National Diet Library
The National Diet Library is the national library of Japan and among the largest libraries in the world. It was established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the National Diet of Japan in researching matters of public policy; the library is similar in scope to the United States Library of Congress. The National Diet Library consists of two main facilities in Tōkyō and Kyōtō, several other branch libraries throughout Japan; the National Diet Library is the successor of three separate libraries: the library of the House of Peers, the library of the House of Representatives, both of which were established at the creation of Japan's Imperial Diet in 1890. The Diet's power in prewar Japan was limited, its need for information was "correspondingly small"; the original Diet libraries "never developed either the collections or the services which might have made them vital adjuncts of genuinely responsible legislative activity". Until Japan's defeat, the executive had controlled all political documents, depriving the people and the Diet of access to vital information.
The U. S. occupation forces under General Douglas MacArthur deemed reform of the Diet library system to be an important part of the democratization of Japan after its defeat in World War II. In 1946, each house of the Diet formed its own National Diet Library Standing Committee. Hani Gorō, a Marxist historian, imprisoned during the war for thought crimes and had been elected to the House of Councillors after the war, spearheaded the reform efforts. Hani envisioned the new body as "both a'citadel of popular sovereignty'", the means of realizing a "peaceful revolution"; the Occupation officers responsible for overseeing library reforms reported that, although the Occupation was a catalyst for change, local initiative pre-existed the Occupation, the successful reforms were due to dedicated Japanese like Hani. The National Diet Library opened in June 1948 in the present-day State Guest-House with an initial collection of 100,000 volumes; the first Librarian of the Diet Library was the politician Tokujirō Kanamori.
The philosopher Masakazu Nakai served as the first Vice Librarian. In 1949, the NDL became the only national library in Japan. At this time the collection gained an additional million volumes housed in the former National Library in Ueno. In 1961, the NDL opened at its present location in Nagatachō, adjacent to the National Diet. In 1986, the NDL's Annex was completed to accommodate a combined total of 12 million books and periodicals; the Kansai-kan, which opened in October 2002 in the Kansai Science City, has a collection of 6 million items. In May 2002, the NDL opened a new branch, the International Library of Children's Literature, in the former building of the Imperial Library in Ueno; this branch contains some 400,000 items of children's literature from around the world. Though the NDL's original mandate was to be a research library for the National Diet, the general public is the largest consumer of the library's services. In the fiscal year ending March 2004, for example, the library reported more than 250,000 reference inquiries.
As Japan's national library, the NDL collects copies of all publications published in Japan. Moreover, because the NDL serves as a research library for Diet members, their staffs, the general public, it maintains an extensive collection of materials published in foreign languages on a wide range of topics; the NDL has eight major specialized collections: Modern Political and Constitutional History. The Modern Political and Constitutional History Collection comprises some 300,000 items related to Japan's political and legal modernization in the 19th century, including the original document archives of important Japanese statesmen from the latter half of the 19th century and the early 20th century like Itō Hirobumi, Iwakura Tomomi, Sanjō Sanetomi, Mutsu Munemitsu, Terauchi Masatake, other influential figures from the Meiji and Taishō periods; the NDL has an extensive microform collection of some 30 million pages of documents relating to the Occupation of Japan after World War II. This collection include the documents prepared by General Headquarters and the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, the Far Eastern Commission, the United States Strategic Bombing Survey Team.
The Laws and Preliminary Records Collection consists of some 170,000 Japanese and 200,000 foreign-language documents concerning proceedings of the National Diet and the legislatures of some 70 foreign countries, the official gazettes, judicial opinions, international treaties pertaining to some 150 foreign countries. The NDL maintains a collection of some 530,000 books and booklets and 2 million microform titles relating to the sciences; these materials include, among other things, foreign doctoral dissertations in the sciences, the proceedings and reports of academic societies, catalogues of technical standards, etc. The NDL has a collection of 440,000 maps of Japan and other countries, including the topographica
Oxford English Dictionary
The Oxford English Dictionary is the principal historical dictionary of the English language, published by Oxford University Press. It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world; the second edition, comprising 21,728 pages in 20 volumes, was published in 1989. Work began on the dictionary in 1857, but it was only in 1884 that it began to be published in unbound fascicles as work continued on the project, under the name of A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles. In 1895, the title The Oxford English Dictionary was first used unofficially on the covers of the series, in 1928 the full dictionary was republished in ten bound volumes. In 1933, the title The Oxford English Dictionary replaced the former name in all occurrences in its reprinting as twelve volumes with a one-volume supplement. More supplements came over the years until 1989.
