Ladislaus II of Hungary
Ladislaus II or Ladislas II was King of Hungary and Croatia between 1162 and 1163, having usurped the crown from his nephew, Stephen III. Ladislaus received the title of Duke of Bosnia from his father, Béla II of Hungary, at the age of six but never ruled the province. Instead, around 1160, he followed his younger brother, Stephen's, example and settled in Constantinople but both were to return to Hungary following the death of their elder brother, Géza II of Hungary, in 1162, their return was backed by the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Komnenos who used their return in a bid to expand his suzerainty over Hungary. The Emperor was planning to assist Stephen IV in seizing the throne, but the Hungarian lords were only willing to accept Ladislaus as king against the late Géza II's son, Stephen III. Although the latter's staunch supporter, Archbishop of Esztergom, refused to crown Ladislaus and excommunicated him, he was crowned by Mikó, Archbishop of Kalocsa, in July 1162 but died within six months of his coronation.
Born in 1131, Ladislaus was his wife, Helena of Rascia. A few months after his birth, his mother took him and his elder brother, Géza, to an assembly held at Arad where the barons who were considered responsible for the blinding of the King were massacred upon the Queen's order. Béla II's army invaded Bosnia in 1136, which he commemorated by adopting the title King of Rama after a small river; the following year, the King appointed Ladislaus Duke of Bosnia at an assembly of the prelates and barons in Esztergom. However, Ladislaus never ruled the territory and administration was overseen by the Ban, either an appointed or an elected official. Béla II died on 13 February 1141 and was succeeded by his oldest son, Ladislaus's elder brother, Géza II; the Illuminated Chronicle writes that during his reign King Géza "granted ducal revenues to his brothers", Ladislaus and his younger brother, Stephen, in an unspecified year, although according to historian Bálint Hóman, this happened in 1146. Scholars Ferenc Makk and Gyula Kristó argue that the two dukes only received this grant around 1152, when the King appointed his son, his successor.
Ladislaus's younger brother, conspired against King Géza but failed in 1156 or 1157. Stephen first sought refuge in the Holy Roman Empire but fled to the Byzantine Empire. Ladislaus followed him and settled in Constantinople around 1160. Contemporaneous sources disagree on the cause of Ladislaus' departure for Constantinople. According to John Kinnamos, both Stephen and Ladislaus "became hateful" towards King Géza after they had quarreled with him. On the other hand, Niketas Choniates wrote that Ladislaus "defected to Manuel, not so much because Géza loved him less than he should or that he feared a plot on his brother's part, but more because he was fascinated" by Stephen's favorable reception by the Emperor. Géza II died on 31 May 1162 and was succeeded by his son, the 15-year-old Stephen III. However, Emperor Manuel, who "put a high value on the overlordship of Hungary", according to the contemporaneous John Kinnamos, decided to intervene on behalf of the late King's two brothers, stating that "it is law among the Hungarians that the crown passes always to the survivors of brothers".
The Emperor planned to assist the younger of the two brothers, Stephen, as claimant to the throne. Bribed by Emperor Manuel's envoys, most Hungarian lords were willing to dethrone the young monarch but instead of Stephen, whom they viewed as a puppet of the Emperor, Ladislaus was chosen to be king. Six weeks after the young Stephen III's coronation, his partisans were routed at Kapuvár forcing him to leave Hungary and seek refuge in Austria; the Emperor... concluded. He marched out of Sardica and when arrived in the region of the Danube adjacent to Braničevo and Belgrade dispatched his nephew Alexios Kontostephanos with an armed force to. Once in control of Chramon, they did everything possible to secure the throne, winning over the most powerful of the Hungarians with gifts, seducing them with flattery, inciting them with the greatest promises. Ladislaus was crowned king in July 1162; the ceremony was performed by Mikó, Archbishop of Kalocsa, as the Archbishop of Esztergom, was loyal to Stephen III and considered Ladislaus an usurper.
