 𖡇 𖣏 𖣏 nʒam
𖢘 𖢘 𖢘 gbayi 𖢴 𖢴 𖢴 ntaa 𖣐 𖣐 𖣐 ŋɔm
𖢙 𖢙 𖢙 nyir mkparaʔ mɯn 𖢵 𖢵 𖢵 ŋguɔn 𖣑 𖣑 𖣑 wup
𖢚 𖢚 𖢚 ntu mbit 𖢶 𖢶 𖢶 lap 𖣒 𖣒 𖣒 ŋguet
𖢛 𖢛 𖢛 mbɯm 𖢷 𖢷 𖢷 mbirien 𖣓 𖣓 𖣓 nsɔm
𖢜 𖢜 𖢜 pirien 𖢸 𖢸 𖢸 mgbasaʔ 𖣔 𖣔 𖣔 ntɛn
𖢝 𖢝 𖢝 ndɔmbu 𖢹 𖢹 𖢹 ntɯngba 𖣕 𖣕 𖣕 kuɔp nkaarə
𖢞 𖢞 𖢞 mbaa 𖢺 𖢺 𖢺 tɯtɯx 𖣖 𖣖 𖣖 nsun
𖢟 𖢟 𖢟 kɯʃɯəp 𖢻 𖢻 𖢻 ŋgum 𖣗 𖣗 𖣗 ndam
𖢠 𖢠 𖢠 ɣap 𖢼 𖢼 𖢼 𖣘 𖣘 𖣘 ma nsie
𖢡 𖢡 𖢡 kɯkaʔ 𖢽 𖢽 𖢽 ndɯt 𖣙 𖣙 𖣙 yaa
𖢢 𖢢 𖢢 yu muɔmə 𖢾 𖢾 𖢾 nsa 𖣚 𖣚 ndap
𖢣 𖢣 𖢣 nzɯm 𖢿 𖢿 𖢿 nʃaʔ 𖣛 𖣛 𖣛 ʃüʔ
𖢤 𖢤 𖢤 mbü 𖣀 𖣀 𖣀 buŋ 𖣜 𖣜 𖣜 ʃɛtfɔn
𖢥 𖢥 𖢥 nsɯən 𖣁 𖣁 𖣁 vɯəpɛn 𖣝 𖣝 mbi
𖢦 𖢦 𖢦 mbit 𖣂 𖣂 𖣂 mbɛrə 𖣞 𖣞 𖣞 məmba
𖢧 𖢧 𖢧 yɯʔ 𖣃 𖣃 𖣃 ru 𖡈 𖣟 𖣟 mbanyi
𖢨 𖢨 𖢨 kparaʔ 𖣄 𖣄 𖣄 nʒəm 𖣠 𖣠 𖣠 kɯsɯx
𖢩 𖢩 𖢩 kaa 𖣅 𖣅 𖣅 lam 𖣡 𖣡 mbɯx
𖢪 𖢪 𖢪 sɯx 𖣆 𖣆 𖣆 tituəp 𖣢 𖣢 kɯm
A B C Interpretation A B C Interpretation A B C Interpretation
Bamum characters found through Phase D
Phase Interpretation   Phase Interpretation
A B C D A B C D
𖣱 𖣱 𖣱 𖣱 mbuɔ 𖤝 𖤝 𖤝 𖤝 mfo
𖣲 𖣲 𖣲 𖣲 wap 𖤞 𖤞 𖤞 lum
𖣳 𖣳 𖣳 𖣳 nʒi 𖤟 𖤟 𖤟 𖤟 nsiep
𖣴 𖣴 𖣴 𖣴 mfɔn 𖣣 𖣣 𖣣 𖤠 mbaa
𖣵 𖣵 𖣵 𖣵 nʒie 𖤡 𖤡 𖤡 𖤡 kwət
𖣶 𖣶 𖣶 𖣶 lie 𖡉 𖤢 𖤢 𖤢 nyɛt
𖣷 𖣷 𖣷 nʒɯt 𖡊 𖤣 tɯən
𖣸 𖣸 𖣸 nʃe 𖡋 𖤤 𖤤 𖤤 sɔt
𖣹 𖣹 𖣹 𖣹 ŋgaamə 𖣤 𖣤 𖣤 𖤥 yuwɔʔ
𖣺 𖣺 𖣺 𖣺 nyam 𖤦 𖤦 𖤦 𖤦 kɯm
𖣻 𖣻 𖣻 𖣻 wuən 𖤧 𖤧 𖤧 𖤧 rəm
𖣼 𖣼 𖣼 𖣼 ŋkun 𖤨 𖤨 𖤨 𖤨 tee
𖣽 𖣽 𖣽 𖣽 ʃe 𖤩 𖤩 𖤩 𖤩 ŋkɯəʔ
𖣾 𖣾 𖣾 𖣾 ŋkap 𖤪 𖤪 𖤪 𖤪 mfɯə
𖣿 𖣿 𖣿 𖣿 kɯətmɯn 𖤫 𖤫 𖤫 𖤫 nsiet
𖤀 𖤀 𖤀 tɯt 𖤬 𖤬 𖤬 𖤬 kɯp