Since 2000, compilation of a third edition of the dictionary has been underway half of, complete. The first electronic version of the dictionary was made available in 1988; the online version has been available since 2000, as of April 2014 was receiving over two million hits per month. The third edition of the dictionary will most only appear in electronic form: the Chief Executive of Oxford University Press has stated that it is unlikely that it will be printed; as a historical dictionary, the Oxford English Dictionary explains words by showing their development rather than their present-day usages. Therefore, it shows definitions in the order that the sense of the word began being used, including word meanings which are no longer used; each definition is shown with numerous short usage quotations. This allows the reader to get an approximate sense of the time period in which a particular word has been in use, additional quotations help the reader to ascertain information about how the word is used in context, beyond any explanation that the dictionary editors can provide.
The format of the OED's entries has influenced numerous other historical lexicography projects. The forerunners to the OED, such as the early volumes of the Deutsches Wörterbuch, had provided few quotations from a limited number of sources, whereas the OED editors preferred larger groups of quite short quotations from a wide selection of authors and publications; this influenced volumes of this and other lexicographical works. According to the publishers, it would take a single person 120 years to "key in" the 59 million words of the OED second edition, 60 years to proofread them, 540 megabytes to store them electronically; as of 30 November 2005, the Oxford English Dictionary contained 301,100 main entries. Supplementing the entry headwords, there are 157,000 bold-type derivatives; the dictionary's latest, complete print edition was printed in 20 volumes, comprising 291,500 entries in 21,730 pages. The longest entry in the OED2 was for the verb set, which required 60,000 words to describe some 430 senses.
As entries began to be revised for the OED3 in sequence starting from M, the longest entry became make in 2000 put in 2007 run in 2011. Despite its considerable size, the OED is neither the world's largest nor the earliest exhaustive dictionary of a language. Another earlier large dictionary is the Grimm brothers' dictionary of the German language, begun in 1838 and completed in 1961; the first edition of the Vocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca is the first great dictionary devoted to a modern European language and was published in 1612. The official dictionary of Spanish is the Diccionario de la lengua española, its first edition was published in 1780; the Kangxi dictionary of Chinese was published in 1716. The dictionary began as a Philological Society project of a small group of intellectuals in London: Richard Chenevix Trench, Herbert Coleridge, Frederick Furnivall, who were dissatisfied with the existing English dictionaries; the Society expressed interest in compiling a new dictionary as early as 1844, but it was not until June 1857 that they began by forming an "Unregistered Words Committee" to search for words that were unlisted or poorly defined in current dictionaries.
In November, Trench's report was not a list of unregistered words. The Society realized that the number of unlisted words would be far more than the number of words in the English dictionaries of the 19th century, shifted their idea from covering only words that were not in English diction
Pope Sixtus V
Pope Sixtus V or Xystus V, born Felice Piergentile, was Pope of the Catholic Church from 24 April 1585 to his death in 1590. As a youth, he joined the Franciscan order, where he displayed talents as a scholar and preacher, enjoyed the patronage of Pius V, who made him a cardinal; as Pope, he energetically rooted out corruption and lawlessness across Rome, launched a far-sighted rebuilding programme that continues to provoke controversy, as it involved the destruction of antiquities. The cost of these works was met by heavy taxation, his foreign policy was regarded as over-ambitious, he excommunicated both Elizabeth I of England and Henry IV of France. He is recognized as a significant figure of the Counter-Reformation. Felice Piergentile was born on 13 December 1521 at Grottammare, in the Papal States, to Francesco Piergentile, Mariana da Frontillo, his family was poor. Felice adopted Peretti as his family name in 1551, was known as "Cardinal Montalto". According to the biographer and church historian Isidoro Gatti, the Peretti family came from Piceno, today's Marche, in Italy.
