Metallica is an American heavy metal band. The band was formed in 1981 in Los Angeles, California by drummer Lars Ulrich and vocalist/guitarist James Hetfield, has been based in San Francisco, California for most of its career; the group's fast tempos and aggressive musicianship made them one of the founding "big four" bands of thrash metal, alongside Megadeth and Slayer. Metallica's current lineup comprises founding members Hetfield and Ulrich, longtime lead guitarist Kirk Hammett and bassist Robert Trujillo. Guitarist Dave Mustaine and bassists Ron McGovney, Cliff Burton and Jason Newsted are former members of the band. Metallica earned a growing fan base in the underground music community and won critical acclaim with its first five albums; the band's third album, Master of Puppets, was described as one of the heaviest and most influential thrash metal albums. After experimenting with different genres and directions in subsequent releases, the band returned to its thrash metal roots with the release of its ninth album, Death Magnetic, which drew similar praise to that of the band's earlier albums.
In 2000, Metallica led the case against the peer-to-peer file sharing service Napster, in which the band and several other artists filed lawsuits against the service for sharing their copyright-protected material without consent. Metallica was the subject of the acclaimed 2004 documentary film Some Kind of Monster, which documented the troubled production of the band's eighth album, St. Anger, the internal struggles within the band at the time. In 2009, Metallica was inducted into the Roll Hall of Fame; the band wrote the screenplay for and starred in the 2013 IMAX concert film Metallica: Through the Never, in which the band performed live against a fictional thriller storyline. Metallica has released ten studio albums, four live albums, a cover album, five extended plays, 37 singles and 39 music videos; the band has won nine Grammy Awards from 23 nominations, its last six studio albums have consecutively debuted at number one on the Billboard 200. Metallica ranks as one of the most commercially successful bands of all time, having sold over 125 million albums worldwide as of 2018.
Metallica has been listed as one of the greatest artists of all time by magazines such as Rolling Stone, which ranked them at no. 61 on its 100 Greatest Artists of All Time list. As of 2017, Metallica is the third best-selling music artist since Nielsen SoundScan began tracking sales in 1991, selling a total of 58 million albums in the United States. Metallica was formed in Los Angeles, California, in late 1981 when Danish-born drummer Lars Ulrich placed an advertisement in a Los Angeles newspaper, The Recycler, which read, "Drummer looking for other metal musicians to jam with Tygers of Pan Tang, Diamond Head and Iron Maiden." Guitarists James Hetfield and Hugh Tanner of Leather Charm answered the advertisement. Although he had not formed a band, Ulrich asked Metal Blade Records founder Brian Slagel if he could record a song for the label's upcoming compilation album, Metal Massacre. Slagel accepted, Ulrich recruited Hetfield to sing and play rhythm guitar; the band was formed on October 28, 1981, five months after Ulrich and Hetfield first met.
The bandname came from Ulrich's friend Ron Quintana, brainstorming names for a fanzine and was considering MetalMania or Metallica. Dave Mustaine replied to an advert for a lead guitarist. In early 1982, Metallica recorded its first original song, "Hit the Lights", for the Metal Massacre I compilation. Hetfield played bass,rhythm guitar and sang while Lloyd Grant was credited with a guitar solo and Lars Ulrich played drums. Metal Massacre I was released on June 14, 1982; the song generated word of mouth and the band played its first live performance on March 14, 1982, at Radio City in Anaheim, with newly recruited bassist Ron McGovney. Their first live success came early; this was Metallica's second gig. Metallica recorded its first demo, Power Metal, whose name was inspired by Quintana's early business cards in early 1982; the term "thrash metal" was coined in February 1984 by Kerrang! journalist Malcolm Dome in reference to Anthrax's song "Metal Thrashing Mad". Prior to this, Hetfield referred to Metallica's sound as "power metal".
