Miami Orange Bowl
The Miami Orange Bowl was an outdoor athletic stadium in the southeastern United States, located in Miami, west of downtown in Little Havana. Considered a landmark, it was the home stadium for the Miami Hurricanes college football team, the professional Miami Dolphins for their first 21 seasons, until the opening of Joe Robbie Stadium in nearby Miami Gardens in 1987; the stadium was the temporary home of the FIU Golden Panthers while its FIU Stadium underwent expansion during the 2007 season. Known as Burdine Stadium when opened in 1937, it was renamed in 1959 for the Orange Bowl college football bowl game, played at the venue following every season from 1938 to 1996; the event was moved to Pro Player Stadium beginning on December 31, 1996. In January 1999, it returned to the Orange Bowl for one final time due to a scheduling conflict; the minor league Miami Marlins baseball team played games in the Orange Bowl from 1956 to 1960. The stadium was on a large block bounded by Northwest 3rd Street, Northwest 16th Avenue, Northwest 6th Street and Northwest 14th Avenue.
The Orange Bowl was demolished in 2008 and the site is now Marlins Park, the home ballpark of the current incarnation of the Miami Marlins, which opened in 2012. The stadium was built by the City of Miami Public Works Department. Construction was completed in December 1937 and featured stadium lights. Prior to completion, the first game was a high school contest on September 24 which saw Edison shut out Ponce de Leon, 36–0 with new lights going out, leaving mid-field dark with five minutes remaining in the fourth quarter; the stadium opened for Miami Hurricanes football on December 10, 1937. From 1926 to 1937 the University of Miami played in a stadium near Tamiami Park and at Moore Park until the Orange Bowl was built; the Orange Bowl was named Burdine Stadium after Roddy Burdine, one of Miami's pioneers and the owner of the Burdines department store chain. It seated 23,739 people along the sidelines—roughly corresponding to the lower level of the sideline seats in the stadium's final configuration.
Attendance for its first Orange Bowl in January 1938 was under 19,000, but the following year saw over 32,000 in attendance. Seating was added in the end zones in the 1940s, by the end of the 1950s the stadium was double-decked on the sidelines. In 1966, the AFL expansion Miami Dolphins played their first-ever regular season game in the stadium on September 2; the west end zone upper deck section was added in the 1960s, bringing the stadium to its peak capacity of 80,010. On January 1, 1965, the Orange Bowl was the first college bowl game. From 1966 to 1968, again in the 1970s, a live dolphin was situated in a water tank in the open end of the Orange Bowl, he would jump in the tank to celebrate touchdowns and field goals. The tank, set up in the 1970s was manufactured by Evan Bush and maintained during the games by Evan Bush and Dene Whitaker. Flipper was removed from the Orange Bowl after 1968 to save the 1970s due to stress. In the film Ace Ventura: Pet Detective, Snowflake, a live dolphin who does special behaviors after the Dolphins score a touchdown, was the basis of the film after he is kidnapped as part of a revenge plot against Dan Marino.
In 1977, the permanent seats in the east end zone were removed, further upgrades brought the stadium to its final capacity and design. The city skyline was visible to the east through the open end, over the modern scoreboard and palm trees; the surface was natural grass, except for six seasons in the 1970s. Poly-Turf, an artificial turf similar to AstroTurf, was installed for the 1970 football season, it was removed and replaced with a type of natural grass known as "Prescription Athletic Turf" after Super Bowl X in January 1976. Under the leadership of Hall of Fame head coach Don Shula, the Miami Dolphins enjoyed a winning record in the Orange Bowl against rival teams in the AFC Eastern Division. Under Shula, the Dolphins were an impressive 57–9–1 against the Baltimore/Indianapolis Colts, the Boston/New England Patriots, the Buffalo Bills and the New York Jets, they have beaten every visiting franchise at least once, enjoying perfect records against 11 of them. The playoff results against AFC East opponents are: AFC Championship games:.