Another possibility is that the Montalto name originates from his father having come from the village of that name, in fact near Peretti's village of Grottamare. Motoki Nomachi, holds that he was of Dalmatian Slavic origin, according to Sava Nakićenović, he hailed from the Svilanović family from Kruševice in the Bay of Kotor; the theory that his family originated in Kruševice is supported by the fact that the Pope used three pears for his coat of arms. According to this theory, Peretti may be an Italian rendition of the Slavic surname, as Peretti itself links to pears. About 1552 he was noticed by Cardinal Rodolfo Pio da Carpi, Protector of the Franciscan order, Cardinal Ghislieri and Cardinal Caraffa, from that time his advancement was assured, he was sent to Venice as inquisitor general, but was so severe and conducted matters in such a high-handed manner that he became embroiled in quarrels. The government asked for his recall in 1560. After a brief term as procurator of his order, he was attached to the Spanish legation headed by Ugo Cardinal Boncampagni in 1565, sent to investigate a charge of heresy levelled against Bartolomé Carranza, Archbishop of Toledo.
The violent dislike he conceived for Boncampagni exerted a marked influence upon his subsequent actions. He hurried back to Rome upon the accession of Pius V, who made him apostolic vicar of his order, cardinal. During the pontificate of his political enemy Gregory XIII, Cardinal Montalto, as he was called, lived in enforced retirement, occupied with the care of his property, the Villa Montalto, erected by Domenico Fontana close to his beloved church on the Esquiline Hill, overlooking the Baths of Diocletian; the first phase was enlarged after Peretti became pope and was able to clear buildings to open four new streets in 1585–6. The villa contained two residences, the Palazzo Sistino or "di Termini" and the casino, called the Palazzetto Montalto e Felice. Displaced Romans were furious, resentment of this act was still felt centuries when the decision was taken to build the central pontifical railroad station in the area of the Villa, marking the beginning of its destruction. Cardinal Montalto's other concern was with his studies, one of the fruits of, an edition of the works of Ambrose.
As pope he supervised the printing of an improved edition of Jerome's Vulgate – said to be "as splendid a translation of the Bible into Latin as the King James version is into English." Though not neglecting to follow the course of affairs, Felice avoided every occasion of offence. This discretion contributed not a little to his election to the papacy on 24 April 1585, with the title of Sixtus V. One of the things that commended his candidacy to certain cardinals may have been his physical vigour, which seemed to promise a long pontificate; the terrible condition in which Pope Gregory XIII had left the ecclesiastical states called for prompt and stern measures. Sixtus proceeded with an ferocious severity against the prevailing lawlessness. Thousands of brigands were brought to justice: within a short time the country was again quiet and safe, it was claimed that there were more heads on spikes across the Ponte Sant'Angelo than melons for sale in the marketplace. And clergy and nuns were executed.
Next Sixtus set to work to repair the finances. By the sale of offices, the establishment of new "Monti" and by levying new taxes, he accumulated a vast surplus, which he stored up against certain specified emergencies, such as a crusade or the defence of the Holy See. Sixtus prided himself upon his hoard, but the method by which it had been amassed was financially unsound: some of the taxes proved ruinous, the withdrawal of so much money from circulation could not fail to cause distress. Immense sums were spent upon public works, in carrying through the comprehensive planning that had come to fruition during his retirement, bringing water to the waterless hills in the Acqua Felice, feeding twenty-seven new fountains. Inspired by the ideal of the Renaissance city, Pope Sixtus V’s ambitious urban reform programme transformed the old environment to emulate the “long straight streets, wide regular spaces and repetitiveness
Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties. Those who engage in acts of piracy are called pirates; the earliest documented instances of piracy were in the 14th century BC, when the Sea Peoples, a group of ocean raiders, attacked the ships of the Aegean and Mediterranean civilizations. Narrow channels which funnel shipping into predictable routes have long created opportunities for piracy, as well as for privateering and commerce raiding. Historic examples include the waters of Gibraltar, the Strait of Malacca, the Gulf of Aden, the English Channel, whose geographic structures facilitated pirate attacks. A land-based parallel is the ambushing of travelers by bandits and brigands in highways and mountain passes. Privateering uses similar methods to piracy, but the captain acts under orders of the state authorizing the capture of merchant ships belonging to an enemy nation, making it a legitimate form of war-like activity by non-state actors.