𖤁 𖤁 𖤁 𖤁 ʃɯə 𖤭 𖤭 𖤭 𖤭 pip
𖤂 𖤂 𖤂 𖤂 nʒap 𖤮 𖤮 𖤮 𖤮 pɯtə
𖤃 𖤃 𖤃 𖤃 𖤯 𖤯 𖤯 𖤯 nyü
𖤄 𖤄 𖤄 𖤄 kɛt 𖢉 𖢉 𖤰 𖤰 lɛt
𖤅 𖤅 𖤅 yəmmə 𖢊 𖤱 𖤱 ŋgaam
𖤆 𖤆 𖤆 kuɔm 𖤲 𖤲 𖤲 𖤲 mfie
𖤇 𖤇 𖤇 𖤇 sap 𖤳 𖤳 𖤳 ŋgwən
𖤈 𖤈 𖤈 𖤈 mfɯt 𖤴 𖤴 𖤴 yuɔm
𖤉 𖤉 𖤉 𖤉 ndɯx 𖤵 𖤵 𖤵 pap
𖤊 𖤊 𖤊 𖤊 maleri 𖤶 𖤶 𖤶 𖤶 yuɔp
𖤋 𖤋 𖤋 𖤋 mɯt 𖤷 𖤷 𖤷 𖤷 ndam
𖤌 𖤌 𖤌 𖤌 sɯəʔ 𖤸 𖤸 𖤸 𖤸 ntɯm
𖤍 𖤍 𖤍 𖤍 yɛn 𖤹 𖤹 𖤹 𖤹 suə
𖤎 𖤎 𖤎 𖤎 nʒɯəm 𖤺 𖤺 𖤺 𖤺 kun
𖤏 𖤏 𖤏 𖤏 kɯɔt mbuə 𖤻 𖤻 𖤻 𖤻 ŋgɯx
𖤐 𖤐 𖤐 𖤐 ŋkɯri 𖤼 𖤼 𖤼 𖤼 ŋkie
𖤑 𖤑 𖤑 tu 𖤽 𖤽 𖤽 𖤽 tuɔt
𖤒 𖤒 𖤒 𖤒 ɣaa 𖤾 𖤾 𖤾 𖤾 mɯn
𖤓 𖤓 𖤓 𖤓 ŋkye 𖤿 𖤿 𖤿 kuʔ
𖤔 𖤔 𖤔 𖤔 fɯfɯət 𖥀 𖥀 𖥀 nsum
𖤕 𖤕 𖤕 𖤕 nde 𖥁 𖥁 𖥁 𖥁 tɯn
𖤖 𖤖 𖤖 𖤖 mgbɔfum 𖥂 𖥂 𖥂 𖥂 mənʒɛt
𖤗 𖤗 𖤗 lɯəp 𖥃 𖥃 𖥃 𖥃 ŋgap
𖤘 𖤘 𖤘 𖤘 ndɔn 𖥄 𖥄 𖥄 lɯm
𖤙 𖤙 𖤙 𖤙 mɔni 𖥅 𖥅 𖥅 𖥅 ŋguɔm
𖤚 𖤚 𖤚 mgbɯn 𖥆 𖥆 𖥆 𖥆 nʃut
𖤛 𖤛 𖤛 𖤛 puut 𖥇 𖥇 𖥇 𖥇 nʒüʔ
𖤜 𖤜 𖤜 𖤜 mgbie
A B C D Interpretation A B C D Interpretation
Bamum characters found through Phase E
Phase Interpretation   Phase Interpretation
A B C D E A B C D E
𖥦 𖥦 𖥦 𖥦 𖥦 ndap 𖦝 𖦝 𖦝 𖦝 𖦝 vɯə
𖥧 𖥧 𖥧 𖥧 𖥧 tɔɔn 𖦞 𖦞 𖦞 𖦞 𖦞 wɯx
𖥨 𖥨 𖥨 𖥨 𖥨 mbɯm 𖦟 𖦟 𖦟 𖦟 𖦟 laam
𖥩 𖥩 𖥩 𖥩 𖥩 lap 𖦠 𖦠 𖦠 𖦠 𖦠 pu
𖥪 𖥪 𖥪 𖥪 𖥪 vɔm 𖦡 𖦡 𖦡 𖦡 𖦡 taaʔ
𖥫 𖥫 𖥫 𖥫 𖥫 lɔn 𖦢 𖦢 𖦢 𖦢 𖦢 ɣaamə
𖥬 𖥬 𖥬 𖥬 𖥬 paa 𖦣 𖦣 𖦣 𖦣 ŋɯrɯt
𖥭 𖥭 𖥭 𖥭 𖥭 sɔm 𖦤 𖦤 𖦤 𖦤 𖦤 ʃɯəʔ
𖥮 𖥮 𖥮 𖥮 𖥮 raʔ 𖦥 𖦥 𖦥 𖦥 𖦥 mgbɛn
𖥯 𖥯 𖥯 𖥯 𖥯 nʃuɔp 𖦦 𖦦 𖦦 𖦦 mbe
𖥰 𖥰 𖥰 𖥰 𖥰 ndun 𖦧 𖦧 𖦧 𖦧 𖦧 nzaʔ
𖥱 𖥱 𖥱 𖥱 𖥱 puə 𖦨 𖦨 𖦨 𖦨 𖦨 nkɔm
𖥲 𖥲 𖥲 𖥲 𖥲 tam 𖦩 𖦩 𖦩 𖦩 𖦩 gbɛt