Notable winning streaks during the Shula-era in the Orange Bowl include a 13–0 streak against the Buffalo Bills and a 15–0 streak against the New England Patriots, Also of note, the Miami Dolphins enjoyed a record 31-game home winning streak from 1971–75, which includes four playoff wins and the perfect season of 1972. The Dolphins have not enjoyed the same level of success at Hard Rock Stadium. While much of this lack of success at Hard Rock Stadium is attributable to a diminished level of talent and organizational stability, it is widely recognized that the homefield advantage that the Dolphins enjoyed in the Orange Bowl was exponentially greater than in their newer home; this was in great part due to the atmosphere of the Bowl. The closeness of the seats to the field, along with the closed West End Zone, metal bleachers, steel structure, gave the venue one of the loudest and most electric homefield environments in the NFL. Visiting team quarterbacks complained t
A marching band is a group in which instrumental musicians perform while marching for entertainment or competition. Instrumentation includes brass and percussion instruments. Most marching bands wear a uniform of a military style, that includes an associated organization's colors, name or symbol. Most high school marching bands, some college marching bands, are accompanied by a color guard, a group of performers who add a visual interpretation to the music through the use of props, most flags and sabres. Marching bands are categorized by function, age, marching style, type of show they perform. In addition to traditional parade performances, many marching bands perform field shows at sporting events and at marching band competitions. Marching bands perform indoor concerts that implement many songs and flair from outside performances. Percussion and wind instruments were used on the battlefield since ancient times. An Iron Age example would be the carnyx; the development of the military band from such predecessors was a gradual development of the medieval and early modern period.
A prototype of the Ottoman military band may be mentioned in the 11th-century Divânu Lügati't-Türk. The European tradition of military bands formed in the Baroque period influenced by the Ottoman tradition. 17th-century traveler Evliya Çelebi noted the existence of 40 guilds of musicians in Istanbul. In the 18th century, each regiment in the British Army maintained its own military band; until 1749 bandsmen were civilians hired at the expense of the colonel commanding a regiment. Subsequently, they became regular enlisted men who accompanied the unit on active service to provide morale enhancing music on the battlefield or, from the late nineteenth century on, to act as stretcher bearers. Instruments during the 18th century included fifes, the oboe, French horn and bassoon. Drummers summoned men from their ranches to muster for duty. In the chaotic environment of the battlefield, musical instruments were the only means of commanding the men to advance, stand or retire. In the mid 19th century each smaller unit had their own fifer and drummer, who sounded the daily routine.
When units massed for battle a band of musicians was formed for the whole. In the United States, modern marching bands are most associated with performing during American football games; the oldest American college marching band, the University of Notre Dame Band of the Fighting Irish, was founded in 1845 and first performed at a football game in 1887. Many American universities had marching bands prior to the twentieth century, which were associated with military ROTC programs. In 1907, breaking from traditional rank and file marching, the first pictorial formation on a football field was the "Block P" created by Paul Spotts Emrick, director of the Purdue All-American Marching Band. Spotts had seen a flock of birds fly in a "V" formation and decided that a band could replicate the action in the form of show formations on a field; the first halftime show at an American football game was performed by the University of Illinois Marching Illini in 1907, at a game against the University of Chicago.
Appearing at the same time as the field show and pictorial marching formations at universities was the fight song, which today are closely associated with a university's band. The first university fight song, For Boston, was created at Boston College. Many more recognizable and popular university fight songs are borrowed and played by high schools across the United States. Four such fight songs used by high schools are the University of Michigan's The Victors, the University of Illinois' Illinois Loyalty, the University of Notre Dame's Victory March, the United States Naval Academy's Anchors Aweigh. During the 20th century, many marching bands added further pageantry elements, including baton twirlers, dance lines, color guard. After World War I, the presence and quality of marching bands in the American public school system expanded as military veterans with service band experience began to accept music teaching positions within schools across the country bringing wind music and marching band into both educational curriculum and school culture.