Archbishop Lucas was arrested and imprisoned in return. According to the chronicle of Henry of Mügeln, Ladislaus granted one-third of the kingdom to his brother and the title of duke. Kinnamos wrote that Ladislaus granted the title urum to his brother as "among the Hungarians, this name means he who will succeed to the royal authority". Ladislaus attempted to reconcile himself with his opponents and released Archbishop Lucas at Christmas upon the request of Pope Alexander III. However, the Archbishop did not yield to him and continued to support Stephen III, who had returned to Hungary and captured Pressburg. Ladislaus did not attack his nephew in Pressburg, but again imprisoned Archbishop Lucas. Ladislaus "usurped the crown for half a year", according to the Illuminated Chronicle and died on 14 January 1163, he was buried in the Székesfehérvár Basilica. Ladislaus seems to have been a widower when he arrived in Constantinople in about 1160, but both the name of his wife and her family are unknown.
Ladislaus "could have married a woman of royal blood" according to Choniates. However, continues Choniates, Ladislaus "refrained
The Tatars are a Turkic-speaking people living in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries. The name Tatar first appears in written form on the Kul Tigin monument as; the term Tatars was applied to anyone originating from the vast Northern and Central Asian landmass known as the Tartary, dominated by various Turco-Mongol semi-nomadic empires and kingdoms. More however, the term refers more narrowly to people who speak one of the Turkic languages; the Mongol Empire, established under Genghis Khan in 1206, allied with the Tatars. Under the leadership of Genghis Khan's grandson Batu Khan, the Mongols moved westwards, driving with them many of the Mongol tribes toward the plains of Kievan Rus'; the "Tatar" clan still exists among the Mongols and Uzbeks. The largest group by far that the Russians have called "Tatars" are the Volga Tatars, native to the Volga region, who for this reason are also known as "Tatars", they compose 53% of population in Tatarstan. Their language is known as the Tatar language.
As of 2002 they had an estimated population around 5 million in Russia as a whole. There is a common belief that Russians and Tatars are intermingled, illustrated by the famous saying "scratch any Russian just a little and you will discover a Tatar underneath" and the fact that a number of noble families in Tsardom of Russia and Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth had Tatar origins. In modern-day Tatarstan, Russian-Tatar marriages are common. Owing to their diverse heritage, Tatars have a vast range of appearances, ranging from East Asian to European; the name "Tatar" originated amongst the nomadic Mongolic-speaking Tatar confederation in the north-eastern Gobi desert in the 5th century. The name "Tatar" was first recorded on the Orkhon inscriptions: Kul Tigin and Bilge Khagan monuments as:: Otuz Tatar Bodun and: Tokuz Tatar referring to the Tatar confederation. "Tatar" became a name for populations of the former Golden Horde in Europe, such as those of the former Kazan, Astrakhan and Siberian Khanates.
The form "Tartar" has its origins in either Latin or French, coming to Western European languages from Turkish and the Persian language. From the beginning, the extra r was present in the Western forms, according to the Oxford English Dictionary this was most due to an association with Tartarus; the Persian word is first recorded in the 13th century in reference to the hordes of Genghis Khan and is of unknown origin, according to OED "said to be" from tata, a name of the Mongols for themselves. The Arabic word for Tatars is تتار. Tatars themselves wrote their name as تاتار or طاطار; the Chinese term for Tatars was Dada 韃靼 after the end of the Yuan period, but recorded as a term for Mongolian-speaking peoples of the northern steppes during the Tang period. The name "Tatars" was used as an alternative term for the Shiwei, a nomadic confederation to which these Tatar people belonged. Russians and Europeans used the name Tatar to denote Mongols as well as Turkic peoples under Mongol rule, it applied to any Turkic or Mongolic-speaking people encountered by Russians.