𖥳 𖥳 𖥳 𖥳 𖥳 ŋka 𖦪 𖦪 𖦪 𖦪 𖦪 tum
𖥴 𖥴 𖥴 𖥴 𖥴 kpɯx 𖦫 𖦫 𖦫 𖦫 𖦫 küt
𖥵 𖥵 𖥵 𖥵 𖥵 wuɔ 𖦬 𖦬 𖦬 𖦬 yap
𖥶 𖥶 𖥶 𖥶 se 𖡏 𖦭 𖦭 𖦭 𖦭 nyi
𖥷 𖥷 𖥷 𖥷 𖥷 ŋgɯət 𖦮 𖦮 𖦮 𖦮 𖦮 yit
𖡌 𖥸 𖥸 𖥸 𖥸 paam 𖦯 𖦯 𖦯 𖦯 mfɯʔ
𖥹 𖥹 𖥹 𖥹 𖥹 tɔɔ 𖦰 𖦰 𖦰 𖦰 𖦰 ndiaʔ
𖥺 𖥺 𖥺 𖥺 𖥺 kuɔp 𖦱 𖦱 𖦱 𖦱 𖦱 pieʔ
𖥻 𖥻 𖥻 𖥻 𖥻 lɔm 𖦲 𖦲 𖦲 𖦲 𖦲 yüʔ
𖡍 𖥼 𖥼 𖥼 𖥼 nʃie 𖦳 𖦳 𖦳 𖦳 𖦳 lɯəm
𖥽 𖥽 𖥽 𖥽 𖥽 ŋgɔp 𖦴 𖦴 𖦴 𖦴 𖦴
𖡎 𖥾 𖥾 𖥾 𖥾 məm 𖦵 𖦵 𖦵 𖦵 𖦵 gbɯx
𖥿 𖥿 𖥿 𖥿 𖥿 ŋkɯx 𖦶 𖦶 𖦶 𖦶 𖦶 ŋkup
𖦀 𖦀 𖦀 𖦀 𖦀 ŋɔʔ 𖦷 𖦷 𖦷 𖦷 𖦷 kɛt
𖦁 𖦁 𖦁 𖦁 𖦁 nʃü 𖦸 𖦸 𖦸 𖦸 𖦸
𖦂 𖦂 𖦂 𖦂 𖦂 rimgba 𖦹 𖦹 𖦹 𖦹 ŋkaami
𖣥 𖣥 𖣥 𖦃 𖦃 nʒɯx 𖦺 𖦺 𖦺 𖦺 𖦺 ɣɛt
𖢋 𖢋 𖡲 𖡲 𖡲 nsɛn 𖦻 𖦻 𖦻 𖦻 𖦻 fa
𖦄 𖦄 𖦄 𖦄 𖦄 pem 𖦼 𖦼 𖦼 𖦼 𖦼 ntum
𖦅 𖦅 𖦅 𖦅 𖦅 saa 𖦽 𖦽 𖦽 𖦽 𖦽 pɯt
𖦆 𖦆 𖦆 𖦆 𖦆 ŋgurə 𖦾 𖦾 𖦾 𖦾 𖦾 yɯm
𖦇 𖦇 𖦇 𖦇 𖦇 mgba 𖦿 𖦿 𖦿 𖦿 𖦿 ŋgɯə
𖦈 𖦈 𖦈 𖦈 𖦈 ɣɯx 𖧀 𖧀 𖧀 𖧀 𖧀 nyi
𖦉 𖦉 𖦉 𖦉 𖦉 ŋkɯəm 𖧁 𖧁 𖧁 𖧁 𖧁 nzuʔ
𖦊 𖦊 𖦊 𖦊 𖦊 nʒəmli 𖧂 𖧂 𖧂 𖧂 𖧂 pɔɔn
𖦋 𖦋 𖦋 𖦋 𖦋 map 𖣦 𖣦 𖣦 𖧃 𖧃 mie
𖦌 𖦌 𖦌 𖦌 𖦌 lɔɔt 𖧄 𖧄 𖧄 𖧄 𖧄 füt
𖦍 𖦍 ŋgee 𖧅 𖧅 𖧅 𖧅 𖧅
𖦎 𖦎 𖦎 𖦎 𖦎 ndiʔ 𖣧 𖣧 𖣧 𖧆 𖧆 muə
𖦏 𖦏 𖦏 𖦏 𖦏 tən ntɯm 𖥈 𖥈 𖥈 𖥈 𖧇 ɣɯə
𖦐 𖦐 𖦐 𖦐 𖦐 sɛt 𖧈 𖧈 𖧈 𖧈 𖧈 fu i
𖦑 𖦑 𖦑 𖦑 𖦑 pum 𖧉 𖧉 𖧉 𖧉 𖧉 mvi
𖦒 𖦒 ndaa 𖧊 𖧊 𖧊 𖧊 𖧊 puaʔ
𖦓 𖦓 𖦓 𖦓 𖦓 ŋguəʃə nyam 𖧋 𖧋 𖧋 ŋkum
𖦔 𖦔 𖦔 𖦔 𖦔 yie 𖧌 𖧌 𖧌 𖧌 kut
𖦕 𖦕 𖦕 𖦕 𖦕 ɣɯn 𖧍 𖧍 𖧍 𖧍 𖧍 piɛt
𖦖 𖦖 𖦖 𖦖 𖦖 tuə 𖧎 𖧎 𖧎 𖧎 𖧎 ntap
𖦗 𖦗 𖦗 𖦗 𖦗 yɯə 𖧏 𖧏 𖧏 𖧏 𖧏 yɯət
𖦘 𖦘 𖦘 𖦘 𖦘 𖧐 𖧐 𖧐 𖧐 𖧐 ŋgup
𖦙 𖦙 𖦙 𖦙 𖦙 tumə 𖧑 𖧑 𖧑 𖧑 𖧑 pa
𖦚 𖦚 𖦚 𖦚 𖦚 kɯə 𖧒 fu
𖦛 𖦛 𖦛 𖦛 suən 𖧓 𖧓 𖧓 𖧓 fɔm
𖦜 𖦜 𖦜 𖦜 𖦜 tɯəʔ 𖧔 nʒe
A B C D E Interpretation A B C D E Interpretation
