SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Banda Aceh

Banda Aceh is the capital and largest city in the province of Aceh, Indonesia. It has an elevation of 35 meters; the city covers an area of 61.4 square kilometres and had a population of 223,446 people at the 2010 Census, rising to 250,227 at the 2015 Census. Banda Aceh is located on the northwestern tip of Indonesia at the mouth of the Aceh River; the city was established as Bandar Aceh Darussalam Kandang and served as a capital and hub for the Sultanate of Aceh upon its foundation in the late 15th century. Its name was changed to Bandar Aceh Darussalam, became popularly known as Banda Aceh; the first part of the name comes from the Persian bandar meaning "port" or "haven". The city is dubbed the "port to Mecca," or the "porch of Mecca" in reference to the days when hajj pilgrims travelled by sea from Indonesia and would make a stop over in the city before continuing their journey to Mecca. Banda Aceh had long been at the centre of protracted conflicts between the Acehnese and foreign domination, including war with Portuguese, wars with the Dutch, the Japanese and the Indonesian government.

The city rose to international prominence in the aftermath of the Indian Ocean earthquake in 2004, which struck off the western coast of Sumatra. Banda Aceh was the closest major city to the earthquake's epicentre, it suffered great damage in the earthquake and further damage when a tsunami struck shortly afterwards. 167,000 people died as many more were injured. The aftermath of the tsunami has seen a cessation of much of the conflict in the city and province, domestic and international aid as a result has seen a major modernisation and reconstruction of the city over the past decade. Banda Aceh, situated at the tip of Sumatra, has long been a strategic and trading hub in the eastern Indian Ocean, its first mention in western accounts comes from 1292 when Marco Polo and his expedition visited the city, referred to as'Lambri' from Lamuri Kingdom which existed there and noted as the logical first port of call for travellers from Arabia and India to Indonesia. Ibn Battuta reported visiting the city in the mid-14th century when under the control of the trading kingdom of Samudera Pasai, the dominant entity in northern Sumatra.

However the Pasai began to collapse under pressure from declining economic conditions and the Portuguese, who occupied much of the area after occupying Malacca in the early 15th century. Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah, ruler of the newly founded Sultanate of Aceh, aggressively expanded in the area in the 1520s and established sultanate was built on the remains of the Pasai and other extinct kingdoms in the area, made Banda Aceh the capital, naming it for himself as Kutaraja or'City of the King'. After a long period of rule by the Sultanate, Aceh began to come into conflict with the Dutch and the British in the second half of the 18th century. At the end of the 18th century, the territory of Aceh in the Malay Peninsula, namely Kedah and Pulau Pinang, were seized by the British. In 1871, the Dutch began to threaten Aceh, on 26 March 1873, the Dutch formally declared war on Aceh; the Dutch bombarded the capital in that year and sought to capture the Sultan's palace in the city to bring about a capitulation of the Acehnese.

Significant support from the British in the region led the modernisation and fortification of the city, while coastal areas were lost the Dutch underestimated the city's defences. The Dutch expedition commander General Johan Köhler was killed in a skirmish around the city, leading to the failure of the first expedition. A second expedition was mounted by the Dutch within months and was successful in overwhelming the city; the Dutch moved into the capital in January 1874 believing the Acehnese to have surrendered. After it entered the Government of the Republic of Indonesia on 28 December 1962, the name of the city was changed back to Banda Aceh by the Ministry of Public Administration and Regional Autonomy on 9 May 1963. On 26 December 2004, the city was hit by a tsunami caused by a 9.2-magnitude earthquake in the Indian Ocean. The disaster destroyed more than 60 % of the city's buildings. Based on the statistical data issued by the City Government of Banda Aceh, Banda Aceh had 248,727 inhabitants in May 2012.

Banda Aceh is divided into nine districts, listed below with their areas and populations at the 2010 Census: Motorised becaks are common in Banda Aceh. Transport by taxis and minibuses, known as labi-labi, are common. Sultan Iskandar Muda International Airport is located in 13.5 km from Banda Aceh. Two main highways run from Banda Aceh to the south. One runs down the eastern side of the province through main towns such as Bireuen and Lhokseumawe to Medan, the large capital of the province of North Sumatra; the other highway runs down the western side of the province, through lesser-populated areas, to the towns of Calang and Singkil. The main bus station, Terminal Terpadu Batoh, is located at Jalan Mr. Teuku Muhammad Hasan. Banda Aceh has Pelabuhan Ulèë Lheuë and Pelabuhan Malahayati. Pelabuhan Ulèë Lheuë was the main sea port in Aceh, it now functions as a ferry terminal. It is located in the Meuraksa area. Pelabuhan Malahayati, the current main sea port, is located in 27 km from Banda Aceh, it now functions as the main freight cargo terminal.