However, the name became associated with the Turkic Muslims of Ukraine and Russia, namely the descendants of Muslim Volga Bulgars, Kipchaks and Turkicized Mongols or Turko-Mongols, as well as other Turkic-speaking peoples in the territory of the former Russian Empire. Nowadays Tatar is used to refer to the people, but Tartar is still always used for derived terms such as tartar sauce, steak tartare, the Tartar missile. All Turkic peoples living within the Russian Empire were named Tatar; some of these populations still use Tatar as a self-designation, others do not. Kipchak groups Kipchak–Bulgar branch, or "Tatar" in the narrow sense Volga Tatars Astrakhan Tatars Lipka Tatars Kipchak–Cuman branch Crimean Tatars Karachays and Balkars: Mountain Tatars Kumyks: Daghestan Tatars Kipchak–Nogai branch: Nogais: Nogai Tatars, includes the Karagash subgroup of Nogais—Kundrov Tatars Siberian branch: Siberian Tatars Altay people: Altay Tatars, including the Tubalar or Chernevo Tatars Chulyms or Chulym Tatars Khakas people: Yenisei Tatars, still use the Tatar designation Shors: Kuznetsk Tatars Oghuz branch Azerbaijani people: Caucasus Tatars The name Tatar is an endonym to a number of peoples of Siberia and Russian Far East, namely the Khakas people.
As various nomadic groups became part of Genghis Khan's army in the early 13th century, a fusion of Mongol and Turkic elements took place, the invaders of Rus' and the Pannonian Basin became known to Europeans as Tatars or Tartars. After the breakup of the Mongol Empire, the Tatars became identified with the western part of the empire, known as the Golden Horde; the various Tatar khanates of the early modern period represent the remnants of the breakup of the Golden Horde and of its successor, the Great Horde. These include: the Khanate of Kazan, conquered by the Tsardom of Russia in 1552.
Miroslav of Hum
Miroslav Zavidović was a 12th-century Great Prince of Zachumlia from 1162 to 1190, an administrative division of the Grand Principality of Serbia covering Herzegovina and southern Dalmatia. He was born in the second half of the 12th century to Zavida, a Serbian royal that ruled as Prince of Zahumlje, a member of the Vojislavljević dynasty, he had three brothers. Miroslav received the appanage of Zahumlje with seat at Ston, where he would rule as Prince or Grand Prince. Miroslav and his brothers imprisoned Stefan Nemanja after he had built several monasteries, without the approval of Tihomir. Stefan Nemanja rebelled against his eldest brother Tihomir in 1166, who fled with his brothers Stracimir and Miroslav to Greece to seek help. In the same year, Stefan Nemanja defeated the Byzantine army of mercenaries near the town of Pantino on Kosovo in which Tihomir drowned in the River of Sitnica. Miroslav and his brothers were stripped of their titles and the unifification of title is evident as Stefan Nemanja was named "Ruler of All Serbia", Nemanja pardoned his brothers and they continued to rule their lands under him.
He built the Monastery of Saint Peter on Lim. He married a sister of Ban Kulin of Bosnia. Following the death of Emperor Manuel, Miroslav put the Narentine Kačić family under his protection, the orchestrators in the murder of Rajneri, Bishop of Split and kept the Bishopric's money for himself reluctant to allow Catholicism prosper in his region which made him excommunicated by the Papacy in 1181, as a gesture, the Bishop of Ston abandoned his seat and since the Bishopric of Ston has remained vacant. In 1184, Miroslav went to retake the islands of Vis. On 18 August 1184 Miroslav's fleet was devastated by the Ragusian navy at Poljice near Koločep, signed peace with the Dubrovnik Republic, he channelled the order to Prince Stracimir. In 1185, Prince Stracimir raided Vis with the fleet of Doclea, he joined the war against the Republic of Ragusa, but was forced to withdraw because Miroslav made peace by the time Stracimir marshaled his forces. The same year the Byzantines launched a counter-attack on Serbia, but a Bulgarian uprising was raised in the Danubian areas which made the offensive get called-off, so Duke Stefan Nemanja utilized the situation and conquered Timok with Niš and sacked Svrljig, Ravno and Koželj.