Bamum characters found through Phase G
Phase Interpretation   Phase Interpretation
A B C D E F G A B C D E F G
𖧕 𖧕 𖧕 𖧕 𖧕 a 𖧪 𖧪 𖧪 𖧪 𖧪 𖨡
ꚠ꛰ ꚠ꛰ a 𖨡꛰ ꛉ꛰ üʔ
𖨃 𖨃 𖨃 𖨃 𖨃 𖨃 ka 𖥚 𖥚 𖥚 𖥚 𖨢 𖨢 pe
𖡐 𖨃꛰ ꚡ꛰ kaʔ 𖨢꛰ ꛊ꛰ peʔ
𖨄 𖨄 𖨄 𖨄 𖨄 𖨄 u 𖧫 𖧫 𖧫 𖧫 𖧫 𖦓 fe
𖨄꛰ ꚢ꛰ wuʔ 𖡒 𖧬 𖧬 𖧬 𖧬 ve
𖥉 𖥉 𖥉 𖥉 𖨅 𖨅 ku 𖦓꛰ ꛋ꛰ feʔ
𖨅꛰ ꚣ꛰ kuʔ
𖨆 𖨆 𖨆 𖨆 𖨆 𖨆 e 𖨣 𖨣 𖨣 𖨣 𖨣 𖨣 ru
𖨆꛰ ꚤ꛰ 𖨣꛰ ꛌ꛰ ruʔ
𖨇 𖨇 𖨇 𖨇 𖨇 re 𖡓 𖧭 𖧭 𖧭 𖧭 lu
𖥊 𖥊 𖥊 𖥊 𖨇꛰ ꚥ꛰ rɛn ꛍ꛰ ꛍ꛰ luʔ
𖥋 𖥋 𖥋 𖥋 𖨈 𖧮 𖧮 𖧮 𖧮 𖧮 mi
𖥌 𖥌 𖥌 𖥌 𖧖 𖨈꛰ ꚦ꛰ tɔʔ ꛎ꛰ ꛎ꛰ miʔ
𖧗 𖧗 𖧗 𖧗 𖧗 𖦑 ɔ 𖥛 𖥛 𖥛 𖥛 𖨤 𖨤 n'i
𖦑꛰ ꚧ꛰ ɔʔ 𖡔 𖨤꛰ ꛏ꛰ nɛn
𖥍 𖥍 𖥍 𖥍 𖧀 𖨉 nyi 𖧯 𖧯 𖧯 𖧯 𖧯 𖨥 rɯx
𖨉꛰ ꚨ꛰ nye 𖨥꛰ ꛐ꛰ rɯʔ
𖧘 𖧘 𖧘 𖧘 𖧘 𖥦 i 𖧰 𖧰 𖧰 𖧰 𖧰 𖥱
𖥦꛰ ꚩ꛰ 𖥱꛰ ꛑ꛰
𖨊 la 𖣩 𖣩 𖣩 𖨦 𖨦 𖨦 kɛn
𖧙 𖧙 𖧙 𖧙 𖧙 𖨊꛰ ꚪ꛰ laʔ 𖣪 𖣪 𖣪 𖨦꛰ ꛒ꛰ kɛn (with high tone)
𖧚 𖧚 𖧚 𖧚 𖧚 𖥯 pa 𖨧 𖨧 𖨧 𖨧 ŋkwən
𖥯꛰ ꚫ꛰ paʔ 𖧱 𖧱 𖧱 𖧱 𖧱 𖨧꛰ ꛓ꛰ ŋuət
𖥎 𖥎 𖥎 𖥎 𖨋 𖨋 rii 𖨨 𖨨 𖨨 𖨨 𖨨 𖨨 ŋga
𖨋꛰ ꚬ꛰ riʔ 𖨨꛰ ꛔ꛰ ŋgaʔ
𖨌 𖨌 𖨌 𖨌 𖨌 𖨌 rie 𖧲 𖧲 𖧲 𖧲 𖧲 𖥮 ŋa
𖨌꛰ ꚭ꛰ z 𖣫 𖣫 𖣫 𖥮꛰ ꛕ꛰ ŋaʔ
𖥏 𖥏 𖥏 𖥏 𖤰 𖤰 lee 𖧳 𖧳 𖧳 𖨩 ʃɔ
𖤰꛰ ꚮ꛰ leʔ 𖥜 𖥜 𖥜 𖥜 𖧴 𖨩꛰ ꛖ꛰ ʃɔʔ
𖥐 𖥐 𖥐 𖥐 𖨍 𖨍 mee 𖨪 𖨪 𖨪 𖨪 𖨪 𖨪 puə
𖥐 𖨍꛰ ꚯ꛰ meʔ 𖥝 𖥝 𖥝 𖥝 𖦠 𖨪꛰ ꛗ꛰ puʔ
𖧛 𖧛 𖧛 𖧛 𖧛 𖨎 taa 𖧵 𖧵 𖧵 𖧵 𖧵 𖧒 fu
𖧜 𖧜 𖧜 𖧜 𖧜 𖨎꛰ ꚰ꛰ taʔ 𖧒꛰ ꛘ꛰ fuʔ
𖧝 𖧝 𖧝 𖧝 𖧝 𖨏 ndaa 𖨫 𖨫 fɔm
𖨏꛰ ꚱ꛰ ndaʔ 𖥞 𖥞 𖥞 𖥞 𖨫꛰ ꛙ꛰ mvɔp
𖨐 𖨐 𖨐 𖨐 𖨐 𖨐 nʒəm 𖨬 𖨬 𖨬 𖨬 𖨬 wa
𖨐꛰ ꚲ꛰ yəm 𖨬꛰ ꛚ꛰ waʔ
𖥑 𖥑 𖥑 𖥑 𖨑 𖨑 m 𖧶 𖧶 𖧶 𖧶 𖧶 na
𖨑 ꚳ꛰ n 𖡕 𖣬 𖣬 ꛛ꛰ ꛛ꛰ naʔ
𖥒 𖥒 𖥒 𖥒 𖨒 𖨒 suu 𖨭 𖨭 𖨭 𖨭 𖨭 𖨭 li
𖨒꛰ ꚴ꛰ suʔ 𖣭 𖣭 𖣭 𖨭꛰ ꛜ꛰ liʔ