With high school programs on the rise, marching bands started to become competitive organizations, with the first national contest being held in 1923 in Chicago, Illinois. State and national contests became common featuring parades and mass-band concerts featuring all participating groups. By 1938, competitive band programs had become numerous and widespread, making a national contest too large to manage and leading to multiple state and regional contests in its place. Today, state contests continue to be the primary form of marching band competition in the United States. Since the inception of Drum Corps International in the 1970s, many marching bands that perform field shows have adopted changes to the activity that parallel developments with modern drum and bugle corps; these bands are said to be corps-style bands. Areas where changes have been adopted from drum corps include: Marching: instead of a traditional high step, drum corps tend to march with a fluid glide step known as a roll step, to keep musicians' torsos still.
Auxiliaries: adaptation of the flag, rifle and sabre units into auxiliaries, who march with the band and provide visual flair by spinning and tossing flags or mock weapons and using dance in the performance. Percussion: moving marching timpani and keyboard percussion into a stationary sideline percussion section, or "pit", which has since incorporated many different types of percussion instruments such
The Miami Hurricanes are the varsity sports teams of the University of Miami, located in the Coral Gables suburb of Miami, Florida. In box scores for sporting events, the Hurricanes sports teams are referred to as Miami to differentiate from the Miami RedHawks, a Division I school in Ohio, they compete in the Coastal Division of the Atlantic Coast Conference. The university fields 15 athletic teams for 17 varsity sports. Men's teams compete in baseball, cross-country, football and track and field. Women's teams compete in basketball, cross-country and diving, rowing, tennis and field, volleyball. UM has equal participation by male and female varsity athletes in these sports; the athletic department's colors are orange and white. The school mascot is Sebastian the Ibis; the ibis was selected as the school's mascot because, according to university legend, it is the last animal to flee an approaching hurricane and the first to reappear after the storm, making it a symbol of leadership and courage.
The school's athletics logo is a simple green and orange, color of an orange tree, letter "U." The school's marching band is the Band of the Hour. Aside from being an independent in baseball, the Hurricanes were a full member of the Big East Conference from 1991 to 2004. In 2004, the school became a member of the Atlantic Coast Conference. UM has won four national championships and reached the College World Series 22 times in the 34 seasons since 1974. Five UM graduates are active on MLB teams; the team is coached by Jim Morris, the former head coach of the Georgia Tech baseball team. Former coach Ron Fraser was inducted into the College Baseball Hall of Fame in July 2006; the team plays its games in Alex Rodriguez Park at Mark Light Field. Morris' contract as coach has been extended through 2015. Morris has established a record of 850–344–3 in 19 seasons at Miami, his teams reached the College World Series in his first six seasons at an NCAA record. The Mascot for the baseball team is The Miami Maniac.
Miami holds the longest consecutive post season appearance streak at 44 consecutive years. This streak is the longest of any men's NCAA Div. 1 major sport, topping the football post season streak of 35 seasons and the basketball streak of 27 seasons. The Miami Hurricanes men's basketball team has produced three players who are on NBA rosters. Rick Barry, who played his collegiate basketball at UM, is a member of the Basketball Hall of Fame. Barry is the Hurricanes' only consensus All-American in basketball and led the nation in scoring his senior year with a 37.4 average during the 1964–65 campaign. The team plays its home games at the Watsco Center on the University of Miami's Coral Gables campus; the Board of Trustees attempted to shut the program down in the middle of the 1970 season, which forced Will Allen to organize his teammates and strike because it was not sufficient notice for the players to transfer schools. They held a press conference and this caught the attention of the national press, the university dropped the program after the 1971 season, with the board citing inadequate facilities, sagging attendance, serious financial losses as the reasons for the decision.