While the term can include acts committed in the air, on land, or in other major bodies of water or on a shore, in cyberspace, as well as the fictional possibility of space piracy, this article focuses on maritime piracy. It does not include crimes committed against people traveling on the same vessel as the perpetrator. Piracy or pirating is the name of a specific crime under customary international law and the name of a number of crimes under the municipal law of a number of states. In the early 21st century, seaborne piracy against transport vessels remains a significant issue in the waters between the Red Sea and Indian Ocean, off the Somali coast, in the Strait of Malacca and Singapore. Today, pirates armed with automatic weapons, such as assault rifles, machine guns and rocket propelled grenades use small motorboats to attack and board ships, a tactic that takes advantage of the small number of crew members on modern cargo vessels and transport ships, they use larger vessels, known as "mother ships", to supply the smaller motorboats.
The international community is facing many challenges in bringing modern pirates to justice, as these attacks occur in international waters. Some nations have used their naval forces to protect private ships from pirate attacks and to pursue pirates, some private vessels use armed security guards, high-pressure water cannons, or sound cannons to repel boarders, use radar to avoid potential threats; the English word "pirate" comes from the Latin term purateivitia and that from Greek πειρατής, "brigand", in turn from πειράομαι, "I attempt", from πεῖρα, "attempt, experience". The meaning of the Greek word peiratēs is "one who attacks"; the word is cognate to peril. The term first appeared in English c. 1300. Spelling did not become standardised until the eighteenth century, spellings such as "pirrot", "pyrate" and "pyrat" occurred until this period, it may be reasonable to assume that piracy has existed for as long as the oceans were plied for commerce. As early as 258 AD, the Gothic-Herulic fleet ravaged towns on the coasts of the Black Sea and Sea of Marmara.
The Aegean coast suffered similar attacks a few years later. In 264, the Goths reached Galatia and Cappadocia, Gothic pirates landed on Cyprus and Crete. In the process, the Goths took thousands into captivity. In 286 AD, Carausius, a Roman military commander of Gaulish origins, was appointed to command the Classis Britannica, given the responsibility of eliminating Frankish and Saxon pirates, raiding the coasts of Armorica and Belgic Gaul. In the Roman province of Britannia, Saint Patrick was enslaved by Irish pirates; the most known and far-reaching pirates in medieval Europe were the Vikings, seaborne warriors from Scandinavia who raided and looted between the 8th and 12th centuries, during the Viking Age in the Early Middle Ages. They raided the coasts and inland cities of all Western Europe as far as Seville, attacked by the Norse in 844. Vikings attacked the coasts of North Africa and Italy and plundered all the coasts of the Baltic Sea; some Vikings ascending the rivers of Eastern Europe as far as the Black Sea and Persia.
The lack of centralized powers all over Europe during the Middle Ages enabled pirates to attack ships and coastal areas all over the continent. In the Late Middle Ages, the Frisian pirates known as Arumer Zwarte Hoop led by Pier Gerlofs Donia and Wijerd Jelckama, fought against the troops of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V with some success. Toward the end of the 9th century, Moorish pirate havens were established along the coast of southern France and northern Italy. In 846 Moor raiders sacked the extra muros Basilicas of Saint Paul in Rome. In 911, the bishop of Narbonne was unable to return to France from Rome because the Moors from Fraxinet controlled all the passes in the Alps. Moor pirates operated out of the Balearic Islands in the 10th century. From 824 to 961 Arab pirates in the Emirate of Crete raided the entire Mediterranean. In the 14th century, raids by Moor pirates forced the Venetian Duke of Crete to ask Venice to keep its fleet on constant guard. After the Slavic invasions of the former Roman province of Dalmatia in the 5th and 6th centuries, a tribe called the Narentines revived the old Illyrian piratical habits and raided the Adriatic Sea starting in the 7th
Eric John Ernest Hobsbawm was a British historian of the rise of industrial capitalism and nationalism. He is considered as one of the world's best-known historians. Ideologically a life-long Marxist, his socio-political convictions influenced the character of his work, his best-known works include his trilogy about what he called the "long 19th century", The Age of Extremes on the short 20th century, an edited volume that introduced the influential idea of "invented traditions". Hobsbawm was born in Egypt but spent his childhood in Vienna and Berlin. Following the death of his parents and the rise to power of Adolf Hitler, Hobsbawm moved to London with his adoptive family obtained his PhD in history at the University of Cambridge before serving in the Second World War. In 1998 he was appointed to the Order of the Companions of Honour, he was President of University of London from 2002 until his death. In 2003 he received the Balzan Prize for European History since 1900 "for his brilliant analysis of the troubled history of 20th century Europe and for his ability to combine in-depth historical research with great literary talent."