While Stefan Nemanja held Niš, it served as his base of operations. Miroslav was at war with Dubrovnik in 1185, the peace in 1186 was followed by cordial relationship between the two until his death; the treaty that ended the dispute of Korčula was signed by the Normans and Serbs on 27 September 1186, by Stefan Nemanja and Miroslav. Hum renounced its claims on Vis. In 1190-1192, Stefan Nemanja assigned the rule of Hum to his son Rastko Nemanjić, meanwhile Miroslav held the Lim region with Bijelo Polje, Rastko however took monastic vows and Miroslav continued ruling Hum after 1192; when Stefan Nemanja besieged and retook the power of Duklja in 1180s, Stracimir and Miroslav attacked the forces of Doclean ruler Mihailo. He died in 1198 of old age, his son Toljen succeeded him as Prince of Hum ca 1192-1196, he had two sons with the sister of Ban Kulin. It is thought he had one more son, called Petar Miroslavljević, although this is not determined. Miroslav's Gospel, the oldest known document written in Serbian in Cyrillic, was commissioned by and written in his honour.
Among his foundations is the Saints Peter and Paul Church in Bijelo Polje, on the Lim river, to which he gave 20 villages. Fine, John Van Antwerp; the Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-08260-5. Стеван Немања Владимир Ћоровић - Историја српског народа, Rastko.rs Marković, Miodrag. "On the donor’s inscription of Prince Miroslav in the Church of St. Peter on the Lim." Zograf 36: 21-46
The Bosnian Church was a Christian church in medieval Bosnia, independent of and considered heretical by the dominant Nicene Christian churches, namely the Roman Catholic and the Eastern Orthodox. Historians traditionally connected the church with the Bogomils. However, the Bogomilism theory was rejected. Adherents of the church called themselves krstjani; the church's organization and beliefs are poorly understood, because few if any records were left by church members, the church is known from the writings of outside sources Roman Catholic ones. Today, the prevailing opinion is that it was the church of the Eastern rite with few heretic elements. Christian missions emanating from Rome and Constantinople started pushing into the Balkans in the 9th century, Christianizing the South Slavs and establishing boundaries between the ecclesiastical jurisdictions of the See of Rome and the See of Constantinople; the East–West Schism led to the establishment of Roman Catholicism in Croatia and most of Dalmatia, while Eastern Orthodoxy came to prevail in Raška and Bosnia.
Lying in-between, the mountainous Bosnia was nominally under Rome, but Catholicism never became established due to a weak church organization and poor communications. Medieval Bosnia thus remained a "no-man's land between faiths" rather than a meeting ground between the two denominations, leading to a unique religious history and the emergence of an "independent and somewhat heretical church". Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy predominated in different parts of what is today Bosnia and Herzegovina; this changed in the mid-13th century. While Bosnia remained nominally Catholic in the High Middle Ages but in reality eastern church rite with some heretic elements, the Bishop of Bosnia was a local cleric chosen by locals and sent to the Archbishop of Ragusa for ordination. Although the Papacy insisted on using Latin as the liturgical language, Bosnian Christians retained Church Slavonic language. Like other Eastern churches. Vukan, ruler of Dioclea, wrote to Pope Innocent III in 1199 that Kulin, ruler of Bosnia, had become a heretic, along with his wife, other relatives and 10.000 other Bosnians.