The program was revived before the 1985–86 season, though UM would be minimally competitive over the next several years. The program's fortunes turned around in 1990 when Miami hired Leonard Hamilton as head basketball coach and accepted an invitation to join the Big East. By the end of the decade, Hamilton had turned UM into one of the better basketball programs in the Big East and had guided UM to three straight NCAA tournament appearances, including a #2 seed in the 1999 tournament and a Sweet 16 appearance in 2000; the 1998 tournament appearance was UM's first since 1960. Hamilton left at the end of the 2000 season to become head coach of the NBA's Washington Wizards and was replaced by Perry Clark. During Clark's second season the team won a # 5 seed in the NCAA tournament. With the 2002 -- 03 season, the team moved into the Watsco Center. Despite a win over powerhouse North Carolina to christen the new arena, Clark's teams performed woefully over the next two seasons, leading to his dismissal following the 2003–04 season.
Clark was replaced by Frank Haith, whose teams were competitive in UM's first two seasons as a member of the Atlantic Coast Conference. In the 2007/2008 season, after being picked to finish last in the Atlantic Coast Conference the Hurricanes finished the year 23–11 and reached the second round of the NCAA Tournament before falling to the second seeded University of Texas at Austin; this was the team's first NCAA tournament bid since the 2001–2002 season. For the 2009/2010 season, Miami had a winning record overall, but finished in last place in the ACC with a record of 4–12. On April 4, 2011, Miami coach Frank Haith accepted a head coaching position at the University of Missouri. On April 22, 2011, George Mason Patriots head coach Jim Larranaga accepted the head coaching position after coaching the Patriots for 14 seasons. For the 2012–2013 season, Miami knocked down No. 1 Duke 90-63, won their first 13 ACC games, attained the highest AP ranking in school history, attaining a #2 ranking. However, the Hurricanes lost to Wake Forest, 80-65, ruining at the time, a perfect record in ACC play.
Miami clinched an ACC regular season title with a home triumph over Clemson. Miami entered the ACC Tournament as the #1 seed, won said tournament with a
Florida International University
Florida International University is a metropolitan public research university in Greater Miami, Florida. FIU has two major campuses in Miami-Dade County, with its main campus in University Park. Florida International University is classified as a research university with highest research activity by the Carnegie Foundation and a research university by the Florida Legislature. FIU belongs to the 12-campus State University System of Florida and is one of Florida's primary graduate research universities, awarding over 3,400 graduate and professional degrees annually; the university offers 191 programs of study with more than 280 majors in schools. FIU offers many graduate programs, including architecture, business administration, engineering and medicine, offering 81 master's degrees, 34 doctoral degrees, 3 professional degrees. FIU is the largest university in South Florida, the second-largest in Florida, the fourth-largest in the United States by enrollment. Total enrollment in Fall 2016 was 55,112 students, including 8,770 graduate students.
According to U. S. News college rankings and reviews, 92% of FIU students live off-campus while only 8% of students live in "college-owned, college-operated or college-affiliated" housing; the story of Florida International University's founding began in 1943, when state Senator Ernest'Cap' Graham presented the state legislature with the initial proposal for the establishment of a public university in South Florida. While his bill did not pass, Graham persisted in presenting his proposal to colleagues, advising them of Miami's need for a state university, he felt the establishment of a public university was necessary to serve the city's growing population. In 1964, Senate Bill 711 was introduced by Florida Senator Robert M. Haverfield, it instructed the state Board of Education and the Board of Regents, to begin planning for the development of a state university in Miami. The bill was signed into law by then-governor W. Haydon Burns in June 1965, marking FIU's official founding. FIU's founding president Charles "Chuck" Perry was appointed by the Board of Regents in July 1969 after a nationwide search.