In late 1982, Ulrich and Hetfield attended a show at the West Hollywood nightclub Whisky a Go Go, which featured bassist Cliff Burton in the band Trauma. The two were "asked him to join Metallica. Hetfield and Mustaine wanted McGovney to leave because they thought he "didn't contribute anything, he just followed". Although Burton declined the offer, by the end of the year, he had accepted on the condition the band move to El Cerrito in the San Francisco Bay Area. Metallica's first live performance with Burton was at the nightclub The Stone in March 1983, the first recording to feature Burton was the Megaforce demo. Metallica was ready to record their debut album, but when Metal Blade was unable to cover the cost, they began looking for other options. Concert promoter Johny "Z" Zazula, who had heard the
An electronic keyboard or digital keyboard is an electronic musical instrument, an electronic or digital derivative of keyboard instruments. Broadly speaking, the term electronic keyboard or just a keyboard can refer to any type of digital or electronic keyboard instrument; these include synthesizers, digital pianos, stage pianos, electronic organs and digital audio workstations. However, an electronic keyboard is more a synthesizer with a built-in low-wattage power amplifier and small loudspeakers. Electronic keyboards are capable of recreating a wide range of instrument sounds and synthesizer tones with less complex sound synthesis. Electronic keyboards are designed for home users and other non-professional users, they have unweighted keys. The least expensive models mid - to high-priced models do. Home keyboards have little, if any, digital sound editing capacity; the user selects from a range of preset "voices" or sounds, which include imitations of many instruments and some electronic synthesizer sounds.
Home keyboards have a much lower cost than professional synthesizers. Casio and Yamaha are among the leading manufacturers of home keyboards. An electronic keyboard may be called a digital keyboard, portable keyboard, or home keyboard referring to their digital-based sound generation, light-weight and portable build. In China, Japan and Southeast Asia, electronic keyboards were mistakenly referred to as an organ, due to popularity of home electronic organs in those countries and keyboards/synthesizers being considered a similar instrument. In Russia, most kinds of keyboards were often referred to as a synthesizer with no other term to distinguish them from actual digital synthesizers; the term electronic keyboard may be used to refer to a synthesizer or digital piano on colloquial usage. The major components of a typical modern electronic keyboard are: Musical keyboard: The white and black piano-style keys which the player presses, thus connecting the switches, which trigger the electronic circuits to generate sound.
Most keyboards use a keyboard matrix circuit to reduce the amount of wiring necessary. Electronic keyboards use unweighted synthesizer-style keys to save costs and reduce the weight of the instrument. In contrast, stage piano and digital pianos have weighted or semi-weighted keys, which replicate the feel of an acoustic piano. User interface system: A program which handles user interaction with controllers such as the musical keyboard and buttons; these controllers enable the user to select different instrument sounds, digital effects, other features. The user interface system includes an LCD screen that gives the user information about the synthesized sound she has selected and on tempo, effects that are activated and other features. Computerized musical arranger: A software program which produces rhythms and chords by the means of computerized commands MIDI. Electronic hardware can do this. Most computerized arrangers can play a selection of rhythms. Sound generator: A digital sound module contained within an integrated Read-only memory, capable of accepting MIDI commands and producing electronic sounds.
Electronic keyboards incorporate sample-based synthesis, but more advanced keyboards might sometimes feature physical modeling synthesis. Amplifier and speakers: an internal audio power amplifier a few watts, connected to the sound generator chip; the amplifier is connected to small, low-powered speakers that reproduce the synthesized sounds so that the listener can hear them. Less expensive instruments may have a single mono speaker. More expensive models may have two speakers producing stereo sound. Power supply: Keyboards may or may not have an internal power supply system built to the main circuit board, but most modern keyboards are equipped with an included AC adapter. MIDI terminals: Most keyboards incorporate 5-pin MIDI connections for data communication so the keyboard can be connected with either a computer or another electronic musical instrument, such as a synthesizer, a drum machine or a sound module, allowing it to be used as a MIDI controller. Not all keyboards have conventional MIDI terminals and connector.
