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Ban Johnson

Byron Bancroft "Ban" Johnson was an American executive in professional baseball who served as the founder and first president of the American League. Johnson developed the AL—a descendant of the minor league Western League—into a "clean" alternative to the National League, which had become notorious for its rough-and-tumble atmosphere. To encourage a more orderly environment, Johnson supported the new league's umpires, which included Hall of Famer Billy Evans. With the help of league owners and managers such as Charles Comiskey, Charles Somers and Jimmy McAleer, Johnson lured top talent to the AL, which soon rivaled the more established National League. Johnson dominated the AL until the mid-1920s, when a public dispute with baseball commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis culminated in his forced resignation as league president. Born in Norwalk, Johnson went on to study law at Marietta College, although he did not take his degree, he subsequently became the sports editor of a newspaper in Cincinnati.

During this time, Johnson befriended Charles Comiskey, manager of the Cincinnati Reds. At the urging of Comiskey and Reds owner John T. Brush, Johnson was elected as president of the Western League, a faltering minor league, at a reorganization meeting held in 1893. Johnson had criticized the National League for its rowdy atmosphere, driving away families and women, he set about making baseball more friendly to both. Contrary to the practice of the time, Johnson gave his umpires unqualified support and had little tolerance for players or managers who failed to show them due respect. Johnson fined and suspended players who used foul language on the field. Soon, the Western League was recognized as not only the strongest minor league, but as the most managed league in all of baseball. Johnson, had a bigger plan—another major league. With the help of Comiskey, who had purchased the Sioux City franchise and moved it to St. Paul in 1894 after leaving the Reds, Johnson initiated an ambitious plan of expansion.

He got his chance after the 1899 season, when the National League dropped teams in Baltimore, Cleveland and Washington, D. C. Johnson moved the Grand Rapids franchise to Cleveland, where they would become the Indians, he had Comiskey move his Saint Paul team to Chicago, where they became the White Sox. The latter move was made with the blessing of the NL, which saw Comiskey's team as a way to head off any attempt to revive the American Association. For the 1900 season, the Western League was renamed as the American League, although it remained a minor league; the 1900 season was an unqualified success, Johnson received a 10-year contract extension. In October, he withdrew the AL from the National Agreement; the final step came on January 1901, when he declared the AL would operate as a major league. He placed teams in Baltimore, Boston and Washington; the Buffalo Bisons were to be a member of the new American League and their manager Franklin was told right up to Jan. 29, 1901, that "Buffalo was in the league and not to worry", Ban Johnson unceremoniously dumped Buffalo and placed the franchise in Boston.

It was revealed that he not only had been negotiating surreptitiously with Boston people for several months, but that he had money invested in the Boston franchise. Johnson had a large stake in the Washington franchise, which he kept until 1903; the NL made a critical blunder by limiting salaries to $2,400–a low sum by 1901 standards. Johnson and the other AL owners responded by raiding NL rosters, promising disgruntled players much higher salaries. Over 100 players "jumped" to the new league. After a two-year war in which the AL trounced the NL in attendance both seasons, the NL sued for peace. Under a new National Agreement, the AL was formally recognized as the second major league. A three-man National Commission was set up, composed of both league presidents and Reds owner Garry Herrmann. Although Herrmann was nominal president of the commission, Johnson soon dominated the body. Johnson brooked no criticism, made it difficult for men he didn't like to buy into the league. For instance, when Harry Frazee bought the Boston Red Sox in 1917, Johnson tried from the start to drive him out because Frazee had not been hand-picked by Johnson.

At one point, Johnson had ownership interests in the Cleveland and Washington teams. The Frazee dispute planted the seed for Johnson's downfall; the league divided into two factions, with the Red Sox, White Sox and New York Yankees on one side and the other five clubs on the other. By this time, Comiskey had become a bitter enemy of Johnson. Johnson's authority eroded further that year when the Red Sox traded Carl Mays to the Yankees in defiance of a Johnson order to suspend him after Mays had jumped the club; the Yankees went to court and received an injunction to allow Mays to play, as Johnson had demonstrated throughout the proceedings that his investment in the Cleveland Indians hindered his ability to be impartial. The final nail in Johnson's coffin proved to be the Black Sox Scandal. Johnson paid no attention to Comiskey's claims that his White Sox may have been on the take from gamblers. However, when the scandal broke after the 1920 season, the White Sox, Red Sox and Yankees threatened to pull out of the AL and join a new 12-team National League.

