A concert is a live music performance in front of an audience. The performance may be by a single musician, sometimes called a recital, or by a musical ensemble, such as an orchestra, choir, or band. Concerts are held in a wide variety and size of settings, from private houses and small nightclubs, dedicated concert halls and parks to large multipurpose buildings, sports stadiums. Indoor concerts held in the largest venues are sometimes called arena concerts or amphitheatre concerts. Informal names for a concert include gig. Regardless of the venue, musicians perform on a stage. Concerts require live event support with professional audio equipment. Before recorded music, concerts provided the main opportunity to hear musicians play. While the first concerts didn’t appear until the late 17th century, similar gatherings had been around throughout the 17th century at several European universities, such as Oxford and Cambridge. Though, the first public concerts that required an admission were created by the English violinist, John Banister.
Over the next few centuries, concerts began to gain larger audiences, classical symphonies were popular. After World War 2, these events changed into the modern concerts that take place today. An example of an early, post-WW2 concert is the Moondog Coronation Ball; as stated in the general history part above, the first known occurrence of concerts where people are charged admission took place at violinist John Banister's home in Whitefriars, London in 1672. 6 years in 1678, a man by the name of Thomas Britton held weekly concerts in Clerkenwell. However, these concerts were different. Before, you had an admission that you paid upon entering the building where the concert was held but at Britton's concerts, patrons purchased a yearly subscription to come to the concerts. At 10 shillings a year, people could see as many concerts. In addition to holding concerts at certain venues, concerts went to the people. In 17th century France, concerts were performed for only the nobility. Organized by Anne Danican Philidor, the first public concerts in France, arguably the world, were the Concerts Spirituels.
These concerts were held on religious holidays when the Opera was closed and served as a model for concert societies all over the world. In the late 18th century, music from the likes of Haydn and Mozart was brought and performed in English concerts. One notable work from Haydn performed at these concerts was his set of 12 symphonies referred to as the London Symphonies. Concerts reflecting the elegance of England during the time period were held at the gardens of Vauxhall and Marylebone; the musical repertoire performed at these events ranged from works composed by young Mozart, to songs that were popular in that time period. The nature of a concert varies by musical genre, individual performers, the venue. Concerts by a small jazz combo or small bluegrass band may have the same order of program and volume—but vary in music and dress. In a similar way, a particular musician, band, or genre of music might attract concert attendees with similar dress and behavior. For example, concert goers in the 1960s had long hair and inexpensive clothing made of natural fibers.
Regular attendees to a concert venue might have a recognizable style that comprises that venue's scene. A recital is a concert by small group which follows a program, it can highlight a single performer, sometimes accompanied by piano, or a performance of the works of a single composer, or a single instrument. The invention of the solo piano recital has been attributed to Franz Liszt. A recital may have many participants, as for a dance recital. A dance recital is a presentation of choreographed moves for an audience in an established performing arts venue competitively; some dance recitals are seasonal. Some performers or groups put on elaborate and expensive shows. To create a memorable and exciting atmosphere and increase the spectacle, performers include additional entertainment devices; these can include elaborate stage lighting, electronic imagery via system and/or pre-recorded video, inflatable sets, artwork or other set pieces, various special effects such as theatrical smoke and fog and pyrotechnics, unusual costumes or wardrobe.
Some singers popular music, augment concert sound with pre-recorded accompaniment, back-up dancers, broadcast vocal tracks of the singer's own voice. Activities during these concerts can include dancing, sing-alongs, moshing. Performers known for including these elements in their performances include: Pink Floyd, The Flaming Lips, Prince, Alice Cooper, Iron Maiden, Daft Punk, Lady Gaga, Jean Michel Jarre, Sarah Brightman, KISS, Gwar and Madonna. Classical concerts embody two different styles of classical music — orchestral and choral, they are performed by a plethora of different groups in concert halls or other performing art venues. For orchestra, depending on the number of performers and the instruments used, concerts include chamber music, chamber orchestra, or symphony orchestra. Chamber orchestra is a small-scale orchestra containing between ten to forty members string instruments, led by a conductor. Symphony orchestra, on the other hand, is a large-scale orchestra that can have up to eighty or more members, led by a conductor and is performed with instruments such as strings, brass instruments, percussion.
For choral style pieces, concerts include Choral music and musical theater. Each encompassing a variety of singers who are organized by a conductor or
A gazebo is a pavilion structure, sometimes octagonal or turret-shaped built in a park, garden or spacious public area. Gazebos are freestanding or attached to a garden wall and open on all sides, they provide shade, ornamental features in a landscape, a place to rest. Some gazebos in public parks are large enough to serve as bandstands or rain shelters. Gazebos overlap with pavilions, alhambras, follies, gloriettes and rotundas; such structures feature in the literature of China and many other classical civilizations. Examples of such structures in England are the garden houses at Montacute House in Somerset; the gazebo at Elton on the Hill in Nottinghamshire, thought to date from the late 18th or early 19th century, is a square, crenelated and stone tower with an arched opening. It acted as a focus for an extensive system of red-brick walled gardens, which has survived with some more modern additions. There is a prominent gazebo at the Grounds for Sculpture site in Hamilton Township, Mercer County, New Jersey, used as a summer refreshment facility.
