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Bands (neckwear)

Bands are a form of formal neckwear, worn by some clergy and lawyers, with some forms of academic dress. They take the form of two oblong pieces of cloth though not invariably white, which are tied to the neck; the word bands is plural because they require two similar parts and did not come as one piece of cloth. Those worn by clergy are called preaching bands, preaching tabs, or Geneva bands. Ruffs were popular in the sixteenth century, remained so until the late 1640s, alongside the more fashionable standing and falling bands. Ruffs, like bands, were sewn to a deep neck-band, they could be either falling ruffs. Standing ruffs were common with legal, official dress till comparatively late. Falling ruffs were popular circa 1615–1640s. In the early sixteenth century bands referred to the shirt neck-band under a ruff. For the rest of the century, when ruffs were still worn, in the seventeenth century, bands referred to all the variations of this neckwear. All bands or collars arose from a standing neck-band of varying heights.

They were tied at the throat with band-strings ending in crochet-covered balls. Bands were adopted in England for legal, official and academical use in the mid-seventeenth century, they varied from those worn by priests, to the much shorter ecclesiastical bands of black gauze with white hem showing on the outside. Both were developments of the seventeenth century lay collar. Bands varied from small white turn-down collars and ruffs to point lace bands, depending upon fashion, until the mid-seventeenth century, when plain white bands came to be the invariable neck-wear of all judges, barristers, students and academics; the bands are two strips of bleached holland or similar material, falling down the front from the collar. Plain linen'falling bands', developed from the falling collar, replaced the ruff about 1640. By 1650 they were universal. In the form of a wide collar, tied with a lace in front, by the 1680s they had diminished to the traditional form of two rectangles of linen tied at the throat.

Bands did not become academically significant until they were abandoned as an ordinary lay fashion after the Restoration in 1660. They became identified as applicable to clerical and academic individuals in the early eighteenth century, when they became longer and narrower in form. From the eighteenth century judges and Queen's Counsel took to wearing lace jabots instead of bands at courts and leveés. Bands are now worn by judges, Queen's Counsel, solicitors, court officials, certain public officials, university officials and less also by graduands; these form part of the full dress of Queen's Counsel, circuit judges, the Lord Chief Justice. Mourning bands, which have a double pleat running down the middle of each wing or tongue, are still used by barristers. Clergy may wear bands, which may be of black material, which are known as Geneva bands. By the end of the seventeenth century Queen's Counsel wore richly laced cravats. From the part of the eighteenth century they wore bands instead of the cravat as undress.

In the eighteenth century a lace fall was used as an alternative to the bands by judges in full dress. Both falling and standing bands were white, lace or lace-edged cambric or silk, but both might be plain; the standing bands, a semi-circular collar, the curved edge standing up round the back of the head. While the straight horizontal edges in front met under the chin and were tied by band-strings, the collar was worn turned down, it was supported on a wire frame attached to the neck of the doublet behind. The starched collar rested on this, it was of linen, but lawn and lace. They were popular for a quarter of a century; the soft, unstiffened collar draped over the shoulders of the doublet were called falling-bands. Until the Civil War barristers wore falling bands known as a rabat, with about six tabs arranged one upon the other, having the appearance of ruffs rather than bands, they differed from the bands of the clergy of that period in that they were not poked as the latter were. Lawyers took to modern bands about the middle of the seventeenth century.

They continued in ecclesiastical use well into the nineteenth century in the smaller, linen strip or tab form- short-bands. These are retained by some priests of the Church of England, academics and ministers of the Church of Scotland, the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, the English non-conformist churches. Bands were adopted early in the eighteenth century, by parish clerks and dissenting ministers, as well as by clergymen of the established churches in Europe; the bands were wide, set close together. The outer white edge is the hemmed linen fabric which, being turned over onto itself three times, is opaque; the falling bands, worn 1540s to 1670s, could take three forms. Firstly, a small turned-down collar from a high neck-band, with an inverted v-or pyramidal-shaped spread under the chin and tied by band-strings sometimes visible but concealed, they were plain. These were popular 1590 to 1605 in military or Puritan circles, reappearing 1620–1650, when they were larger. Secondly, they could take the form of a wide collar, spreading horizontally from side to side across the shoulder, with the band-strings as formerly.

These were popular 1630s to 1640s. Thirdly, a deep collar or bib, square-cut, spreading down the chest, the front borders meeting edge to edge flat

St Andrew's Cathedral, Dundee

The Cathedral Church of St Andrew is a Catholic cathedral in the West End of the city of Dundee, Scotland. The cathedral is the seat of the Bishop of Dunkeld and mother church of the Diocese of Dunkeld within the Province of St Andrews and Edinburgh; the bishop, since 9 January 2014, is Stephen Robson. The Cathedral sits at what was the western edge of the town's almhouse that survived until the sixteenth century; the building, the facade of, in the Victorian Gothic design, was designed by Dundee native architect George Mathewson. Opened on 7 August 1836, it is the oldest Catholic Church in Dundee, has a seating capacity of about 1,000; the halls in the basement served for years as the only Catholic school in the city. The church was dedicated as a cathedral on 4 February 1923; the sanctuary area, which contains the high altar and stalls for the canons of the cathedral, was added by knocking out the back wall and building on top of the clergy house. As a result, the altar area is higher than the body of the cathedral.