The least expensive models may have no MIDI connections. Post-2000s keyboards may have a USB instead, which serve as both input and output in a single connection. In the 2010s, conventional MIDI in/out terminals are only available in professional-grade keyboards, stage pianos and high-end synthesizers, while low-cost home keyboards, digital pianos, budget synthesizers use USB as the only connection available. Flash memory: Some electronic keyboards have a small amount of onboard memory for storing MIDI data and/or recorded songs. External storage device: Usually available on professional-grade keyboards and synthesizers, this allows the user to store data in externally connected storage media such as ROM cartridges, floppy disks, memory cards and USB flash drives. Floppy disks and cartridges were obsolete by the early 2000s, with memory cards starting to replace them shortly afterwards. USB storage was less common at the time, but was popularized by Yamaha's lineup of workstation keyboards in 2005 and has become a standard feature since.
Rush was a Canadian rock band made up of Geddy Lee, Alex Lifeson, Neil Peart. Formed in 1968, the band went through several configurations until arriving at its longest and most popular line-up when Peart replaced original drummer John Rutsey in July 1974, two weeks before the group's first tour of the United States. Rush is known for its musicianship, complex compositions, eclectic lyrical motifs drawing on science fiction and philosophy; the band's musical style has changed several times over the years, from a blues-inspired hard rock beginning moving into progressive rock, including a period marked by heavy use of synthesizers. In the early 1990s, Rush returned to a guitar-driven hard rock sound, which continued for the rest of their career. Rush announced plans to cease large-scale touring at the end of 2015. After nearly three years of an uncertain future, Lifeson reluctantly announced in January 2018 that the band had dissolved. According to the RIAA, Rush ranks 86th with sales of 25 million units in the U.
S. Although total worldwide album sales are not calculated by any single entity, several industry sources estimated Rush's total worldwide album sales at over 40 million units as of 2017; the group has been awarded 24 gold, 14 platinum, 3 multi-platinum albums. Rush has received nominations for seven Grammy Awards; the band has won several Juno Awards, won an International Achievement Award at the 2009 SOCAN Awards, was inducted into the Canadian Music Hall of Fame in 1994 and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2013. Over their careers, the members of Rush have been acknowledged as some of the most proficient players on their respective instruments, with each band member winning numerous awards in magazine readers' polls; the original line-up formed in the neighbourhood of Willowdale in Toronto, Ontario, by guitarist Alex Lifeson and front man Jeff Jones, drummer John Rutsey on September 18, 1968. Within a couple of weeks of forming, before their second performance and lead vocalist Jones left the band and was replaced by Geddy Lee, a schoolmate of Lifeson.
Their first gigs took place at the Coff-Inn, a youth centre in the basement of St. Theodore of Canterbury Anglican Church in North York. After several line-up reformations, Rush's official incarnation formed in May 1971 consisting of Lee and Rutsey; the name "Rush" was suggested by Bill. The band was managed by local Toronto resident Ray Danniels, a frequent attendee of Rush's early shows. After gaining stability in the line-up and honing their skills on the local bar and high school dance circuit, the band members released their first single "Not Fade Away", a cover of the Buddy Holly song, in 1973. Side B contained an original composition, "You Can't Fight It", credited to Rutsey; the single generated little reaction and, because of record company indifference, the band formed their own independent label, Moon Records. With the assistance of Danniels and the newly enlisted engineer Terry Brown, the band released its self-titled debut album in 1974, considered derivative of Led Zeppelin. Rush had limited local popularity until the album was picked up by WMMS, a radio station in Cleveland, Ohio.