Eric Hobsbawm was born in 1917 in Egypt. His father was Leopold Percy Hobsbaum, a merchant from the East End of London of Polish Jewish descent, his mother was Nelly Hobsbaum, from a middle-class Austrian Jewish family. Eric's early childhood was spent in Vienna and Berlin, Germany. A clerical error at birth altered his surname from Hobsbaum to Hobsbawm. Although the family lived in German-speaking countries, Eric grew up speaking English as his first language, his childhood spent in Austria and Germany created the widespread belief that Hobsbawm was a refugee who had left Germany for England in 1933, though he was English by birth because of his father. In 1929, when Hobsbawm was 12, his father died, he started contributing to his family's support by working as an au pair and English tutor. Upon the death of their mother in 1931, he and Nancy were adopted by their maternal aunt and paternal uncle, who married and had a son named Peter. Hobsbawm was a student at the Prinz Heinrich-Gymnasium Berlin when the Nazi Party came to power in 1933.
That year the family moved to London. Hobsbawm attended King's College, from 1936, where he joined the Communist Party "in the form of the university's Socialist Club." He took a double-starred first in History and was elected to the Cambridge Apostles. He received a doctorate in History from Cambridge University for his dissertation on the Fabian Society. During the Second World War, he served in the Army Educational Corps. Hobsbawm's first marriage was to Muriel Seaman in 1943, they divorced in 1951. His second marriage was to Marlene Schwarz, with whom he had two children, Julia Hobsbawm and Andy Hobsbawm. Julia is chief executive of Hobsbawm Media and Marketing and a visiting professor of public relations at the College of Communication, University of the Arts London, he had an out-of-wedlock son, Joshua Bennathan, who died in November 2014. His political affiliation sometimes impacted Hobsbawm's ability to find employment. In 1945 he applied to the BBC for a full-time post making educational broadcasts to help servicemen adjust to civilian life after a long period in the forces, but the appointment was swiftly vetoed by MI5.
MI5 found Hobsbawm not " to lose any opportunity he may get to disseminate propaganda and obtain recruits for the Communist party”. In 1947, he became a lecturer in history at Birkbeck, he became reader in 1959, professor between 1970 and 1982 and an emeritus professor of history in 1982. He was a Fellow of King's College, from 1949 to 1955. Hobsbawm said there was a weaker version of McCarthyism that took hold in Britain and affected Marxist academics: "you didn't get promotion for 10 years, but nobody threw you out". Hobsbawm was denied a lectureship at Cambridge by political enemies, given that he was blocked for a time from a professorship at Birkbeck for the same reasons, spoke of his good fortune at having got a post at Birkbeck in 1948 before the Cold War started to take off. Conservative commentator David Pryce-Jones has questioned the existence of such career obstacles. Hobsbawm helped found the academic journal Past & Present in 1952, he was a visiting professor at Stanford in the 1960s.
In 1970s, he was appointed professor and in 1976 he became a Fellow of the British Academy. He was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1971 and a Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature in 2006, he retired in 1982 but stayed as visiting professor at The New School for Social Research in Manhattan between 1984 and 1997. He was, until his death, president of Birkbeck and professor emeritus in the New School for Social Research in the Political Science Department. A polyglot, he spoke German, French and Italian fluently, read Portuguese and Catalan. Hobsbawm wrote extensively on many subjects as one of Britain's most prominent historians; as a Marxist historiographer he has focused on analysis of the "dual revolution". He saw their effect as a driving force behind the predominant trend towards liberal capitalism today. Another recurring theme in his work was social banditry, which Hobsbawm placed in a social and historical context, thus countering the traditional view of it being a spontaneous and unpredictable form of pri
A gang is a group of associates, friends or members of a family with a defined leadership and internal organization that identifies with or claims control over territory in a community and engages, either individually or collectively, in illegal, violent, behavior. Some criminal gang members are "jumped in", or they have to prove their loyalty and right to belong by committing certain acts theft or violence. A member of a gang may be called a gangster, a gang banger, or, less a thug. A number of gangs have gained notoriety throughout history, including the Italian Mafia, the Russian mafia, the Irish mob, the Polish mob, the Jewish mob, the Albanian mafia, the Yakuza in Japan, the Kkangpae in Korea, the Triad in China, the gangs of New England, the Jamaican Shower Posse and Yardies, the African-American Crips and Bloods, Latino gangs such as Latin Kings, MS-13, Sureños, Trinitarios, white supremacist gangs such as the Aryan Brotherhood, Aryan Nations and biker gangs like Hells Angels; the word "gang" derives from the past participle of Old English gan, meaning "to go".