The Archbishop of Spalato, vying for control over Bosnia, joined Vukan and accused the Archbishop of Ragusa of neglecting his suffragan diocese in Bosnia. Emeric, King of Hungary and supporter of Spalato seized this opportunity to try to extend his influence over Bosnia. Further accusations against Kulin, such as harbouring heretics, ensued until 1202. In 1203, Kulin moved to defuse the threat of foreign intervention. A synod was held at his instigation on 6 April. Following the Abjuration of Bilino Polje, Kulin succeeded in keeping the Bosnian diocese under the Ragusan archdiocese, thus limiting Hungarian influence; the errors abjured by the Bosnians in Bilino Polje seem to have been errors of practice, stemming from ignorance, rather than heretical doctrines. The bid to consolidate Roman Catholic rule in Bosnia in the 12th to 13th centuries proved difficult; the banate of Bosnia held strict trade relations with the Republic of Ragusa, Bosnia's bishop was under the jurisdiction of Ragusa. This was disputed by the Hungarians, who tried to achieve their jurisdiction over Bosnia's bishops, but Bosnia's first ban Kulin averted that.
In order to conduct a crusade against him, the Hungarians took to Rome, complaining to Pope Innocent III that the Kingdom of Bosnia was a centre of heresy, based on the refuge that some Cathars had found there. To avert the Hungarian attack, ban Kulin held a public assembly on 8 April 1203 and affirmed his loyalty to Rome in the presence of an envoy of the People, while the faithful abjured their mistakes and committed to following the Roman Catholic doctrine. Yet, in practice this was ignored. On the death of Kulin in 1216 a mission failed. On 15 May 1225 Pope Honorius III spurred the Hungarians to undertake the Bosnian Crusade; that expedition, like the previous ones, turned into a defeat, the Hungarians had to retreat when the Mongols invaded their territories. In 1234, the Catholic Bishop of Bosnia was removed by Pope Gregory IX for allowing heretical practices. In addition, Gregory called on the Hungarian king to crusade against the heretics in Bosnia. However, Bosnian nobles were able to expel the Hungarians once again.
In 1252, Pope Innocent IV decided to put Bosnia's bishop under the Hungarian Kalocsa jurisdiction. This decision provoked the schism of the Bosnian Christians, who refused to submit to the Hungarians and broke off their relations with Rome. In that way, an autonomous Bosnian Church came into being, in which many scholars saw a Bogomil or Cathar church, whilst more recent scholars such as Noel Malcolm and John Fine maintain that no trace of Bogomilism, Catharism or other dualism can be found in the original documents of the Bosnian Christians, it was not until Pope Nicholas' Bull Prae cunctis in 1291 that the Franciscan-led inquisition was imposed on Bosnia. Bogomilism was eradicated in Bulgaria and Byzantium in the 13th century, but survived in Bosnia and Herzegovina until the Ottoman Empire gained control of the region in 1463; the Bosnian Church coexisted with the Catholic Church for most of the late Middle Ages, but no accurate figures exist as to the num
Eastern Orthodox Church
The Eastern Orthodox Church the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian church, with 200–260 million members. It operates as a communion of autocephalous churches, each governed by its bishops in local synods, although half of Eastern Orthodox Christians live in Russia; the church has no central doctrinal or governmental authority analogous to the Bishop of Rome, but the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople is recognised by all as primus inter pares of the bishops. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, the Eastern Orthodox Church has played a prominent role in the history and culture of Eastern and Southeastern Europe, the Caucasus, the Near East. Eastern Orthodox theology is based on the Nicene Creed; the church teaches that it is the One, Holy and Apostolic church established by Jesus Christ in his Great Commission, that its bishops are the successors of Christ's apostles. It maintains, its patriarchates, reminiscent of the pentarchy, autocephalous and autonomous churches reflect a variety of hierarchical organisation.