Donna Halper, a music director and DJ working at the station, selected "Working Man" for her regular playlist. The song's blue-collar theme resonated with hard rock fans, this newfound popularity led to the album being re-released by Mercury Records in the U. S. After the release of the debut album, Rutsey left the band due to health difficulties stemming from diabetes and his distaste for touring, his last performance with the band was on July 1974, at Centennial Hall in London, Ontario. Rush selected Neil Peart as Rutsey's replacement. Peart joined the band on July 29, 1974, two weeks before the group's first US tour, they performed their first concert together, opening for Uriah Heep and Manfred Mann with an attendance of over 11,000 people at the Civic Arena in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on August 14. In addition to becoming the band's drummer, Peart assumed the role of principal lyricist from Lee, who had little interest in writing, despite having penned the lyrics of the band's first album.
Lee and Lifeson focused on the instrumental aspects of Rush. Fly by Night, Rush's first album after recruiting Peart, saw the inclusion of the band's first epic mini-tale "By-Tor and the Snow Dog", replete with complex arrangements and a multi-section format. Lyrical themes underwent dramatic changes because of Peart's love for fantasy and science-fiction literature. Despite these many differences, some of the music and songs still mirrored the blues style found on Rush's debut; the band followed Fly by Night with Caress of Steel, a five-track album featuring two extended multi-chapter songs, "The Necromancer" and "The Fountain of Lamneth". Some critics said Caress of Steel was unfocused and an audacious move for the band because of the placement of two back-to-back protracted songs, as well as a heavier reliance on atmospherics and story-telling, a large deviation from Fly by Night. Intended to be the band's break-through album, Caress of Steel sold below expectations and the promotional tour consisted of smaller venues, which led to the moniker the "Down the Tubes Tour".
In light of these events, Rush's record label tried to pressure the members into moulding their next album in a more commercially friendly and accessible fashion. Despite this, the album was the band's first taste of commercial success and their fir
A power trio is a rock and roll band format having a lineup of electric guitar, bass guitar and drum kit, leaving out the second rhythm guitar or keyboard instrument that are used in other rock music bands that are quartets and quintets. Larger rock bands use one or more additional rhythm section to fill out the sound with chords and harmony parts. Most power trios in hard rock and heavy metal music use the electric guitar player in two roles. While one or more band members sing while they play their instruments, power trios in hard rock and heavy metal music emphasize instrumental performance and overall sonic impact over vocals and lyrics. An example of a power trio is Motörhead, which consisted of a bassist and drummer, with Lemmy, the bass guitarist, singing lead vocals while he played bass; the rise of the power trio in the 1960s was made possible in part by developments in amplifier technology that enhanced the volume of the electric guitar and bass. The popularization of the electric bass guitar defined the bottom end and filled in the gaps.
Since the amplified bass could now be louder, the rest of the band could play at higher volumes, without fear of being unable to hear the bass. This allowed a three-person band to have the same sonic impact as a large band but left far more room for improvisation and creativity, unencumbered by the need for detailed arrangements; as with the organ trio, a 1960s-era soul jazz group centered on the amplified Hammond organ, a three-piece group could fill a large bar or club with a big sound for a much lower price than a large rock and roll band. A power trio, at least in its blues rock incarnation, is generally held to have developed out of Chicago-style blues bands such as Muddy Waters' trio. In addition to technological improvements, another impetus for the rise of the power trio was the virtuosity of guitarists such as Eric Clapton, Jimi Hendrix, Rory Gallagher, who could cover both the rhythm guitar and lead guitar roles in a live performance. In 1964, Frank Zappa played guitar in a power trio the Muthers, with Paul Woods on bass and Les Papp on drums.