𖥓 𖥓 𖥓 𖥓 𖤱 𖤱 mu 𖧷 𖧷 𖧷 𖧷 𖧷 𖧡 pi
𖤱꛰ ꚵ꛰ muʔ 𖣮 𖣮 𖣮 𖧡꛰ ꛝ꛰ pin
𖥔 𖥔 𖥔 𖥔 𖨓 𖨓 ʃii 𖥟 𖥟 𖥟 𖥟 𖨮 𖨮 lɔʔ
𖣨 𖣨 𖣨 𖧞 𖧞 𖨓꛰ ꚶ꛰ ʃiʔ 𖧸 𖧸 𖧸 𖧸 𖧸 𖨮꛰ ꛞ꛰ lɔʔ
𖨔 𖨔 𖨔 𖨔 𖨔 𖨔 si 𖧹 𖧹 𖧹 𖧹 𖨯
𖨔꛰ ꚷ꛰ siʔ 𖨯꛰ ꛟ꛰ kɔʔ
𖥕 𖥕 𖥕 𖥕 ʃɯx 𖨰 𖨰 𖨰 𖨰 𖨰 𖨰 mbɛn
𖧟 𖧟 𖧟 𖧟 𖧟 ꚸ꛰ ꚸ꛰ yɯx 𖣯 𖣯 𖣗 𖨰꛰ ꛠ꛰ pɛn
𖨕 𖨕 𖨕 𖨕 𖨕 𖨕 sɯx 𖥠 𖥠 𖥠 𖥠 𖨱 𖨱 rɛn
𖨕꛰ ꚹ꛰ sɯʔ 𖨱꛰ ꛡ꛰ rɛn
𖥖 𖥖 𖥖 𖥖 𖨖 𖨖 kye 𖧺 𖧺 𖧺 𖧺 𖧺 𖥩 mɛn
𖨖꛰ ꚺ꛰ kyeʔ 𖥩꛰ ꛢ꛰ mɛn
𖨗 𖨗 𖨗 𖨗 𖨗 𖨗 kɛt 𖢌 𖧻 𖧻 𖧻 𖨲 ma
𖨗꛰ ꚻ꛰ keʔ 𖧼 𖧼 𖧼 𖧼 𖧼 𖨲꛰ ꛣ꛰ maʔ
𖨘 𖨘 𖨘 𖨘 𖨘 𖨘 nuə 𖥡 𖥡 𖥡 𖥡 𖣻 𖣻 ti
𖧠 𖧠 𖧠 𖧠 𖧠 𖨘꛰ ꚼ꛰ ŋuə 𖧽 𖧽 𖧽 𖧽 𖧽 𖣻꛰ ꛤ꛰
𖥗 𖥗 𖥗 𖨙 𖨙 nu 𖧾 𖧾 𖧾 𖧾 𖧾 ki
𖨙 ꚽ꛰ nuʔ 𖢍 𖢍 ꛥ꛰ ꛥ꛰ kiʔ
𖨚 𖨚 𖨚 𖨚 𖨚 𖨚 nʒuə 𖨳 𖨳 𖨳 𖨳 𖨳 𖨳
𖧡 𖧡 𖧡 𖧡 𖧡 𖨚꛰ ꚾ꛰ yuən 𖧿 𖧿 𖧿 𖨳꛰ ꛦ꛰ mɔn
𖧢 𖧢 𖧢 𖧢 𖨛 yɔʔ ("swimming") 𖨴 𖨴 𖨴 𖨴 𖨴 𖨴 mbaa
𖧣 𖧣 𖧣 𖧣 𖧣 𖨛꛰ ꚿ꛰ yɔʔ ("cover") 𖡖 𖨴꛰ ꛧ꛰ mbaʔ
𖥘 𖥘 𖥘 𖥘 𖨜 𖨜 ʃu 𖨵 𖨵 𖨵 𖨵 𖨵 𖨵 tɛt
𖨜꛰ ꛀ꛰ ʃuʔ 𖣰 𖣰 𖨵꛰ ꛨ꛰ tɛt (with high tone)
𖧤 𖧤 𖧤 𖧤 𖧤 yuʔ 𖨶 𖨶 𖨶 𖨶 𖨶 𖨶 kpa
𖧥 𖧥 𖧥 𖧥 𖧥 ꛁ꛰ ꛁ꛰ yun 𖨶꛰ ꛩ꛰ ŋma
𖨝 𖨝 𖨝 𖨝 𖨝 𖨝 ya 𖨀 𖨀 𖨀 𖨀 𖨀 𖦨 tɛn
𖨝꛰ ꛂ꛰ yaʔ 𖦨꛰ ꛪ꛰ tɛn
𖡑 𖨞 𖨞 𖨞 𖨞 𖨞 nʃa 𖥢 𖥢 𖥢 𖥢 𖥣 𖥣 ntuu
𖨞꛰ ꛃ꛰ ʃaʔ 𖥣꛰ ꛫ꛰ tuʔ
𖧦 𖧦 𖧦 𖧦 𖥮 kɯx 𖦅𖥣 𖦅𖥣 𖦅𖥣 𖦅𖥣 𖨷 𖨷 samba
𖥮꛰ ꛄ꛰ ɣɯ 𖥤 𖥤 𖥤 𖥤 𖨷꛰ ꛬ꛰ saʔ
𖧧 𖧧 𖧧 𖧧 𖧧 𖨟 pɯx 𖥥𖦸 𖥥𖦸 𖥥𖦸 𖥥𖦸 𖤩 faamə
𖨟꛰ ꛆ꛰ pɯʔ 𖨁 𖨁 𖨁 𖨁 𖨁 𖤩꛰ ꛭ꛰ faʔ
𖧨 𖧨 𖧨 𖧨 𖧨 𖧔 nʒe 𖧹𖨸 𖧹𖨸 𖧹𖨸 𖧹𖨸 𖨸 𖨸 kɔvü
𖧔꛰ ꛆ꛰ nʒeʔ 𖨸꛰ ꛮ꛰
𖥙 𖥙 𖥙 𖥙 𖨠 𖨠 nte 𖧹𖨂 𖧹𖨂 𖧹𖨂 𖧹𖨂 𖨂 𖧾 ɣɔm
𖨠꛰ ꛇ꛰ teʔ 𖢎 𖢎 𖧾꛰ ꛯ꛰ ŋgɔm
𖧩 𖧩 𖧩 𖧩 𖧩 𖥰
𖥰꛰ ꛈ꛰ püʔ
A B C D E F G Interpretation A B C D E F G Interpretation