Of its innumerable sacred mysteries, it recognises seven major sacraments, of which the Eucharist is the principal one, celebrated liturgically in synaxis. The church teaches that through consecration invoked by a priest, the sacrificial bread and wine become the body and blood of Christ; the Virgin Mary is venerated in the Eastern Orthodox Church as the God-bearer, honoured in devotions. The Eastern Orthodox Church shared communion with the Roman Catholic Church until the East–West Schism in 1054, triggered by disputes over doctrine the authority of the Pope. Before the Council of Chalcedon in AD 451, the Oriental Orthodox churches shared in this communion, separating over differences in Christology; the majority of Eastern Orthodox Christians live in Southeast and Eastern Europe, Cyprus and other communities in the Caucasus region, communities in Siberia reaching the Russian Far East. There are smaller communities in the former Byzantine regions of the Eastern Mediterranean, in the Middle East where it is decreasing due to persecution.
There are many in other parts of the world, formed through diaspora and missionary activity. In keeping with the church's teaching on universality and with the Nicene Creed, Orthodox authorities such as Saint Raphael of Brooklyn have insisted that the full name of the church has always included the term "Catholic", as in "Holy Orthodox Catholic Apostolic Church"; the official name of the Eastern Orthodox Church is the "Orthodox Catholic Church". It is the name by which the church refers to itself in its liturgical or canonical texts, in official publications, in official contexts or administrative documents. Orthodox teachers refer to the church as Catholic; this name and longer variants containing "Catholic" are recognised and referenced in other books and publications by secular or non-Orthodox writers. The common name of the church, "Eastern Orthodox Church", is a shortened practicality that helps to avoid confusions in casual use. From ancient times through the first millennium, Greek was the most prevalent shared language in the demographic regions where the Byzantine Empire flourished, Greek, being the language in which the New Testament was written, was the primary liturgical language of the church.
For this reason, the eastern churches were sometimes identified as "Greek" before the Great Schism of 1054. After 1054, "Greek Orthodox" or "Greek Catholic" marked a church as being in communion with Constantinople, much as "Catholic" did for communion with Rome; this identification with Greek, became confusing with time. Missionaries brought Orthodoxy to many regions without ethnic Greeks, where the Greek language was not spoken. In addition, struggles between Rome and Constantinople to control parts of Southeastern Europe resulted in the conversion of some churches to Rome, which also used "Greek Catholic" to indicate their continued use of the Byzantine rites. Today, many of those same churches remain, while a large number of Orthodox are not of Greek national origin, do not use Greek as the language of worship. "Eastern" indicates the geographical element in the Church's origin and development, while "Orthodox" indicates the faith, as well as communion with the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople.
There are additional Christian churches in the east that are in communion with neither Rome nor Constantinople, who tend to be distinguished by the category named "Oriental Orthodox". While the church continues to call itself "Catholic", for reasons of universality, the common title of "Eastern Orthodox Church" avoids casual confusion with the Roman Catholic Church; the first known use of the phrase "the catholic Church" occurred in a letter written about 110 AD from one Greek church to another. The letter states: "Wheresoever the bishop shall appear, there let the people be as where Jesus may be, there is the universal Church." Thus from the beginning, Christians referred to the Church as the "One, Holy and Apostolic Church". The Eastern Orthodox Church claims that it is today the continuation and preservation of that same early Church. A number of other Christian churches make a similar claim: the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, the Assyrian Church and the Oriental Orthodox.
In the Eastern Orthodox v
Croatia the Republic of Croatia, is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Slovenia to the northwest, Hungary to the northeast, Serbia to the east and Herzegovina, Montenegro to the southeast, sharing a maritime border with Italy, its capital, forms one of the country's primary subdivisions, along with twenty counties. Croatia has an area of 56,594 square kilometres and a population of 4.28 million, most of whom are Roman Catholics. Inhabited since the Paleolithic Age, the Croats arrived in the area in the 6th century and organised the territory into two duchies by the 9th century. Croatia was first internationally recognized as an independent state on 7 June 879 during the reign of duke Branimir. Tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom, which retained its sovereignty for nearly two centuries. During the succession crisis after the Trpimirović dynasty ended, Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102.
