Pressure cooker bomb

A pressure cooker bomb is an improvised explosive device created by inserting explosive material into a pressure cooker and attaching a blasting cap into the cover of the cooker. Pressure cooker bombs have been used in a number of attacks in the 21st century. Among them have been the 2006 Mumbai train bombings, 2010 Stockholm bombings, the 2010 Times Square car bombing attempt, the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing, the 2017 Manchester Arena bombing. Pressure cooker bombs are easy to construct. Most of the materials required can be obtained; the bomb can be triggered using a simple electronic device such as a digital watch, garage door opener, cell phone, kitchen timer, or alarm clock. The power of the explosion depends on the size of the pressure cooker and the amount and type of explosives used. Similar to a pipe bomb, the containment provided by the pressure cooker means that the energy from the explosion is confined until the pressure cooker itself explodes; this in turn creates a large explosion using low explosives and generating lethal fragmentation.

French police prevented a terrorist attack in Strasbourg, France, on New Year's Eve 2000. Ten Islamic militants were convicted for the plot. From 2002–04, pressure cooker bombs were used in terror and IED attacks in Afghanistan and Pakistan. In 2003, a terrorist from Chechnya named Abudullah, carrying a pressure cooker bomb detonated explosives and killed six people before being arrested near Kabul International Airport in Afghanistan; the Taliban claimed responsibility. In 2004, the Department of Homeland Security issued a warning to US agencies about pressure cookers being converted to IEDs. In July 2006, in Mumbai, India, 209 people were killed and 714 injured by pressure cooker bombs in the 2006 Mumbai train bombings. According to Mumbai Police, the bombings were carried out by Lashkar-e-Taiba and Students Islamic Movement of India. Step-by-step instructions for making pressure cooker bombs were published in an article titled "Make a Bomb in the Kitchen of Your Mom" in the Al-Qaeda-linked Inspire magazine in the summer of 2010, by "The AQ chef".

The article describes the technique as a simple way to make a effective bomb. Analysts believe the work was the brainchild of Anwar al-Awlaki, edited by him and by Samir Khan. Inspire's goal is to encourage "lone wolf" Jihadis to attack what they view as the enemies of Jihad, including the United States and its allies. Several Islamic radical terrorist attempts in the 2010s involved pressure cooker bombs; the unsuccessful Times Square car bombing attempt in May 2010, in New York City, included a pressure cooker bomb which failed to detonate. The bomb-maker, Faisal Shahzad, was sentenced to life in prison. In the December 2010 Stockholm bombings, a suicide bomber with extreme views on Islam set up a pressure cooker bomb, which failed to detonate. In July 2011, Naser Jason Abdo, a U. S. Army private at Fort Hood, who took pressure cooker bomb-making tips from the Al-Qaeda magazine article, was arrested for planning to blow up a restaurant frequented by U. S. soldiers. Two pressure cookers and bomb-making materials were found in his hotel room.

He was sentenced to life in prison. In Pakistan, in March 2010, six employees of World Vision International were killed by a remotely detonated pressure cooker bomb. In October 2012, French police found a makeshift pressure cooker with bomb-making materials near Paris as part of an investigation into an attack on a kosher grocery store. Two pressure cooker bombs were used in the Boston Marathon bombings in April 2013; the pressure cookers were filled with nails, ball bearings, black powder. It was believed the devices were triggered by kitchen-type egg timers, subsequent evidence indicated a remote device was used to trigger the bombs. One of the bombers, Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, told investigators that he learned the technique from an article in Inspire magazine. On Canada Day 2013, pressure cooker bombs failed to explode at the Parliament Building in Victoria, British Columbia. On May 19, 2016, passengers on a bus in Wrocław, alerted the driver to a suspicious package; the driver removed the package from the bus.

Shortly it exploded with no fatalities but did injure one woman slightly. Authorities believed. On September 17, 2016, an explosion occurred in New York, wounding 29 civilians; the origin of the explosion was found to be a pressure cooker bomb. At least one other bomb was found unexploded. A suspect for that explosion and others in New Jersey, Ahmad Khan Rahami, was captured two days later. Both the 2010 Stockholm bombings and the foiled 2016 Sweden terrorism plot involved pressure-cooker bombs. Car bomb Nail bomb Time bomb Pipe bomb, another type of IED that works in a similar way to a pressure cooker bomb US Department of Homeland Security information leaflet on pressure cooker bombs, July 1, 2010