In 1966, the prototypical blues-rock power trio Cream was formed, consisting of Eric Clapton on guitar/vocals, Jack Bruce on bass/vocals, Ginger Baker on drums. Other influential 1960s-era blues rock/hard rock power trio bands were the Jimi Hendrix Experience, Blue Cheer, Grand Funk Railroad, the James Gang featuring Joe Walsh, Taste. Well-known 1970s-era power trios include the Canadian progressive rock groups Rush and Triumph, the American band ZZ Top, the British heavy metal band Motörhead, Robin Trower. Emerson, Lake & Palmer, while replacing the guitarist by a keyboardist, is considered as a power trio, as Keith Emerson fulfilled the rhythm and lead playing on the keyboards that would fall on the guitarist, while bassist Greg Lake was the vocalist. In 1968, the power trio Manal was formed in Argentina, were the first group that composed blues music in Spanish. After the 1970s, the phrase "power trio" was applied to the new wave group the Police, grunge band Nirvana, post-punk band Hüsker Dü, mod revivalists the Jam, hard rock/progressive metal band King's X, progressive rock band Rush, post-grunge band Silverchair, alternative bands the Presidents of the United States of America, Goo Goo Dolls, Everclear and Eve 6, pop punk bands such as Green Day, Blink-182, Alkaline Trio and MxPx, Argentine rock bands like Soda Stereo and From Power Project.
By the 1990s, rock trios began to form around different instrumentation, from the band Morphine, featuring a baritone saxophone instead of an electric guitar, to Ben Folds Five's replacing the guitar with various keyboards, principally the piano. Organ trio: a three-person soul jazz or jam band group centred on the Hammond organ Power duo: two-piece rock band described as a power trio without the bassist
Green Day is an American rock band formed in 1986 by lead vocalist and guitarist Billie Joe Armstrong and bassist Mike Dirnt. For much of the band's career, they have been a trio with drummer Tré Cool, who replaced John Kiffmeyer in 1990 prior to the recording of the band's second studio album, Kerplunk. Green Day was part of the punk scene at the DIY 924 Gilman Street club in Berkeley, California; the band's early releases were with the independent record label Lookout! Records. In 1994, their major label debut Dookie, released through Reprise Records, became a breakout success and shipped over 10 million copies in the U. S. Green Day is credited alongside fellow California punk bands including Sublime, Bad Religion, The Offspring and Rancid with popularizing mainstream interest in punk rock in the United States. Though Insomniac and Warning, did not match the success of Dookie and Nimrod reached double platinum and Warning achieved gold status. Green Day's seventh album, American Idiot, a rock opera, found popularity with a younger generation, selling six million copies in the U.
S. 21st Century Breakdown was achieved the band's best chart performance. It was followed by a trilogy of albums, ¡Uno!, ¡Dos! and ¡Tré!, released in September and December 2012 respectively. Green Day's twelfth studio album, Revolution Radio, was released on October 7, 2016 and became their third to debut at number one on the Billboard 200. Green Day has sold more than 85 million records worldwide; the group has won five Grammy Awards: Best Alternative Album for Dookie, Best Rock Album for American Idiot, Record of the Year for "Boulevard of Broken Dreams", Best Rock Album for the second time for 21st Century Breakdown and Best Musical Show Album for American Idiot: The Original Broadway Cast Recording. In 2010, a stage adaptation of American Idiot debuted on Broadway; the musical was nominated for three Tony Awards: Best Musical, Best Scenic Design and Best Lighting Design, losing only the first. In the same year, VH1 ranked Green Day 91st in its list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time".
The band was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in their first year of eligibility. In 1986, friends Billie Joe Armstrong and Mike Dirnt, 14 years old at the time, formed a band called Sweet Children; the group's first live performance took place on October 17, 1987, at Rod's Hickory Pit in Vallejo, California. In 1988, Armstrong and Dirnt began working with former Isocracy drummer John Kiffmeyer known as "Al Sobrante". Armstrong cites the band Operation Ivy as a major influence, a group that inspired him to form a band. In 1988, Larry Livermore, owner of Lookout! Records, saw the band signed the group to his label. In 1989, the band recorded its debut extended 1,000 Hours. Before 1,000 Hours was released, the group dropped the name Sweet Children; the band adopted the name Green Day, due to the members' fondness for cannabis. Lookout! Released Green Day's debut studio album, 39/Smooth in early 1990. Green Day recorded two extended plays that year and Sweet Children, the latter of which included older songs that the band had recorded for the Minneapolis independent record label Skene!