The enlarged league would include a new team in Detroit unrelated to the Tigers

Axiom of choice

In mathematics, the axiom of choice, or AC, is an axiom of set theory equivalent to the statement that a Cartesian product of a collection of non-empty sets is non-empty. Informally put, the axiom of choice says that given any collection of bins, each containing at least one object, it is possible to make a selection of one object from each bin if the collection is infinite. Formally, it states that for every indexed family i ∈ I of nonempty sets there exists an indexed family i ∈ I of elements such that x i ∈ S i for every i ∈ I; the axiom of choice was formulated in 1904 by Ernst Zermelo in order to formalize his proof of the well-ordering theorem. In many cases, such a selection can be made without invoking the axiom of choice. An illustrative example is sets picked from the natural numbers. From such sets, one may always select the smallest number, e.g. in the smallest elements are. In this case, "select the smallest number" is a choice function. If infinitely many sets were collected from the natural numbers, it will always be possible to choose the smallest element from each set to produce a set.

That is, the choice function provides the set of chosen elements. However, no choice function is known for the collection of all non-empty subsets of the real numbers. In that case, the axiom of choice must be invoked. Bertrand Russell coined an analogy: for any collection of pairs of shoes, one can pick out the left shoe from each pair to obtain an appropriate selection. For an infinite collection of pairs of socks, there is no obvious way to make a function that selects one sock from each pair, without invoking the axiom of choice. Although controversial, the axiom of choice is now used without reservation by most mathematicians, it is included in the standard form of axiomatic set theory, Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory with the axiom of choice. One motivation for this use is that a number of accepted mathematical results, such as Tychonoff's theorem, require the axiom of choice for their proofs. Contemporary set theorists study axioms that are not compatible with the axiom of choice, such as the axiom of determinacy.

The axiom of choice is avoided in some varieties of constructive mathematics, although there are varieties of constructive mathematics in which the axiom of choice is embraced. A choice function is a function f, defined on a collection X of nonempty sets, such that for every set A in X, f is an element of A. With this concept, the axiom can be stated: Formally, this may be expressed as follows: ∀ X. Thus, the negation of the axiom of choice states that there exists a collection of nonempty sets that has no choice function; each choice function on a collection X of nonempty sets is an element of the Cartesian product of the sets in X. This is not the most general situation of a Cartesian product of a family of sets, where a given set can occur more than once as a factor; the axiom of choice asserts the existence of such elements. In this article and other discussions of the Axiom of Choice the following abbreviations are common: AC – the Axiom of Choice. ZF – Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory omitting the Axiom of Choice.

ZFC – Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory, extended to include the Axiom of Choice. There are many other equivalent statements of the axiom of choice; these are equivalent in the sense that, in the presence of other basic axioms of set theory, they imply the axiom of choice and are implied by it. One variation avoids the use of choice functions by, in effect, replacing each choice function with its range. Given any set X of pairwise disjoint non-empty sets, there exists at least one set C that contains one element in common with each of the sets in X; this guarantees for any partition of a set X the existence of a subset C of X containing one element from each part of the partition. Another equivalent axiom only considers collections X that are powersets of other sets: For any set A, the power set of A has a choice function. Authors who use this formulation speak of the choice function on A, but be advised that this is a different notion of choice function, its domain is the powerset of A, s

Franc Fernandez

Franc Fernandez is a Los Angeles, California-based Argentine artist and fashion designer. His most well-known work is the meat dress of Lady Gaga. Fernandez lived there until age eight, his family moved to the outskirts of L. A. During high school he dropped out, he attended architecture and art school, but dropped out of both. He apprenticed for a milliner in London. Says Fernandez, "For the most part I’m self-trained. I’m not good in institutions. I can sort of weed out what I like/dislike, need/not need." Fernandez started experimenting with clothing in high school, combining shirts and sweaters and stitching their labels on the outside. It was his hats that garnered him attention, he began to receive requests from stylists for custom pieces. Once he was contacted by Nicola Formichetti, his career began to take off. Fernandez has worked with many contemporary musical artists, including Lady Gaga, Sam Sparro, Scissor Sisters and Beyoncé Knowles, he did the styling for Scissor Sisters' UK arena tour.