Since May 2016, Banda Aceh has had a bus rapid transit system, called Trans Koetaradja. Trans Koetaradja runs only a s

Transportation in the United States

Transportation in the United States is facilitated by road, air and waterways. The vast majority of passenger travel occurs by automobile for shorter distances, airplane for longer distances. In descending order, most cargoes travel by railroad, pipeline, or boat; the overwhelming majority of roads in the United States are owned and maintained by state and local governments. Federally maintained roads are found only on federal lands and at federal facilities; the Interstate Highway System is funded by the federal government but owned and maintained by individual state governments. There are a few private highways in the United States, which use tolls to pay for construction and maintenance. There are many local private roads serving remote or insular residences. Passenger and freight rail systems, bus systems, water ferries, dams may be under either public or private ownership and operation. Civilian airlines are all owned and financed. Most airports are owned and operated by local government authorities, but there are some private airports.

The Transportation Security Administration has provided security at most major airports since 2001. The United States Department of Transportation and its divisions provide regulation and funding for all aspects of transportation, except for customs and security, which are the responsibility of the United States Department of Homeland Security; each state has its own Department of Transportation, which builds and maintains state highways, depending upon the state, may either directly operate or supervise other modes of transportation. Aviation law is entirely a federal matter, while automobile traffic laws are enacted and enforced by state and local authorities. Economic jurisdiction over tidelands is shared between the state and federal governments, while the United States Coast Guard is the primary enforcer of law and security on U. S. waterways. Passenger transportation is dominated by a network of over 3.9 million miles of highways, pervasive and developed by global standards. Passenger transportation is dominated by passenger vehicles, which account for 86% of passenger-miles traveled.

The remaining 14% was handled by planes and buses. Public transit use is concentrated in large older cities, with only six above 25% and only New York City above 50% of trips on transit. Airlines carry all non-commuter intercity traffic, except the Northeast Corridor where Amtrak carries more than all airlines combined; the world's second largest automobile market, the United States has the highest rate of per-capita vehicle ownership in the world, with 865 vehicles per 1,000 Americans. Bicycle usage is minimal with the American Community Survey reporting that bicycle commuting had a 0.61% mode share in 2012. Freight transportation is carried by a variety of networks; the largest percentage of US freight is carried by trucks, followed by pipelines, rail and air. Other modes of transportation, such as parcels and intermodal freight accounted for about 3% of the remainder. Air freight is used only for perishables and premium express shipments; the difference in percentage of rail's share by ton-miles and by weight is accounted for by the extreme efficiency of trains.

A single railroad locomotive may pull fifty boxcars full of freight. Trucks surpass trains in the weight category due their greater numbers, while trains surpass trucks in the ton-miles category due to the vast distances they travel carrying large amounts of freight. Cargo, apart from petroleum and other bulk commodities, is imported in containers through seaports distributed by road and rail; the quasi-governmental United States Postal Service has a monopoly on letter delivery but several large private companies such as FedEx and UPS compete in the package and cargo delivery market. In the late 18th century overland transportation was by horse, while water and river transportation was by sailing vessel; the United States population was centered on its Atlantic coast, with all major population centers located on a natural harbor or navigable waterway. Low population density between these centers resulted in a heavy reliance on coastwise and riverboat shipping; the first government expenditures on highway transportation were funded to speed the delivery of overland mail, such as the Boston Post Road between New York City and Boston.

Due to the distances between these population centers and the cost to maintain the roads, many highways in the late 18th century and early 19th century were private turnpikes. Other highways were unimproved and impassable by wagon at least some of the year. Economic expansion in the late 18th century to early 19th century spurred the building of canals to speed goods to market, of which the most prominently successful example was the Erie Canal. In the transportation revolution, 1815-1860, there were numerous competing forms of transportation, indeed each new improved mode challenged and replaced the last favorite. For example, turnpikes stagecoaches and wagon roads gave way to Canals, on which mules are horses hauled passengers and freight; the canals were soon replaced by site-Wheeler riverboats, finally by railway locomotives. Access to water transportation shaped the geography of early boundaries. Fo

RĂ¡dio Clube (Ponta Grossa)

Rádio Clube is a Brazilian radio station from Ponta Grossa, Paraná, an affiliate of Bandeirantes Radio Network. The station covers, in addition to Ponta Grossa, municipalities such as Carambeí, Ipiranga, Jaguariaíva and Telemaco Borba, operating since August 10, 2017 at 94.1 MHz FM. It is the oldest radio station in activity in the Paraná; the station was founded by entrepreneurs Abilio Holzmann and Manoel Machuca on January 21, 1940 together with former governor Manoel Ribas, the Maneco Falcão. It is the oldest radio in the second oldest in the state. In fact the station had obtained the authorization to operate on 15 of September 1939, but began its operations a year after. In the debut it operated with 250 W in 1250 kHz MW, at that time it was said that it was in 240 meters with the first studio in the Street Ernesto Vilela, 96, the transmission tower is next, its prefix was PRJ2, so to this day it is called that. Subsequently, other radios appeared, forming the Paranaense Network of Broadcasters, with stations in Paraná and Santa Catarina.

Holzmann besides being in the direction, would accompany the sportive team. In 1982, Machuca and Holzmann sold to a political group; the Holzmann Group stayed with the Central Radio. Some employees remained during this transition period. On April 19, 2018 Rogério Serman, who had a leading audience program in the morning, the speaker was vice mayor and programming director of the radio. By the bill 213/2018 the councilman Sebastião Mainardes proposes to pay homage to the former politician and broadcaster giving his name to the Lake of Olarias. Anatel channel report Signal strength in the coverage region