Unicode[edit]

Bamum's 88 characters were added to the Unicode standard in October, 2009 with the release of version 5.2. Bamum Unicode character names are based on the International Phonetic Alphabet forms given in L’écriture des Bamum (1950) by Idelette Dugast and M.D.W. Jeffreys:[5]

Usage Letters
Dugast & Jeffreys a b d ɛ e ǝ f ɣ g i k l m n ŋ ɔ
Unicode name A B D EE EA E F GH G I K L M N NG O
French a b d è é e f gh g i k l m n ng o
Dugast & Jeffreys p r s ʃ t u ü ɯ v w x y z ʒ ʔ
Unicode name P R S SH T U UE EU V W X Y Z J Q
French p r s sh t u ü ù v w x y z j

The Unicode block for Bamum is U+A6A0–U+A6FF:

Bamum[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+A6Ax
U+A6Bx
U+A6Cx
U+A6Dx
U+A6Ex
U+A6Fx
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 10.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Historical stages of Bamum script were added to Unicode in October, 2010 with the release of version 6.0. These are encoded in the Bamum Supplement block as U+16800–U+16A3F, the various stages of script development are dubbed "Phase-A" to "Phase-E". The character names note the last phase in which they appear, for example, U+168EE 𖣮 BAMUM LETTER PHASE-C PIN is attested through Phase C but not in Phase D.