He directed the music video for Sam Sparro's "Pink Cloud", using influence from technology and the internet to produce a video best viewed on an iPhone, mimicking the device's scrolling and swiping motions. In 2015, Fernandez collaborated with Chicago-based rapper Vic Mensa on Mensa's outfit for the 2015 MTV Video Music Awards; the t-shirt and jacket displayed a picture of Black Panther Movement member Assata Shakur, as well as statements about police brutality in the United States on the pants and jacket sleeves. This piece is among several that Fernandez and Mensa had collaborated on together including trousers that stated five names of black-women who died in prison in July 2015, his work for Mensa at the VMA's marked the 5-year anniversary of his meat dress for Lady Gaga. He states “I’m interested in pop culture if it’s questioning or upsetting people or creating a problem for people to handle,” said Franc of working with Gaga and Vic. “I think that’s important. I feel like there’s a lack of that.”

Fernandez has worked with Lady Gaga on several projects, including the design of the "diamond crown" outfit for her "Bad Romance" music video and the outfits she has worn to awards shows and on tour. In 2010 he was approached by Gaga's stylist Nicola Formichetti about creating a dress made of cuts of raw beef for the 2010 MTV Video Music Awards. Fernandez agreed, went to his local butcher and asked what the best cut of meat would be for such a project, the butcher told him flank steak. Fernandez purchased 40 pounds, he and a collaborative assistant made up the design as they went along, seeing which cuts would best fit which areas, as "there is not much plan you can do with such an organic material." The dress took two days to complete, Gaga had to be stitched into it backstage. The reaction to the dress was mixed, earning ire from animal rights groups such as PETA, attempts to analyze it from various media outlets. Fernandez stated "I wasn't surprised at the response. I think. I think what I was more surprised and excited by was how much the internet and technology played a part in that.

I got tons of hate-mail, love-mail, "meat dress" was a top Twitter topic for three days straight." Fernandez was pleased with the reception of the dress, saying "I feel like I have a voice now as an artist and as a designer," and that it gave him a larger audience

25 on

25 on is the sixth studio album by The Rainmakers, released in on March 14, 2011. In 2011, the Rainmakers reformed, with bassist Rich Ruth returning to the group, while longtime guitarist Steve Phillips was replaced by Jeff Porter. On March 5, the band was inducted into the Kansas Music Hall of Fame with a ceremony and concert at Liberty Hall in Lawrence, Kansas; the album 25 on was released on March 14. At the end of March, the band returned to Norway for a two-week tour; the band played two shows at Knuckleheads Saloon in Kansas City. The second show was scheduled after the first show sold out quickly. All tracks written by Bob Walkenhorst. "Given Time" – 2:54 "Vermillion" – 2:13 "My Own Bed" – 3:10 "Missouri Girl" – 2:38 "Half a Horse Apiece" – 3:04 "These Hills" – 3:46 "Kansas City Times" – 2:41 "Baby Grand" – 4:13 "Like Dogs" – 3:23 "Turpentine" – 3:22 "Last Song of the Evening" – 5:11 "Go Down Swinging" – 3:39 The Rainmakers Bob Walkenhorst – lead vocals, guitar Rich Ruth – bass guitar Pat Tomek – drums, vocals Jeff Porter – guitar, vocals is a German racing team outfit established in 2009 that competes in international road racing on courses as the Isle of Man TT, Macau Grand Prix, the FIM Endurance World Championship. Its teams include BMW Motorrad. The team was established in 2009 with rider Rico Penzkofer; the goal was to bring a brand new BMW S1000RR to Macau racing the Macau Motorcycle Grand Prix in 2009. Until this date the S1000RR was only represented in the World Superbike Series and not yet released for road use. With the support BMW Motorrad Motorsport, Penzkofer took fifth place on Macau’s Guia circuit. During the following years the team continued to invest in its structure and equipment, competing on a professional level in the World Endurance Championship with additional starts at the world’s biggest road races – the Tourist Trophy at the Isle of Man, the International North West 200 and the Macau Grand Prix. In 2012 they secured the World Endurance championship title in Stocksport class as well as the fourth overall in the Superbike class in 2015 and 2017.