At 32 years old, the new president was the youngest in the history of the State University System and, at the time, the youngest university president in the country. Perry recruited Butler Waugh, Donald McDowell and Nick Sileo. Alvah Chapman, Jr. former Miami Herald publisher and Knight Ridder chairman, used his civic standing and media power to assist the effort. In the 1980s, Chapman became chair of the FIU Foundation Board of Trustees; the founders located the campus on the site of the original Tamiami Airport on the Tamiami Trail between Southwest 107th and 117th Avenues, just east of where the West Dade Expressway was being planned. The abandoned airport's air traffic control tower became FIU's first building, it had no telephones, no drinking water, no furniture. Perry decided that the tower should never be destroyed, it remains on campus, where it is now known variously as the "Veterans Office," "Ivory Tower," the "Tower Building," or the "Public Safety Tower," and is the former location of the FIU Police Department.
In September 1972, 5,667 students entered the new state university, the largest opening day enrollment at the time. Miami had been the largest city in the country lacking a public baccalaureate-granting institution. Eighty percent of the student body had just graduated from Dade County Junior College. A typical student entering FIU was 25 years old and attending school full-time while holding down a full-time job. Forty-three percent were married. Negotiations with the University of Miami and Dade County Junior College led FIU to open as an upper-division only school, it would be nine years. The first commencement, held in June 1973, took place in the reading room of the ground floor of Primera Casa – the only place large enough on campus for the ceremony. More than 1,500 family members and friends watched FIU's first class of 191 graduates receive their diplomas. By late 1975, after seven years at the helm, Charles Perry felt he had accomplished his goal and left the university to become president and publisher of the Sunday newspaper magazine Family Weekly, one of the country's largest magazines.
When he left, there were more than 10,000 students attending classes and a campus with five major buildings and a sixth being planned. Harold Crosby, the university's second president and the founding president of the University of West Florida in Pensacola, agreed in 1976 to serve a three-year "interim" term. Under his leadership, FIU's North Miami Campus – located on the former Interama site on Biscayne Bay – was opened in 1977. State Senator Jack Gordon was instrumental in securing funding for the development of the campus. President Crosby emphasized the university's international character, prompting the launching of new programs with an international focus and the recruitment of faculty from the Caribbean and Latin America. President Crosby's resignation in January 1979 triggered the search for a "permanent" president. Gregory Baker Wolfe, a former United States diplomat and then-president of Portland State University became FIU's third president, from 1979 to 1986. After stepping down as president, Wolfe taught in the university's international relations department.
The student union on the Biscayne Bay Campus is named in his honor
The Orange Bowl is an annual American college football bowl game played in the Miami metropolitan area. It has been played annually since January 1, 1935, making it, along with the Sugar Bowl and the Sun Bowl, the second-oldest bowl game in the country, behind the Rose Bowl; the Orange Bowl is one of the New Year's Six, the top bowl games for the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision. The Orange Bowl was held in the city of Miami at Miami Field before moving to the Miami Orange Bowl stadium in 1938. In 1996, it moved to Hard Rock Stadium in Florida. Since December 2014, the game has been sponsored by Capital One and known as the Capital One Orange Bowl. Previous sponsors include Federal Express/FedEx. In its early years, the Orange Bowl had no defined conference tie-ins. From the 1950s until the mid-1990s, the Orange Bowl had a strong relationship with the Big Eight Conference; the champion was invited to the bowl game in most years during this time. Opponents of the Big Eight varied. Since 2007, the Orange Bowl has hosted the ACC champion—unless they are involved in the national championship playoff, in which case another high-ranking ACC team team takes their place)—and has used the brand Home of the ACC Champion.
In the 1990s, the Orange Bowl kept its Big Eight tie-in. It was a member of the Bowl Alliance. From 1998 to 2013, The Orange Bowl was a member of the now-defunct Bowl Championship Series; the Orange Bowl served as the BCS National Championship Game in 2001 and 2005. However, beginning with the 2006 season, the BCS National Championship Game became a stand-alone event, hosted by the local bowl organization about one week following the New Year's Day bowl games. Under that format, the Orange Bowl Committee hosted two separate games in both 2009 and in 2013 at all the same venue; the BCS ended after the 2013 season. The Orange Bowl has served. In 1890, California held its first Tournament of Roses Parade to showcase the city's mild weather compared to the harsh winters in northern cities; as one of the organizers said: "In New York, people are buried in snow. Here, our flowers are blooming and our oranges are about to bear. Let's hold a festival to tell the world about our paradise." In 1902, the annual festival was enhanced by adding an American football game.