Records. In 1991, Lookout! Records re-released 39/Smooth under the name 1,039/Smoothed Out Slappy Hours, added the songs from the band's first two EPs, 1,000 Hours. In late 1990, shortly after the band's first nationwide tour, Kiffmeyer left the East Bay area to attend Humboldt State University in Arcata, California; the Lookouts drummer Tré Cool began filling in as a temporary replacement and Cool's position as Green Day's drummer became permanent, which Kiffmeyer "graciously accepted". The band went on tour for most of 1992 and 1993, played a number of shows overseas in Europe; the band's second studio album Kerplunk sold 50,000 copies in the U. S. Kerplunk's underground success led to a number of major record labels being interested in signing Green Day, the band left Lookout! and signed to Reprise Records after attracting the attention of producer Rob Cavallo. The group was impressed by his work with fellow Californian band The Muffs, remarked that Cavallo "was the only person we could talk to and connect with".
Reflecting on the period, Armstrong told Spin magazine in 1999, "I couldn't go back to the punk scene, whether we were the biggest success in the world or the biggest failure... The only thing I could do was get on my bike and go forward." After signing with Reprise, the band went to work on recording Dookie. Recorded in three weeks, released in February 1994, Dookie became a commercial success, helped by extensive MTV airplay for the videos of the songs "Longview", "Basket Case", "When I Come Around", all of which reached the number one position on the Modern Rock Tracks charts; the album went on to sell over 10 million copies in the US. At a performance on September 9, 1994 at Hatch Memorial Shell in Boston, mayhem broke out during the band's set and by the end of the rampage, 100 people were injured and 45 arrested; the band joined the lineups of both the Lollapalooza festival and Woodstock'94, where the group started an infamous mud fight. During the concert, a security guard mistook bassist Mike Dirnt for a stage-invading fan and punched out some of his teeth.
Viewed by millions by pay-per-view television, the Woodstock 1994 performance further aided Green Day's growing publicity and recognition, helped push its album to eventual diamond status. In 1995, Dookie won the Grammy Awa
Hall & Oates
Daryl Hall and John Oates referred to as Hall & Oates, are an American pop rock duo. Daryl Hall is the lead vocalist; the two write most of the songs, separately or in collaboration. They achieved their greatest fame from the late 1970s to the mid-1980s with a fusion of rock and roll and rhythm and blues. Hall and Oates have sold an estimated 40 million records, making them the best selling music duo in history, they are best known for their six No. 1 hits on the Billboard Hot 100: "Rich Girl", "Kiss on My List", "Private Eyes", "I Can't Go for That", "Maneater", "Out of Touch", as well as many other songs which charted in the Top 40 including the single "You Make My Dreams". In total, they had 34 chart hits on the US Billboard Hot 100, seven RIAA platinum albums, six RIAA gold albums. Billboard magazine named them the most successful duo of the rock era, surpassing Simon & Garfunkel and The Everly Brothers, they have enjoyed moderate success in the United Kingdom with two UK top ten albums, spending a total of one-hundred and seventeen weeks in the UK top 75 album charts and eighty-four weeks in the top seventy-five of the UK Singles Chart.
In 2003, Hall and Oates were inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame. Billboard magazine had Hall and Oates at No. 15 on their list of the 100 greatest artists of all time and the No. 1 duo, while VH1 placed the duo as No. 99 on their list of the 100 greatest artists of all time. They were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in April 2014. On September 2, 2016, they received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Daryl Franklin Hohl and John William Oates first met at the Adelphi Ballroom in Philadelphia in 1967. At the time they met, each was heading his own musical group, Hall with The Temptones and Oates with The Masters, they were there for a band competition when gunfire rang out between two rival gangs, in trying to escape, they ran to the same service elevator. On further discovering that they were interested in the same music and that both were attending Philadelphia's Temple University, they started spending time together on a regular basis and shared a number of apartments in the city.