Some of the most important results in recent years were the Team Championship and podium finish of Michael Rutter in the Macau Grand Prix 2015 as well as the Top 5 result at the Isle of Man with Gary Johnson in 2016 and the winning strike of Michael Rutter in Frohburg that same year.. 2017 was a key season with a strong line up of top class riders such as Michael Rutter, Dan Kneen, former Moto3 championship rider Danny Webb and World Superbike rider Alessandro Polita. The 2017 Superstock TT race saw the team’s first step on the podium with a further Top 5 finish in the SBK race of Manxman Kneen. In 2018 the team partnered with the Czech Corporation WEPOL and continued in the international road racing scene. Besides appearing in the International events such as the Isle of Man TT and Macau the team competed in the with a four rider line up while additionally contracting various wild card riders, it turned out to be the most successful season in team history. With Danny Webb taking the championship crown in the IRRC Superbike Class, French rider Matthieu Lagrive dominated the IRRC Supersport class.

Czech rider Marek Cerveny and the British rider Jamie Coward completed the stellar performance of the team. Additionally Davey Todd, Daley Mathison, Dan Kruger, Derek Sheils and Martin Jessopp took various wildcards in Imatra Finland, Frohburg Germany and in Macau China; the team secured with Davey Todd again the IRRC Superbike championship with two races left in the calendar. The team debuted in the FIM Endurance World Championship in the FIM World Cup in 2010, securing the runner-up position in 2011 and win in 2012; the Penz13 squad made the step-up to the Superbike Class in 2015 and has competed in the following year including pole position at the 24 Heures Motos in Le Mans in 2016. After the two podium finishes in the 24h races during the 2017 - 2018 season the team decided to concentrate on the road races and rebuild the team structure with a new manufacturer coming on board for the season 2018 – 2019. After ten years working with BMW and great success it was time to change things around and looking into new perspectives and opportunities.

With Yamaha the team partnered a Japanese manufacturer with a real racing DNA in its corporate policy – a needed move in order to strive for the world title in the near future. Mounted with Yamaha R1 machinery the team continued in the Endurance World Championship. Just three weeks before the race Bol d’Or in September 2018, the team received the new bikes. While switching manufacturers the team was challenged in contracting new riders. With Danny Webb remaining in the team, it was South African Sheridan Morais, French EWC champion Matthieu Lagrive and lastly Ex-Moto GP rider Michael Laverty rounding up the new line up; the new season kicked off with another podium finish in 3rd position finish as well as two 4th places whereas the team takes 3rd in the overall championship after three out of five rounds

Book Club (film)

Book Club is a 2018 American romantic comedy film directed by Bill Holderman, in his directorial debut, written by Holderman and Erin Simms. It stars Diane Keaton, Jane Fonda, Candice Bergen, Mary Steenburgen as four friends who read Fifty Shades of Grey as part of their monthly book club, subsequently begin to change how they view their personal relationships; the film was released on May 18, 2018, by Paramount Pictures, received mixed reviews from critics and was a box office success grossing over $104 million worldwide against its $14 million budget. Four women have attended a monthly book club for bonding over the suggested literature. Vivian, who owns and builds hotels, runs into Arthur, a man whose marriage proposal she turned down 40 years before, they begin a flirtation, but Vivian has always refused to settle down because she enjoys her independence. Diane is widowed, her daughters would like her to move closer to them in Arizona because they perceive her to be in danger because she's living alone.