It is cognate with Old Norse gangster, meaning "journey." It means a group of people, may have neutral, positive or negative connotations depending on usage. In discussing the banditry in American history Barrington Moore, Jr. suggests that gangsterism as a "form of self-help which victimizes others" may appear in societies which lack strong "forces of law and order". A wide variety of gangs, such as the Order of Assassins, the Damned Crew, Adam the Leper's gang, Penny Mobs, Indian Thugs, Chinese Triads, Japanese Yakuza, Irish mob, Pancho Villa's Villistas, Dead Rabbits, American Old West outlaw gangs, Bowery Boys, the Italian Mafia, Jewish mafia, Russian mafia crime families have existed for centuries; the 17th century saw London "terrorized by a series of organized gangs", some of them known as the Mims, Hectors and Dead Boys. These gangs came into conflict with each other. Members dressed in the following way: "with colored ribbons to distinguish the different factions."Chicago had over 1,000 gangs in the 1920s.
These early gangs had reputations for many criminal activities, but in most countries could not profit from drug trafficking prior to drugs being made illegal by laws such as the 1912 International Opium Convention and the 1919 Volstead Act. Gang involvement in drug trafficking increased during the 1970s and 1980s, but some gangs continue to have minimal involvement in the trade. In the United States, the history of gangs began on the East Coast in 1783 following the American Revolution; the emergence of the gangs was attributed to the vast rural population immigration to the urban areas. The first street-gang in the United States, the 40 Thieves, began around the late 1820s in New York City; the gangs in Washington D. C. had control of what is now Federal Triangle, in a region known as Murder Bay. In 2007, there were 785,000 active street gang members in the United States, according to the National Youth Gang Center. In 2011, the National Gang Intelligence Center of the Federal Bureau of Investigation asserted that "There are 1.4 million active street and outlaw gang members comprising more than 33,500 gangs in the United States."
230,000 gang members were in U. S. prisons or jails in 2011. According to the Chicago Crime Commission publication, "The Gang Book 2012", Chicago has the highest number of gang members of any city in the United States: 150,000 members. Traditionally Los Angeles County has been considered the Gang Capital of America, with an estimated 120,000 gang members. There were at least 30,000 gangs and 800,000 gang members active across the USA in 2007. About 900,000 gang members lived "within local communities across the country," and about 147,000 were in U. S. prisons or jails in 2009. By 1999, Hispanics accounted for 47% of all gang members, Blacks 31%, Whites 13%, Asians 7%. In December 13, 2009, The New York Times published an article about growing gang violence on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and estimated that there were 39 gangs with 5,000 members on that reservation alone. There are between 50,000 gang members in Central America's El Salvador. More than 1,800 gangs were known to be operating in the UK in 2011.
The FBI estimates that the four Italian organized crime groups active in the United States have 25,000 members in total. The Russian, Azerbaijani, Georgian and other former Soviet organized crime groups or "Bratvas" have many members and associates affiliated with their various sorts of organized crime, but no statistics are available; the Yakuza are among one of the largest criminal organizations in the world. As of 2005, there are some 102,400 known members in Japan. Hong Kong's Triads include up to 160,000 members in the 21st century, it was estimated. One of the most infamous criminal gangs are the Sicilian Cosa Nostra and the Italian-American Mafia; the Neapolitan Camorra, the Calabrian'Ndrangheta and the Apulian Sacra Corona Unita are similar Italian organized gangs. Other criminal gangs include the Russian mafia, Colombian Drug Cartels, the Aryan Brotherhood, the Mexican Mafia, the Texas Syndicate, the Black Guerrilla Family, the Nuestra Familia, the Mara Salvatrucha, the Primeiro Comando da Capital, the Irish Mob, the Puerto Rican Mafia, Nuestra familia, the Chinese Triads, the Japanese Yakuza, the Jamaican-British Yardies, the Haitian gang Zoe Pound, other crime syndicates.