In contemporary England and North America, gazebos are built of wood and covered with standard roofing materials, such as shingles. Gazebos can be tent-style structures of poles covered by tensioned fabric. Gazebos may have screens to aid in the exclusion of flying insects. Temporary gazebos are set up in the campsites of music festivals in the United Kingdom and the United States accompanying tents around it. A structure resembling a gazebo, found in villages in the Maldives, is known as a holhuashi; the etymology given by Oxford Dictionaries is "Mid 18th century: humorously from gaze, in imitation of Latin future tenses ending in -ebo: compare with lavabo." L. L. Bacon put forward a derivation from a Muslim quarter around the citadel in Algiers. W. Sayers proposed Hispano-Arabic qushaybah, in a poem by Cordoban poet Ibn Quzman; the word gazebo was used by British architects John and William Halfpenny in their book Rural Architecture in the Chinese Taste. Plate 55 of the book, "Elevation of a Chinese Gazebo", shows "a Chinese Tower or Gazebo, situated on a Rock, raised to a considerable Height, a Gallery round it to render the Prospect more complete."
George Washington had a small eight-sided garden structure at Mount Vernon. Thomas Jefferson wrote about gazebos called summerhouses or pavilions. Eric and the Dread Gazebo Bandstand Spring House Gazebo Chickee Chinese pavilion "Gazebo". Encyclopædia Britannica. 11. 1911. P. 545
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Herne Bay is a seaside town in Kent, South East England, with a population of 38,563. On the south coast of the Thames Estuary, it is 6 miles north of Canterbury and 4 miles east of Whitstable, it neighbours the ancient villages of Herne and Reculver and is part of the City of Canterbury local government district. Herne Bay's seafront is home to the world's first freestanding purpose-built Clock Tower, built in 1837; the town began as a small shipping community, receiving goods and passengers from London en route to Canterbury and Dover. The town rose to prominence as a seaside resort during the early 19th century after the building of a pleasure pier and promenade by a group of London investors, reached its heyday in the late Victorian era, its popularity as a holiday destination has declined over the past decades, due to the increase in foreign travel and to a lesser degree exposure to flooding that has prevented the town's redevelopment. The town of Herne Bay took its name from the neighbouring village of Herne, two kilometres inland from the bay.
The word herne, meaning a place on a corner of land, evolved from the Old English hyrne, meaning corner. The village was first recorded in around 1100 as Hyrnan; the corner may relate to the sharp turn in the minor Roman road between Canterbury and Reculver at Herne. One of the oldest buildings in Herne Bay is the late 18th-century inn The Ship, which served as the focal point for the small shipping and farming community that first inhabited the town. During this time and cargo boats ran between Herne Bay and London and boats carrying coal ran from Newcastle. From Herne, there was easy access by road to the city of Canterbury and to Dover, where further passage by boat could be obtained across the English Channel to France; the 1801 census recorded Herne Bay, including Herne, as having a population of 1,232. During the early 19th century, a smugglers' gang operated from the town; the gang were involved in a series of fights with the preventive services until being overpowered in the 1820s. In the 1830s, a group of London investors, who recognised Herne Bay's potential as a seaside resort, built a wooden pier and a promenade on the town's seafront.
This and the subsequent building of a railway station led to the rapid expansion of the town. The London businessmen intended to rename the town St Augustine's, but the name was unpopular with residents and the name "Herne Bay" remained. In 1833, an Act of Parliament established Herne Herne as separate towns. Local landowner Sir Henry Oxenden donated a piece of ground for the site of the town's first church, Christ Church, opened in 1834. In 1837, Mrs Ann Thwaytes, a wealthy lady from London, donated around £4,000 to build a 75 feet clock tower on the town's seafront, it is believed to be the first purpose-built clock tower in the world. During the 1840s, steamboats began running between Herne London. There was a type of beach boat unique to Herne Bay and nearby Thanet, known as the Thanet wherry, a narrow pulling boat about 18 feet long; these boats were used for fishing. A document dated 1840 records the town as having the following schools, all of which are now defunct: Haddington boarding school, Oxenden House, The British School, Prospect Place and Herne Street School.