In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of Austria to the Croatian throne. In October 1918, in the final days of World War I, the State of Slovenes and Serbs, independent from Austria-Hungary, was proclaimed in Zagreb, in December 1918 it was merged into the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. Following the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, most of the Croatian territory was incorporated into the Nazi-backed client-state which led to the development of a resistance movement and the creation of the Federal State of Croatia which after the war become a founding member and a federal constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991, Croatia declared independence, which came wholly into effect on 8 October of the same year; the Croatian War of Independence was fought for four years following the declaration. The sovereign state of Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system and a developed country with a high standard of living.
It is a member of the European Union, the United Nations, the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization, a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean. As an active participant in the UN peacekeeping forces, Croatia has contributed troops to the NATO-led mission in Afghanistan and took a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2008–2009 term. Since 2000, the Croatian government has invested in infrastructure transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors. Croatia's economy is dominated by service and industrial sectors and agriculture. Tourism is a significant source of revenue, with Croatia ranked among the top 20 most popular tourist destinations in the world; the state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union is Croatia's most important trading partner. Croatia provides a social security, universal health care system, a tuition-free primary and secondary education, while supporting culture through numerous public institutions and corporate investments in media and publishing.
The name of Croatia derives from Medieval Latin Croātia. Itself a derivation of North-West Slavic *Xrovat-, by liquid metathesis from Common Slavic period *Xorvat, from proposed Proto-Slavic *Xъrvátъ which comes from Old Persian *xaraxwat-; the word is attested by the Old Iranian toponym Harahvait-, the native name of Arachosia. The origin of the name is uncertain, but is thought to be a Gothic or Indo-Aryan term assigned to a Slavic tribe; the oldest preserved record of the Croatian ethnonym *xъrvatъ is of variable stem, attested in the Baška tablet in style zvъnъmirъ kralъ xrъvatъskъ. The first attestation of the Latin term is attributed to a charter of Duke Trpimir from the year 852; the original is lost, just a 1568 copy is preserved, leading to doubts over the authenticity of the claim. The oldest preserved stone inscription is the 9th-century Branimir Inscription found near Benkovac, where Duke Branimir is styled Dux Cruatorvm; the inscription is not believed to be dated but is to be from during the period of 879–892, during Branimir's rule.
The area known as Croatia today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric period. Fossils of Neanderthals dating to the middle Palaeolithic period have been unearthed in northern Croatia, with the most famous and the best presented site in Krapina. Remnants of several Neolithic and Chalcolithic cultures were found in all regions of the country; the largest proportion of the sites is in the river valleys of northern Croatia, the most significant cultures whose presence was discovered include Baden, Starčevo, Vučedol cultures. The Iron Age left traces of the Celtic La Tène culture. Much the region was settled by Illyrians and Liburnians, while the first Greek colonies were established on the islands of Hvar, Korčula, Vis. In 9 AD the territory of today's Croatia became part of the Roman Empire. Emperor Diocletian had a large palace built in Split to which he retired after his abdication in AD 305. During the 5th century, the last de jure Western emperor last Western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos ruled his small realm from the palace after fleeing Italy to go into exile in 475.
The period ends with Avar and Croat invasions in the first half of the 7th century and destruction of all Roman towns. Roman survivors retreated to more favourable sites on the coast and mountains; the city of Dubrovnik was founded by such survivors from Epidaurum. The ethnogenesis of Croats is uncertain an
Heresy is any belief or theory, at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization. A heretic is a proponent of such beliefs. Heresy is distinct from both apostasy, the explicit renunciation of one's religion, principles or cause, blasphemy, an impious utterance or action concerning God or sacred things; the term is used to refer to violations of important religious teachings, but is used of views opposed to any accepted ideas. It is used in particular in reference to Christianity and Islam. In certain historical Christian and Jewish cultures, among others, espousing ideas deemed heretical has been and in some cases still is met with censure ranging from excommunication to the death penalty; the term heresy, from Greek αἵρεσις meant "choice" or "thing chosen", but it came to mean the "party or school of a man's choice" and referred to that process whereby a young person would examine various philosophies to determine how to live.