Sharon is a federal judge. Carol has a successful marriage to Bruce, who has retired, but they have lacked intimacy. One day they are turned on by the content. Viewing it as a wakeup call, they decide to expand their lives and chase pleasures that have eluded them. While flying to visit her daughters in Arizona, Diane meets Mitchell and they strike up a relationship, though Diane is hesitant because of how her husband died and because she hasn't dated in decades. Vivian spends more time with Arthur. Carol is frustrated with her husband's refusal to have sex with her, by reading the book she realizes they are missing something. Sharon starts an online dating account to start dating again, they continue to read Fifty Shades Darker and Fifty Shades Freed in their book club, while trying to figure out how to solve their problems. Diane's daughters continue to pressure her to move to Arizona but she doesn't want to leave her friends, she sneaks away to see Mitchell, when her daughters can't reach her, they send the police out to find her.

On discovering her at Mitchell's, they insist that she move into the basement of one of their homes ending her relationship with Mitchell. Diane tells her daughters that though she is older, she doesn't need to be under surveillance, she packs up her leaves for Mitchell's, where they resume their relationship. Arthur asks Vivian to commit to being in a relationship and she declines, despite Arthur's assurances that he wants her to continue being independent. Soon after Arthur leaves for the airport, Vivian realizes she's made a mistake and tries to go after him, she misses his airplane, but when she returns to her hotel, she finds Arthur waiting for her and they rekindle their relationship. Carol, frustrated that Bruce is refusing to have sex with her, tries various ways to entice him, but he's oblivious, she spikes his beer with erectile dysfunction medication in his drink, but he becomes angry because, not what's causing the problem, they continue to not have sex. Bruce admits that he's been stressed because he retired, doesn't know what to do with himself.

They reconcile after dancing together in a fund-raising talent show. After a few dates with men she meets online, Sharon decides, she gives a speech at her son's engagement party, where she realizes that everyone deserves to be in love and happy. She opens her online dating account again, in the hopes of finding someone. Diane Keaton as Diane Jane Fonda as Vivian Candice Bergen as Sharon Myers Mary Steenburgen as Carol Colby Andy García as Mitchell Don Johnson as Arthur Craig T. Nelson as Bruce Colby Richard Dreyfuss as George Alicia Silverstone as Jill Katie Aselton as Adrianne Ed Begley Jr. as Tom Wallace Shawn as Derek Lili Bordán as Irene Tommy Dewey as Chris Mircea Monroe as CherylE. L. James and her husband Niall Leonard make a cameo appearance as Bruce's neighbors. In May 2017, it was announced Diane Keaton, Jane Fonda, Candice Bergen had joined the cast of the film, with Bill Holderman directing, from a screenplay by himself and Erinn Simms. Holderman and Simms produced the film, along with Andrew Duncan and Alex Saks, the latter two under their June Pictures banner.

In July 2017, Mary Steenburgen joined the cast, in August 2017, Andy García, Don Johnson, Craig T. Nelson, Richard Dreyfuss, Ed Begley Jr. Wallace Shawn, Alicia Silverstone, Tommy Dewey and Katie Aselton joined as well. Principal photography began in August 2017 around California. In November 2017, Paramount Pictures acquired U. S, UK and France distribution rights to the film, it was released on May 18, 2018. Book Club was released on Digital HD, Blu-ray and DVD in August 2018. Book Club grossed $68.6 million in the United States and Canada, $22.5 million in other territories, for a worldwide total of $91.1 million, against a production budget of $10 million. In the United States and Canada, the film was released alongside Deadpool 2 and Show Dogs, was projected to gross around $10 million from 2,781 theaters in its opening weekend, it made $4.7 million including $625,000 from Thursday night previews. It went on to debut to $13.6 million, finishing Avengers: Infinity War. It dropped just 25% in its second weekend to $10.1 million, finishing fourth, continued to hold well in its third weekend, grossing $6.8 million and finishing fifth.

On review aggregation website Rotten Tomatoes, the film has an approval rating of 54% based on 177