Bandenbekämpfung is a German-language term that means "bandit fighting" or "combating of bandits". In the context of German military history, Bandenbekämpfung was an operational doctrine, part of countering resistance or insurrection in the rear area during wars. Another more common understanding of Bandenbekämpfung is anti-partisan warfare; the doctrine of "bandit-fighting" provided a rationale to target and murder any number of groups, from armed guerrillas to the civilian population, as "bandits" or "members of gangs". As applied by the German Empire and Nazi Germany, it became instrumental in the genocidal programs implemented by the two regimes, including the Holocaust. Under the German Empire established by Bismarck in 1871 after the Franco-Prussian War—formed with the union of twenty-five German states under the Hohenzollern king—Prussian militarism flourished; some of the theories laid out by Jomini contained instructions for intense offensive operations and the necessity of securing one's "lines of operations."
German military officers took this to mean as much attention should be given to logistical operations used to fight the war at the rear as those in the front. Following Jomini's lead, Obersleutnant Albrecht von Boguslawski published lectures entitled Der Kleine Krieg, which outlined in detail the tactical procedures related to partisan and anti-partisan warfare—likely deliberately written without clear distinctions between combatant and non-combatants. To what extent this contributed to the intensification of unrestrained warfare cannot be known, but Prussian officers like Alfred von Schlieffen encouraged his professional soldiers to embrace a dictum advocating that "for every problem, there was a military solution."Prussian security operations during the Franco-Prussian War included the use of the Landwehr, whose duties ranged from guarding railroad lines, to taking hostages, carrying out reprisals to deter activities of the franc-tireur. Foreign Minister of Prussia under Wilhelm I and German Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, wanted all franc-tireurs hung or shot, encouraged his military commanders to burn down villages that housed them.
More formal structures like Chief of the Field Railway, a Military Railway Corps, District Commanders, Special Military Courts, intelligence units, military police of varying duties and nomenclature were integrated into the Prussian system to bolster security operations all along the military's operational lines. Such was the heritage of German anti-partisan warfare. Operationally, the first attempts to use tactics that would develop into Bandenbekämpfung or be recognized as such were carried out in China in the wake of the Boxer Rebellion, after two German officers went missing, followed up with more than fifty operations by German troops, who set fire to a village and held prisoners. Shortly after these operations, the infantry was provided with a handbook for "operations against Chinese bandits"; the first full application of Bandenbekämpfung in practice, was the Herero and Namaqua genocide, a campaign of racial extermination and collective punishment that the German Empire undertook in German South West Africa against the Herero and Nama people.
During the First World War, the German army ignored many of the understood European conventions of war, when between August and October 1914, they deliberately killed some 6,500 French and Belgian citizens. Throughout the war, Germany's integrated intelligence, perimeter police, guard network, border control measures all coalesced to define the German military's security operations. Along the Eastern front sometime in August 1915, Field Marshal Falkenhayn established a general government under General von Beseler, creating an infrastructure to support ongoing military operations, which included guards posts, patrols and a security network. Maintaining security meant dealing with Russian prisoners, many of whom tried to sabotage German plans and kill German soldiers, so harsh pacification measures and terror actions were carried out to deal with these partisans, otherwise known as bandits. Before long, similar practices were being instituted throughout both the Eastern and Western areas of German occupation.
German army policy for deterring partisan or "bandit" activities against its forces was to strike "such terror into the population that it loses all will to resist." Before the Nazi campaign in the east had begun, Hitler had absolved his soldiers from any responsibility for brutality against civilians, expecting his soldiers and police forces to kill anyone that "looked askance" at the German forces. Much of the partisan warfare became an exercise of anti-Semitism, as military commanders like General Bechtolsheim exclaimed that whenever an act of sabotage was committed and one killed the Jews from that village "one can be certain that one has destroyed the perpetrators, or at least those who stood behind them." When the Wehrmacht entered Serbia in 1941, they carried out mass reprisals against partisans by executing Jews there. The commander responsible for combating partisan warfare in 1941, General Böhme, reiterated to the German forces, "that rivers of German blood" had been spilled in Serbia during the First World War and the Wehrmacht should consider any acts of violence there as "avenging these deaths."From September 1941 onwards through the course of World War II, the term Bandenbekämpfung supplanted Partisanenkämpfung to become the guiding principle of Nazi Ger