List of state leaders in the 19th century

State leaders in the 18th century – State leaders: 1901–1950 – State leaders by yearThis is a list of state leaders in the 19th century AD, such as the heads of state and heads of government. These polities are sovereign states, but excludes minor dependent territories, whose leaders can be found listed under territorial governors in the 19th century. For completeness, these lists can include colonies, protectorates, or other dependent territories that have since gained sovereignty. Angola Kingdom of Kongo –Henrique II, King Garcia V, King André II, King Henrique III, King Álvaro XIII, King Peter V, King vassal to Portugal: 1888–1914 Álvaro XIV, King Henrique IV, King Kingdom of Matamba –unknown son of Ana III, King Portuguese Angola, –Colony, 1575–1951 For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest EuropeCameroon Kingdom of Bamum –Mbouombouo, Mfon Ngbetnkom, Mfon Mbeikuo, Mfon Ngouhouo, Mfon Ngoungoure, Mfon Nsangou, Mfon Kamerun –German colony, 1884–1916 For details see the German Empire under central EuropeCentral African Republic Chad Sultanate of Bagirmi –‘Abd ar-Rahman Gawrang, Mbangi Malam Ngarmaba Bira, Mbangi ‘Uthman Burkomanda III al-Kabir, Mbangi Malam Ngarmaba Bira, Mbangi ‘Uthman Burkomanda III al-Kabir, Mbangi Muhammad III, Mbangi ‘Uthman Burkomanda III al-Kabir, Mbangi ‘Abdul Qadir II al-Mahdi, Mbangi Abu-Sekkin Mohammed IV, Mbangi ‘Abd ar-Rahman II, Mbangi Abu-Sekkin Mohammed IV, Mbangi Burkomanda IV as-Saghir, Mbangi Ngarmane Ermanala, Regent Gaourang II, Mbangi Wadai EmpireMuhammad Salih Derret ibn Jawda, Kolak Abd al-Karim Sabun, Kolak Muhammad Busata ibn ‘Abd al-Karim, Kolak Yusuf Kharifayn ibn ‘Abd al-Qadir, Kolak Raqib ibn Yusuf ‘Abd al-Qadir, Kolak Muhammad ‘Abd al-‘Aziz Dhawiyi ibn Radama Adham ibn Muhammad ‘Abd al-‘Aziz, Kolak ‘Izz ad-Din Muhammad al-Sharif ibn Salih Derret, Kolak'Ali ibn Muhammad, Kolak Yusuf ibn ‘Ali, Kolak Ibrahim ibn ‘Ali, Kolak Ahmad Abu al-Ghazali ibn ‘Ali, Kolak rule of Rabih az-ZubayrRabih az-Zubayr, warlord French Chad, part of French Equatorial Africa –Colony, 1900–1960 For details see France under western EuropeCongo: Belgian Kuba KingdomKata Mbula, Nyim Mikope Mbula, Nyim Bope Mobinji, Nyim Mikope Mobinji, Nyim KotoMboke, Nyim Mishanga Pelenge, Nyim Lunda Empire –Nawej II Ditend, Mwaant Yaav Mulaj a Namwan, Mwaant Yaav Cakasekene Naweej, Mwaant Yaav Muteba II a Cikombe, Mwaant Yaav Mbala II a Kamong Isot, Mwaant Yaav Mbumb I Muteba Kat, Mwaant Yaav Cimbindu a Kasang, Mwaant Yaav Kangapu Nawej, Mwaant Yaav Mudib, Mwaant Yaav Mutand Mukaz, Mwaant Yaav Mbala III a Kalong, Mwaant Yaav Yeke KingdomMsiri, King Congo Free StateSovereign –Leopold II of Belgium, Sovereign Governors general –Théophile Wahis, Governor general Congo: French Kingdom of Loango –N'Gangue M'voumbe Makosso Ma Nombo, King N'Gangue M'voumbe Makosso Ma N'Sangou, King French Congo part of French Equatorial Africa –Colony, 1882–1910 For details see France under western EuropeEquatorial Guinea Spanish Guinea –Colony, 1778–1968 For details see Spain in southwest EuropeGabon Kingdom of Orungu –Rénwombi "Mpolo", Agamwinboni Ogul'Issogwe Rogombe, Agamwinboni Ombango Rogombe "Ikinda" / King Pascal, Agamwinboni Ndebulia, Agamwinboni (1862–1865 Ntchènguè, Agamwinboni (1865–1882 Avonowanga, Agamwinboni French Gabon, part of French Equatorial Africa –Colony, 1882–1910 For details see France under western EuropeSão Tomé and Príncipe Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe –Colony, 1470–1951 For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe Great Lakes area BurundiKingdom of BurundiNtare IV, King Mwezi IV, King KenyaWituland –Ahmad ibn Fumo Bakari, Mfalume Fumo Bakari ibn Ahmad, Mfalume Bwana Shaykh ibn Ahmad, Mfalume Fumo `Umar ibn Ahmad, Mfalume Sultanate of Mombasa –Independence disputed with Oman Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Mazru‘i, Sultan ‘Abd Allah ibn Ahmad al-Mazru‘i, Sultan Omani Suzerainty Sulayman ibn ‘Ali al-Mazru‘i, Sultan East Africa Protectorate –British protectorate, 1895–1920 For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, EuropeRwandaKingdom of RwandaYuhi IV Gahindiro, King Mutara II Rwogera, King Kigeli IV Rwabugiri, King Mibambwe IV Rutarindwa, King Yuhi V Musinga, King TanzaniaSultanate of Zanzibar –Majid, Sultan Barghash, Sultan Khalifa I, Sultan Ali I, Sultan Hamad, Sultan Khalid, Sultan Hamoud, Sultan German East Africa –Colony, 1885–1919 For details see the German Empire under central EuropeUgandaAnkole –Rwebishengye, Omugabe Kayungu, Omugabe Gasyonga I, Omugabe Mutambuka, Omugabe (18