One of the apartments they shared had "Oates" on the mailbox, which became the duo's name. It would take them another two years to form a musical duo, three years after that, they signed to Atlantic Records and released their debut album; the two didn't start working together until 1970 after Oates got back from an extended stay in Europe. Early in their recording careers and Oates had trouble defining their sound, alternating among folk, soul and pop. None of their early albums - Whole Oats, Abandoned Luncheonette and War Babies - was successful. Despite being produced by such big-name producers as Arif Mardin and Todd Rundgren, they had no hit singles during this time period, though Abandoned Luncheonette contained "She's Gone"; this song would be covered by Lou Rawls and Tavares before Atlantic Records re-released the Hall and Oates version in 1976. "She's Gone," as covered by Tavares, did go to Number One on the R&B charts in 1974. It was written for Hall's first wife, Bryna Lublin, inspired by Oates' being stood up on a date on New Year's Eve.
Another Abandoned Luncheonette single, "Las Vegas Turnaround", was written about Hall's girlfriend, flight attendant and future songwriting collaborator Sara Allen. Despite the fact that none of the Atlantic albums was a huge national hit, in Minneapolis–St. Paul, a number of tracks on Abandoned Luncheonette received significant airplay on local FM station KQRS, making it a local hit; this and the other regional success the album achieved were enough to push the album into the charts, reaching #33 on Nov. 20, 1976 and staying on the charts for 38 weeks. Hall and Oates left Atlantic Records after the release of War Babies to join RCA Records, their first album for the new label, Daryl Hall & John Oates, was their first legitimate success. It contained the ballad "Sara Smile," a song Hall wrote for his aforementioned girlfriend Sara Allen, it featured an album cover in which Hall and Oates are overly made up with cosmetic blush to the point where they looked like women the long-haired and clean-shaven Hall.
Hall would say in an interview for VH1's Behind the Music that he looked like "the girl I always wanted to go out with" on that album cover. This cover was made by Pierre LaRoche, who created Ziggy Stardust for David Bowie."Sara Smile" became their first Top 10 hit, reaching No. 4 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart in June 1976. "She's Gone," re-released by Atlantic Records after "Sara Smile," went to the Top 10, reaching No. 7 in October 1976. Hall and Oates followed those hits with the more pop-oriented album Bigger Than Both of Us that year. Though the album's first single—the Philadelphia soul-oriented ballad "Do What You Want, Be What You Are"—barely made the Top 40, their second single, "Rich Girl," was a smash; the song was Hall and Oates' first No. 1 hit, reaching the top spot for the week ending March 26, 1977. After this small run of hits and Oates still encountered difficulty getting radio play. Despite touring and recording albums with efficiency, the duo could not find any pop success for a number of reasons because of the popularity of the disco genre.
By the time they released the rock-oriented albums Beauty on a Back Street in 1977 and Along the Red Ledge in 1978, disco mus
Nirvana was an American rock band formed in Aberdeen, Washington, in 1987. It was founded by guitarist Kurt Cobain and bassist Krist Novoselic. Nirvana went through a succession of drummers, the longest-lasting and best-known being Dave Grohl, who joined in 1990. Though the band dissolved in 1994 after the death of Cobain, their music maintains a popular following and continues to influence modern rock and roll culture. In the late 1980s, Nirvana established itself as part of the Seattle grunge scene, releasing its first album, for the independent record label Sub Pop in 1989, they developed a sound that relied on dynamic contrasts between quiet verses and loud, heavy choruses. After signing to major label DGC Records, Nirvana found unexpected worldwide success with "Smells Like Teen Spirit", the first single from the band's second album Nevermind, which has now been ranked as one of the greatest songs in the history of rock music. Nevermind has been called one of the greatest albums of all time and has sold over 30 million copies worldwide.