The word "heresy" is used within a Christian, Jewish, or Islamic context, implies different meanings in each. The founder or leader of a heretical movement is called a heresiarch, while individuals who espouse heresy or commit heresy are known as heretics. Heresiology is the study of heresy. According to Titus 3:10 a divisive person should be warned twice before separating from him; the Greek for the phrase "divisive person" became a technical term in the early Church for a type of "heretic" who promoted dissension. In contrast correct teaching is called sound not only because it builds up the faith, but because it protects it against the corrupting influence of false teachers; the Church Fathers identified Judaism with heresy. They saw deviations from orthodox Christianity as heresies that were Jewish in spirit. Tertullian implied that it was the Jews who most inspired heresy in Christianity: "From the Jew the heretic has accepted guidance in this discussion " The use of the word "heresy" was given wide currency by Irenaeus in his 2nd century tract Contra Haereses to describe and discredit his opponents during the early centuries of the Christian community.
He described the community's beliefs and doctrines as orthodox and the Gnostics' teachings as heretical. He pointed out the concept of apostolic succession to support his arguments. Constantine the Great, who along with Licinius had decreed toleration of Christianity in the Roman Empire by what is called the "Edict of Milan", was the first Roman Emperor baptized, set precedents for policy. By Roman law the Emperor was Pontifex Maximus, the high priest of the College of Pontiffs of all recognized religions in ancient Rome. To put an end to the doctrinal debate initiated by Arius, Constantine called the first of what would afterwards be called the ecumenical councils and enforced orthodoxy by Imperial authority; the first known usage of the term in a legal context was in AD 380 by the Edict of Thessalonica of Theodosius I, which made Christianity the state church of the Roman Empire. Prior to the issuance of this edict, the Church had no state-sponsored support for any particular legal mechanism to counter what it perceived as "heresy".
By this edict the state's authority and that of the Church became somewhat overlapping. One of the outcomes of this blurring of Church and state was the sharing of state powers of legal enforcement with church authorities; this reinforcement of the Church's authority gave church leaders the power to, in effect, pronounce the death sentence upon those whom the church considered heretical. Within six years of the official criminalization of heresy by the Emperor, the first Christian heretic to be executed, was condemned in 386 by Roman secular officials for sorcery, put to death with four or five followers. However, his accusers were excommunicated both by Ambrose of Milan and Pope Siricius, who opposed Priscillian's heresy, but "believed capital punishment to be inappropriate at best and unequivocally evil"; the edict of Theodosius II provided severe punishments for those who had or spread writings of Nestorius. Those who possessed writings of Arius were sentenced to death. For some years after the Reformation, Protestant churches were known to execute those they considered heretics, including Catholics.
The last known heretic executed by sentence of the Catholic Church was Spanish schoolmaster Cayetano Ripoll in 1826. The number of people executed as heretics under the authority of the various "ecclesiastical authorities" is not known. In the Catholic Church and willful manifest heresy is considered to spiritually cut one off from the Church before excommunication is incurred; the Codex Justinianus defines "everyone, not devoted to the Catholic Church and to our Orthodox holy Faith" a heretic. The Church had always dealt harshly with strands of Christianity that it considered heretical, but before the 11th century these tended to centre on individual preachers or small localised sects, like Arianism, Donatism and Montanism; the diffusion of the Manichaean sect of Paulicians westwards gave birth to the famous 11th and 12th century heresies of Western Europe. The first one was that of Bogomils in modern-day Bosnia, a sort of sanctuary between Eastern and Western Christianity. By the 11th century, more organised groups such as the Patarini, the Dulcinians, the Waldensians and the Cathars were beginning to appear in the towns and cities of northern Italy, southern France and Flanders.
In France the Cathars gr