In 1926, leaders in Miami, decided to do the same with a "Fiesta of the American Tropics", centered around a New Year's Day football game. Although a second "Fiesta" was never held, Miami leaders, including Earnest E. Seiler revived the idea with the "Palm Festival". In 1932, George E. Hussey, official greeter of Miami, organized the first Festival of Palms Bowl, a predecessor of the Orange Bowl. With Miami suffering from both the Great Depression and the preceding Florida land bust and other Miamians sought to help its economy by organizing a game similar to Pasadena's Rose Bowl. Two games were played in this series at Moore Park in Miami, both pitting an invited opponent against a local team, the University of Miami. In the first game, played on January 2, 1933, Miami defeated Manhattan College 7–0. In the second game, played on New Year's Day 1934, Duquesne defeated Miami 33–7. Duquesne was coached by one of the Four Horsemen of Notre Dame; these games are not recognized as bowl games by the NCAA because one team was guaranteed a berth regardless of record.
However, following the success of these games, backers organized another game for New Year's Day 1935 under the Orange Bowl name. This game, unlike the Palm Festival Games, did not automatically grant a berth to one team, although the University of Miami was again a participant. For this reason, the 1935 Orange Bowl was recognized by the NCAA as an official bowl game; the Orange Bowl was played at Miami Field from 1935 to 1937, the Miami Orange Bowl from 1938 to 1996 and 1999, was moved to its current site, Hard Rock Stadium in Miami Gardens, Florida, in December 1996. The game was moved back to the namesake stadium in 1999 because the game was played on the same day the Miami Dolphins hosted an NFL Wild Card Playoff game. Coincidentally, both of those games were aired on ABC. On January 1, 1965, the Texas vs. Alabama Orange Bowl was the first college bowl game to be televised live in prime time. From 1968, the game featured the champion of the former Big Eight Conference; when the Big Eight Conference absorbed four members of the defunct Southwest Conference in 1996, the newly formed Big 12 Conference moved its conference champion tie-in to the Fiesta Bowl.
Since 1998, with the creation of the Bowl Championship Series system, team selection for the Orange Bowl is now tied into the other three BCS Bowls. From 1998 to 2005, the game hosted the c
Miami Hurricanes football
The Miami Hurricanes football team represents the University of Miami in the sport of American football. The Hurricanes compete in the National Collegiate Athletic Association's Division I Football Bowl Subdivision and the Coastal Division of the Atlantic Coast Conference; the program has won five AP national championships. The Miami Hurricanes are among the decorated football programs in NCAA history. Miami is ranked fourth on the list of All-time Associated Press National Poll Championships, tied with Southern California and Ohio State and behind Alabama, Notre Dame, Oklahoma. Miami holds a number of NFL Draft records, including most first-round selections in a single draft and most consecutive drafts with at least one first-round selection. Two Hurricanes have won the Heisman Trophy and nine have been inducted to the College Football Hall of Fame; the team plays its home games at Hard Rock Stadium in Florida. The Hurricanes' head coach is Manny Diaz; the University of Miami football program began with just a freshman team in 1926.