The cathedral is unusual in that the floor slopes from the entrance to the entrance to the sanctuary. There are two side altars in the cathedral; as in all Catholic churches, the cathedral has a set of the Stations of the Cross on the walls. In the vestibule there is a statue of Saint Andrew. At the back of the cathedral is the baptistry next to, a representation of the Pietà; the usual Sunday Mass times at the cathedral are 6 pm. Website of the Diocese of Dunkeld

Józef Zapędzki

Józef Zapędzki is a retired Polish sport shooter. He competed at five consecutive Olympics from 1964 to 1980 in 25 m rapid fire pistol and won two gold medals, in 1968 and 1972, he is one of three shooters to have defended the men's 25 m rapid fire pistol Olympic title. He is a 23-time Polish Champion. Throughout most of his sporting career, he represented the Śląsk Wrocław sports club. "Zapędzki Józef". WIEM Encyklopedia. "Zapędzki Józef". Zasoby Polskiego Portalu Olimpijskiego PKOl. Archived from the original on 30 October 2007. Retrieved 14 November 2007. Kopeć, Dariusz. "Ballada o snajperze". Gazeta.pl Wrocław

Lock time

Lock time or action time refers to the time interval from when the trigger of a firearm is activated until the firing pin strikes the primer, depends on the design of the firing mechanism. A long lock time increases the probability of the shooter pulling the sights away from the target before the bullet has left the barrel, a common shooter error which can lead to poor hits or misses. Shooters can therefore tend to experience better precision using firearms with a shorter lock time, short lock times are sought after for shooting competitions which require high precision on small targets from unstable positions, such as the standing offhand position; the lock time can be measured electronically, but is instead calculated mathematically by the manufacturer. Important mathematical design parameters taken into consideration is the spring constant, firing pin weight as well as the weight of any other moving parts and length of movement; the lock time of conventional bolt action rifles is around 2.6 to 9.0 milliseconds.

For example, the SIG Sauer 200 STR/SSG 3000 has a short lock time of 2.4 ms. Firearm mechanisms utilizing a hammer are known for having long lock times since the hammer becomes an extra moving part contributing to a longer lock time. For instance, the mil-spec AR-15 and HK416 triggers have a lock time around 10 ms. Firearms with an electric primer can reach lock times close to zero milliseconds. Aftermarket part kits are available for several production rifles under names such as known as "speedlock"; these kits reduce the lock time compared to the factory rifle by using a lighter firing pin and more powerful springs. While ordinary firing pins are made out of steel, speedlock firing pins are either made of titanium or a mix of steel and aluminium, which in some cases can reduce the weight of the new firing pin to near half of the original. More powerful springs are used to further increase the firing pin velocity for further decreasing the lock time, as well as increase reliability since the new firing pin has less mass.

On hammer fired firearms a more lightweight hammer and a more powerful hammer spring can shorten the lock time, but a hammer fired firearm will still have a noticeable longer lock time than mechanisms without a hammer. To reduce lock time electronic trigger sytems can sometimes be fitted instead of mechanical trigger systems. Electronic triggers systems are found in high-end match arms and can reduce action time by about 90% or one order of magnitude. At low lock times the dwell time of the bullet or pellet becomes the most influential element; the lock time for an electronic firing circuit with electric ignition of a cartridge can be expected to be around 27 microseconds. Remington's Model 700 EtronX electronic firing circuit achieves a two orders of magnitude reduction compared to the standard Remington 700 rifle mechanical triger mechanism. Accurizing Locktime and triggers written by Randy Wakeman

List of Serbia men's national basketball team players

This is a list of men's national basketball team players who represented Serbia at the EuroBasket, the FIBA Basketball World Cup, the Summer Olympics. Since 2006, the Serbia squad has participated at six EuroBasket tournaments, three Basketball World Cups and the 2016 Summer Olympics. Guard Stefan Marković holds the records of eight tournaments played in a row. In this list are not included players that: played at the qualification tournaments for named competitions, the Mediterranean Games, other minor tournaments, represented Serbia and Montenegro. Note: This list is correct through the end of the 2019 FIBA Basketball World Cup. List of Yugoslavia men's national basketball team rosters 2016 Serbia OQT basketball team Serbia team for 2019 FIBA Basketball World Cup qualification Serbia team for EuroBasket 2021 qualification Official website

Margaret (moon)

Margaret is the only prograde irregular satellite of Uranus. It was discovered by Scott S. Sheppard, et al. in 2003 and given the provisional designation S/2003 U 3. Confirmed as Uranus XXIII, it was named after the servant of Hero in William Shakespeare's play Much Ado About Nothing. Margaret stands out as the only prograde irregular satellite of Uranus; the diagram illustrates the orbital parameters of Margaret, unique among the irregular satellites of Uranus, with inclination on the vertical axis and the eccentricity of the orbits represented by the segments extending from the pericentre to the apocentre. Margaret's inclination of 57° is close to the limit of stability; the intermediate inclinations 60 < i < 140 are devoid of known moons due to the Kozai instability. In this instability region, solar perturbations at apoapse cause the moons in this region to acquire large eccentricities that lead to collisions or ejection over 10 million to a billion years. Margaret's periapsis precession period is 1.6 million years long.

Margaret itself may be ejected from the Uranian system in the far future. In 2008, Margaret's current eccentricity was 0.7979. This temporarily gives Margaret the most eccentric orbit of any moon in the Solar System, though Nereid's mean eccentricity is greater. Uranus' natural satellites Sheppard, S. S.. "An Ultradeep Survey for Irregular Satellites of Uranus: Limits to Completeness". The Astronomical Journal. 129: 518–525. ArXiv:astro-ph/0410059. Bibcode:2005AJ....129..518S. Doi:10.1086/426329. Margaret Profile by NASA's Solar System Exploration David Jewitt pages Uranus' Known Satellites Ephemeris IAU-NSES