Bamum Supplement[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+1680x 𖠀 𖠁 𖠂 𖠃 𖠄 𖠅 𖠆 𖠇 𖠈 𖠉 𖠊 𖠋 𖠌 𖠍 𖠎 𖠏
U+1681x 𖠐 𖠑 𖠒 𖠓 𖠔 𖠕 𖠖 𖠗 𖠘 𖠙 𖠚 𖠛 𖠜 𖠝 𖠞 𖠟
U+1682x 𖠠 𖠡 𖠢 𖠣 𖠤 𖠥 𖠦 𖠧 𖠨 𖠩 𖠪 𖠫 𖠬 𖠭 𖠮 𖠯
U+1683x 𖠰 𖠱 𖠲 𖠳 𖠴 𖠵 𖠶 𖠷 𖠸 𖠹 𖠺 𖠻 𖠼 𖠽 𖠾 𖠿
U+1684x 𖡀 𖡁 𖡂 𖡃 𖡄 𖡅 𖡆 𖡇 𖡈 𖡉 𖡊 𖡋 𖡌 𖡍 𖡎 𖡏
U+1685x 𖡐 𖡑 𖡒 𖡓 𖡔 𖡕 𖡖 𖡗 𖡘 𖡙 𖡚 𖡛 𖡜 𖡝 𖡞 𖡟
U+1686x 𖡠 𖡡 𖡢 𖡣 𖡤 𖡥 𖡦 𖡧 𖡨 𖡩 𖡪 𖡫 𖡬 𖡭 𖡮 𖡯
U+1687x 𖡰 𖡱 𖡲 𖡳 𖡴 𖡵 𖡶 𖡷 𖡸 𖡹 𖡺 𖡻 𖡼 𖡽 𖡾 𖡿
U+1688x 𖢀 𖢁 𖢂 𖢃 𖢄 𖢅 𖢆 𖢇 𖢈 𖢉 𖢊 𖢋 𖢌 𖢍 𖢎 𖢏
U+1689x 𖢐 𖢑 𖢒 𖢓 𖢔 𖢕 𖢖 𖢗 𖢘 𖢙 𖢚 𖢛 𖢜 𖢝 𖢞 𖢟
U+168Ax 𖢠 𖢡 𖢢 𖢣 𖢤 𖢥 𖢦 𖢧 𖢨 𖢩 𖢪 𖢫 𖢬 𖢭 𖢮 𖢯
U+168Bx 𖢰 𖢱 𖢲 𖢳 𖢴 𖢵 𖢶 𖢷 𖢸 𖢹 𖢺 𖢻 𖢼 𖢽 𖢾 𖢿
U+168Cx 𖣀 𖣁 𖣂 𖣃 𖣄 𖣅 𖣆 𖣇 𖣈 𖣉 𖣊 𖣋 𖣌 𖣍 𖣎 𖣏
U+168Dx 𖣐 𖣑 𖣒 𖣓 𖣔 𖣕 𖣖 𖣗 𖣘 𖣙 𖣚 𖣛 𖣜 𖣝 𖣞 𖣟
U+168Ex 𖣠 𖣡 𖣢 𖣣 𖣤 𖣥 𖣦 𖣧 𖣨 𖣩 𖣪 𖣫 𖣬 𖣭 𖣮 𖣯
U+168Fx 𖣰 𖣱 𖣲 𖣳 𖣴 𖣵 𖣶 𖣷 𖣸 𖣹 𖣺 𖣻 𖣼 𖣽 𖣾 𖣿
U+1690x 𖤀 𖤁 𖤂 𖤃 𖤄 𖤅 𖤆 𖤇 𖤈 𖤉 𖤊 𖤋 𖤌 𖤍 𖤎 𖤏
U+1691x 𖤐 𖤑 𖤒 𖤓 𖤔 𖤕 𖤖 𖤗 𖤘 𖤙 𖤚 𖤛 𖤜 𖤝 𖤞 𖤟
U+1692x 𖤠 𖤡 𖤢 𖤣 𖤤 𖤥 𖤦 𖤧 𖤨 𖤩 𖤪 𖤫 𖤬 𖤭 𖤮 𖤯
U+1693x 𖤰 𖤱 𖤲 𖤳 𖤴 𖤵 𖤶 𖤷 𖤸 𖤹 𖤺 𖤻 𖤼 𖤽 𖤾 𖤿
U+1694x 𖥀 𖥁 𖥂 𖥃 𖥄 𖥅 𖥆 𖥇 𖥈 𖥉 𖥊 𖥋 𖥌 𖥍 𖥎 𖥏
U+1695x 𖥐 𖥑 𖥒 𖥓 𖥔 𖥕 𖥖 𖥗 𖥘 𖥙 𖥚 𖥛 𖥜 𖥝 𖥞 𖥟
U+1696x 𖥠 𖥡 𖥢 𖥣 𖥤 𖥥 𖥦 𖥧 𖥨 𖥩 𖥪 𖥫 𖥬 𖥭 𖥮 𖥯
U+1697x 𖥰 𖥱 𖥲 𖥳 𖥴 𖥵 𖥶 𖥷 𖥸 𖥹 𖥺 𖥻 𖥼 𖥽 𖥾 𖥿
U+1698x 𖦀 𖦁 𖦂 𖦃 𖦄 𖦅 𖦆 𖦇 𖦈 𖦉 𖦊 𖦋 𖦌 𖦍 𖦎 𖦏
U+1699x 𖦐 𖦑 𖦒 𖦓 𖦔 𖦕 𖦖 𖦗 𖦘 𖦙 𖦚 𖦛 𖦜 𖦝 𖦞 𖦟
U+169Ax 𖦠 𖦡 𖦢 𖦣 𖦤 𖦥 𖦦 𖦧 𖦨 𖦩 𖦪 𖦫 𖦬 𖦭 𖦮 𖦯
U+169Bx 𖦰 𖦱 𖦲 𖦳 𖦴 𖦵 𖦶 𖦷 𖦸 𖦹 𖦺 𖦻 𖦼 𖦽 𖦾 𖦿
U+169Cx 𖧀 𖧁 𖧂 𖧃 𖧄 𖧅 𖧆 𖧇 𖧈 𖧉 𖧊 𖧋 𖧌 𖧍 𖧎 𖧏
U+169Dx 𖧐 𖧑 𖧒 𖧓 𖧔 𖧕 𖧖 𖧗 𖧘 𖧙 𖧚 𖧛 𖧜 𖧝 𖧞 𖧟