Nirvana's sudden success popularized alternative rock and grunge, Cobain found himself referred to in the media as the "spokesman of a generation", with Nirvana considered the "flagship band" of Generation X. After touring and releasing Incesticide and Hormoaning, Nirvana's third studio album, In Utero, was released to critical acclaim; the album debuted at number one on the Billboard 200 album chart and featured an abrasive, less mainstream sound and challenged the group's audience and has since sold over 15 million copies worldwide. In Utero would be Nirvana's last studio album in their active career. Nirvana's active career ended following the death of Cobain in 1994, but many various posthumous releases have been issued since, overseen by Novoselic and Cobain's widow Courtney Love; the posthumous release MTV Unplugged in New York won the Grammy Award for Best Alternative Music Album in 1996. Overall, Nirvana have received twelve awards from twenty-five nominations winning an American Music Award, Brit Award, Grammy Award, seven MTV Video Music Awards and two NME Awards Since its debut, the band has sold over 25 million records in the United States alone, over 75 million records worldwide, making them one of the best-selling bands of all time.
Nirvana has been ranked as one of the greatest music artists of all time with Rolling Stone placing them at number 27 on their list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time" in 2004, at number 30 on their updated list in 2011. Nirvana was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in its first year of eligibility. Cobain and Novoselic met while attending Aberdeen High School, although they never connected, according to Cobain; the pair became friends while frequenting the practice space of the Melvins. Cobain wanted to form a band with Novoselic, but Novoselic did not respond for a long period of time. In persuading Novoselic to form a band, Cobain gave him a demo tape of his project Fecal Matter. Three years after the two first met, Novoselic notified Cobain that he had listened to the Fecal Matter demo and suggested they start a group; the pair recruited Bob McFadden on drums. In early 1987, Cobain and Novoselic recruited drummer Aaron Burckhard; the three practiced material from Cobain's Fecal Matter tape but started writing new material soon after forming.
During its initial months, the band went through a series of names, starting with Skid Row and including Fecal Matter and Ted Ed Fred. The group settled on Nirvana, which Cobain said was chosen because "I wanted a name, kind of beautiful or nice and pretty instead of a mean, raunchy punk name like the Angry Samoans". With Novoselic and Cobain having moved to Tacoma and Olympia, Washington the two temporarily lost contact with Burckhard; the pair instead practiced with Dale Crover of the Melvins, Nirvana recorded its first demos in January 1988. In early 1988, Crover moved to San Francisco but recommended Dave Foster to the band as his replacement on drums. Foster's tenure with Nirvana lasted only a few months. Cobain and Novoselic put an ad in Seattle music publication The Rocket seeking a replacement drummer, which only yielded unsatisfactory responses. Meanwhile, a mutual friend introduced them to Chad Channing, the three musicians agreed to jam together. Channing continued to jam with Cobain and Novoselic, although the drummer noted, "They never said'okay, you're in,'" and Channing played his first show with the group that May.
Nirvana released its first single, a cover of Shocking Blue's "Love Buzz", in November 1988 on the Seattle independent record label Sub Pop. They did their first interview with John Robb in Sounds who made the release single of the week; the following month, the band began recording its debut album, with local producer Jack Endino. Bleach was influenced by the heavy dirge-rock of the Melvins and Mudhoney, 1980s punk rock, the 1970s heavy metal of Black Sabbath. Novoselic said in a 2001 interview with Rolling Stone that the band had played a tape in their van while on tour that had an album by The Smithereens on one side and an album by the extreme metal band Celtic Frost on the other, noted that the combination played an influence as well; the money for the recording sessions for Bleach, listed as $606.17 on the album sleeve, was supplied by Jason Everman, subsequently brought into the band as the second guitarist. Though Everman did not play on the album, he received a credit on