Its first game was played on October 23, 1926, a 7–0 win over Rollins College before 304 fans. Under the guidance of head coach Howard "Cub" Buck, the freshman team posted a perfect 8–0 record in its inaugural season. Two of the wins were against the University of Havana, one on Thanksgiving Day in Miami and one at Havana on Christmas Day. Miami's last home game of the season featured a first: the first Hurricane football game played on New Year's Day against Howard at Miami's University Stadium. Around this time, the team adopted the official nickname "Hurricanes", though the exact timing and origin of the name is unclear. Varsity competition began in 1927, with Miami beating Rollins, 39–3, in its first game and going on to a 3–6–1 record; the team improved to 4–4–1 in 1928, but it was not enough for Buck to keep his job, he was replaced prior to the 1929 season with J. Burton Rix head coach at Southern Methodist. Rix's arrival was funded by a group of local businessmen; that off-season, the program, which competed as an independent during its first two years of existence, joined the Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association.
1929 saw Miami play its first varsity road game, Rix led the team to its first winning season, going 3–2. His tenure, was short-lived. Ernest Brett replaced Rix, in 1930, Miami played Temple in its first game outside the South, losing 34–0 to the Owls in Atlantic City, New Jersey. On October 31, 1930, the Hurricanes played in one of the nation's first night games vs. Bowden College in Miami. Brett only lasted one year, Tom McCann became the program's fourth head coach in 1931. Under McCann, the football program experienced its most successful seasons to that point. After a difficult first year, Miami put together a winning record in 1932 and served as host to the inaugural Palm Festival, defeating Manhattan College 7–0 at Moore Park in Miami. A 5–1–2 campaign and another Palm Festival berth followed in 1933, in 1934, the program played in its first official bowl game, losing to Bucknell in the first Orange Bowl, 26–0. In 1935, a group of Miami football supporters sought to hire Red Grange as coach.
However, the move was vetoed by President Bowman Foster Ashe, in part because of the $7,500 salary that Grange had requested. Instead Irl Tubbs took over as head coach in 1935, though Miami compiled an 11–5–2 record in his two seasons, it did not play in a bowl in either year. After Irl Tubbs resigned following the 1936 season to become head coach at Iowa, Jack Harding was hired to serve as both head football coach and athletic director at Miami. In 1937, the Hurricanes moved into the brand new Burdine Municipal Stadium, located west of downtown Miami; the following year, Miami played archrival Florida for the first time, defeating the Gators 19–7 at Florida Field, won the program's first Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association title with an 8–2 record. The Hurricanes, left the SIAA just three years becoming an independent once again. Harding led the Hurricanes to eight- and seven- win campaigns in 1941 and 1942 before he was called away by World War II service. Eddie Dunn, a former star running back at Miami under Harding, stepped into the void and served as head coach during Harding's two-year war service.
Though the Hurricanes won five games in 1943, they faltered in 1944, winning just one game against seven losses and a tie. Fortunes changed with Harding's return in 1945, as the Hurricanes went 9–1–1 and returned to the Orange Bowl for the first time since 1934, defeating Holy Cross 13–6 in a memorable game. With the score tied 6–6 and only seconds remaining, Holy Cross quarterback Gene DeFilippo was intercepted by Miami's Al Hudson at the 11-yard line. Hudson dashed 89 yards the other way for the game-winning touchdown. Harding's Hurricanes won eight games in 1946, but after the team slipped to 2–7–1 in 1947, he resigned as head coach, but continued as athletic director, he hired Andy Gustafson as the new head coach, closing out a nine-year tenure in which Miami went 54–29–3 and won at least 8 games in four different seasons. One of Andy Gustafson's major innovations at Miami was the "drive series"
Atlantic Coast Conference
The Atlantic Coast Conference is a collegiate athletic conference in the United States of America in which its fifteen member universities compete in the National Collegiate Athletic Association's Division I, with its football teams competing in the Football Bowl Subdivision, the highest levels for athletic competition in US-based collegiate sports. The ACC sponsors competition in twenty-five sports with many of its member institutions' athletic programs held in high regard nationally. Current members of the conference are Boston College, Clemson University, Duke University, Georgia Institute of Technology, Florida State University, North Carolina State University, Syracuse University, the University of Louisville, the University of Miami, the University of North Carolina, the University of Notre Dame, the University of Pittsburgh, the University of Virginia, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Wake Forest University. ACC teams and athletes have claimed dozens of national championships in multiple sports throughout the conference's history.