U+169Ex 𖧠 𖧡 𖧢 𖧣 𖧤 𖧥 𖧦 𖧧 𖧨 𖧩 𖧪 𖧫 𖧬 𖧭 𖧮 𖧯
U+169Fx 𖧰 𖧱 𖧲 𖧳 𖧴 𖧵 𖧶 𖧷 𖧸 𖧹 𖧺 𖧻 𖧼 𖧽 𖧾 𖧿
U+16A0x 𖨀 𖨁 𖨂 𖨃 𖨄 𖨅 𖨆 𖨇 𖨈 𖨉 𖨊 𖨋 𖨌 𖨍 𖨎 𖨏
U+16A1x 𖨐 𖨑 𖨒 𖨓 𖨔 𖨕 𖨖 𖨗 𖨘 𖨙 𖨚 𖨛 𖨜 𖨝 𖨞 𖨟
U+16A2x 𖨠 𖨡 𖨢 𖨣 𖨤 𖨥 𖨦 𖨧 𖨨 𖨩 𖨪 𖨫 𖨬 𖨭 𖨮 𖨯
U+16A3x 𖨰 𖨱 𖨲 𖨳 𖨴 𖨵 𖨶 𖨷 𖨸
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 10.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The History of cartography. Harley, J. B. (John Brian), Woodward, David, 1942-2004, Monmonier, Mark S. University of Chicago Press. 1987–2015. p. 42. ISBN 9780226907284. OCLC 13456456. 
  2. ^ The End of King Njoya and the Bamum Script
  3. ^ Unseth, Peter. 2011. Invention of Scripts in West Africa for Ethnic Revitalization; in The Success-Failure Continuum in Language and Ethnic Identity Efforts, ed. by Joshua A. Fishman and Ofelia García, pp. 23-32. New York: Oxford University Press.
  4. ^ a b Riley, Charles (2007-01-19). "L2/07-023: Towards the Encoding of the Bamum Script in the UCS" (PDF). 
  5. ^ a b c d e Everson, Michael; Riley, Charles; Tuchscherer, Konrad (2008-10-14). "L2/08-350: Proposal to encode modern Bamum in the BMP" (PDF). 
  6. ^ "Chapter 19: Africa, Bamum". The Unicode Standard, Version 10.0 (PDF). Mountain View, CA: Unicode, Inc. July 2017. ISBN 978-1-936213-16-0.