The ACC's top athletes and teams in any particular sport in a given year are considered to be among the top collegiate competitors in the nation. The conference enjoys extensive media coverage; the ACC was one of the five collegiate power conferences, which had automatic qualifying for their football champion into the Bowl Championship Series. With the advent of the College Football Playoff in 2014, the ACC is one of five conferences with a contractual tie-in to a New Year's Six bowl game, the successors to the BCS; the ACC was founded on May 8, 1953 by seven universities located in the South Atlantic States, with the University of Virginia joining in early December 1953 to bring the membership to eight. The loss of South Carolina in 1971 dropped membership to seven, while the addition of Georgia Tech in 1979 for non-football sports and 1983 for football brought it back to eight, Florida State's arrival in 1991 for non-football sports and 1992 for football increased the membership to nine. Since 2000, with the widespread reorganization of the NCAA, seven additional schools have joined, one original member has left to bring it to the current membership of 15 schools.
The additions in recent years extended the conference's footprint into the Midwest. ACC member universities represent a range of well-regarded private and public universities of various enrollment sizes, all of which participate in the Atlantic Coast Conference Academic Consortium whose purpose is to "enrich the educational missions the undergraduate student experiences, of member universities"; the ACC has 15 member institutions located within the borders of 10 states. Listed in alphabetical order, these 10 states within the ACC's geographical footprint are Florida, Indiana, Massachusetts, New York, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia; the geographic domain of the conference is predominantly within the Southern and Northeastern United States along the US Atlantic coast and stretches from Florida in the south to New York in the North and from Indiana in the west to Massachusetts farthest east. In two sports and baseball, the ACC is divided into two non-geographic divisions of seven teams each, labeled the "Atlantic" and "Coastal" divisions.
Notre Dame does not participate in ACC football and Syracuse does not participate in ACC baseball, leaving 14 total ACC schools for each of those sports. For all other sports, the ACC operates as a single unified league with no divisions; when Notre Dame joined the ACC, it chose to remain a football independent. However, its football team established a special scheduling arrangement with the ACC to play a rotating selection of five ACC football teams per season. Since July 1, 2014, the 15 members of the ACC are: On July 1, 2014, The University of Maryland departed for The Big Ten Conference as The University of Louisville joined from The American Athletic Conference. In 1971, The University of South Carolina left The ACC to become an independent joining The Metro Conference in 1983 and moving to its current home, The Southeastern Conference, in 1991. Full members Non-football members The ACC was established on June 14, 1953, when seven members of the Southern Conference left to form their own conference.
These seven universities became charter members of the ACC: Clemson, Maryland, North Carolina, North Carolina State, South Carolina, Wake Forest. They left due to that league's ban on post-season football play. After drafting a set of bylaws for the creation of a new league, the seven withdrew from the Southern Conference at the spring meeting on the morning of May 8, 1953 at the Sedgefield Country Club in Greensboro, North Carolina; the bylaws were ratified on June 14, 1953, the ACC was created, becoming the second conference formed by schools collectively withdrawing from the SoCon, after the Southeastern Conference. On December 4, 1953, officials convened in Greensboro, North Carolina, admitted Virginia, a SoCon charter member, independent since 1937, into the conference. In 1960, the ACC implemented a minimum SAT score for incoming student-athletes of 750, the first conference to do so; this minimum was raised to 800 in 1964, but was struck down by a federal court in 1972. On July 1, 1971, South Carolina left the ACC to become an independent.
The ACC operated with seven members until the addition of Georgia Tech from the Metro Conference, announced on April 3, 1978 and taking effect on July 1, 1979 except in football, in which Tech would remain an independent until joining ACC football in 1983. The total number of member schools reached nine with the addition of Florida State formerl