The village of Herne was called Herne Street around this time. The same document mentions the still-existing Rodney Head, The Ship and Upper Red Lion inns. In 1912, the first "Brides in the Bath" murder by George Joseph Smith was committed in Herne Bay. BBC scriptwriter Anthony Coburn, who lived in the resort, was one of the people who conceived the idea of a police box as a time machine for Doctor Who. During World War II, a sea-fort was built off the coast of Herne Bay and Whitstable, still in existence; the coastal village of Reculver, to the east of Herne Bay, was the site of the testing of the bouncing bomb used by the "Dam Busters" during the war. The original wooden pier had to be dismantled in 1871 after its owners went into liquidation and sea worms had damaged the wood. A shorter 100 metres -long iron pier with a theatre and shops at the entrance was built in 1873. However, it was too short for steamboats to berth at; the pier proved to be unprofitable and in 1896 construction began on a replacement iron pier which would be longer and feature an electric tram.
At 3,600 feet, this pier was the second longest in the country, behind only the pier at Southend-on-Sea. The town's heyday as a seaside resort was during the late Victorian era. Much of the resulting late Victorian seafront architecture is still in existence today. In 1910, a pavilion was added to the landward end of the pier. By 1931, the town's population had grown to 14,533. At the beginning of World War II, the army cut two gaps between the landward end of the pier and the seaward terminal as a counter-invasion measure; the pier's two gaps were bridged for pedestrians after the war.1963 marked the end of steamboat services from the pier. In 1970, a fire destroyed the pier's pavilion and plans were made to replace it with a sports centre, opened in 1976 by former Prime Minister Edward Heath; the centre section of the pier was torn down by a storm in 1978, leaving the end of the pier isolated in the sea. It has not been rebuilt due to the cost; the sports centre was
St Austell is a town in Cornwall, England, 10 miles south of Bodmin and 30 miles west of the border with Devon. St Austell is one of the largest towns in Cornwall. Named after Saint Austol, one of the earliest references to the village of St Austell is in John Leland's Itinerary, where he says "At S. Austelles is nothing notable but the paroch chirch". Not long after William Cookworthy discovered china clay at Tregonning Hill in west Cornwall, the same mineral was found in greater quantity in Hensbarrow downs north of St Austell. Clay mining soon took over from tin and copper mining as the principal industry in the area, this contributed enormously to the growth of the town; the clay industry only came into its own during the mid 19th to early 20th century, at a time when the falling prices of tin and other metals forced many mines to close down or convert to clay mining. The success and high profitability of the industry attracted many families whose breadwinner had been put out of work by the depression in the local metal mining industry, increased the population of the town considerably.
This meant that more businesses took root, providing more jobs and improving trade. This, along with other factors, led to St Austell becoming one of the ten most important commercial centres of Cornwall. Work began in 1963 on a brutalist-style pedestrian precinct which included shops and flats; the design was by Alister MacDonald & Partners and the materials reinforced concrete with some stone facing. In the 2000s this area of the town had become outdated, underwent a £75 million redevelopment process. In August 2007, developers David McLean and demolition team Gilpin moved onto the town centre site to complete the preparation, with the Filmcentre, an Odeon cinema dating back to 1936, being demolished in late September/early October. In October 2007, the South West of England Regional Development Agency announced the new development would be named White River Place, it was announced that 50% of shop units had been leased to High Street stores, with New Look, Bonmarché and Wilko opening new stores.
This would mean New Look relocating from its current premises in Fore Street and the return of Peacocks to St Austell following the demolition of its old store to make way for the new development. Bonmarche has since closed. In October 2008, it was announced that the developer David McLean Developments had gone into administration and concern was expressed that this could jeopardise the completion of the project. In December 2008, the new White River Cinema opened its doors for the first time: the cinema is technically advanced and the first purpose-built cinema in Cornwall for over 60 years; the Torchlight Carnival was revived in November 2009 as a direct result of public demand through a survey conducted with local residents. The Torchlight Procession has become an important event in the town's calendar, heralding in the Winter celebrations and drawing thousands of people from across Cornwall and Devon; the event is run by a small group of non affiliated volunteers. The St Austell and Clay Country Eco-town is a plan for several new settlements around St Austell on old Imerys sites.
It was given outline government approval in July 2009. In July 2011, the Cornwall Council strategic planning committee voted to approve a £250 million beach resort scheme at Carlyon Bay, St Austell; the development was proposed in 2003. The arms of St Austell are Arg. A saltire raguly Gu. St Austell is in the parliamentary constituency of St Austell and Newquay, created in 2010 by the Boundary Commission for England. Before 2010 it was in the St Austell seat; the main local authority is Cornwall Council, the unitary authority created as part of the 2009 structural changes to local government in England. The six former Districts and the former Cornwall County Council were abolished and replaced by Cornwall Council on 1 April 2009. On 1 April 2009, four new parishes were created for the St Austell area, they are: St Austell Town Council covering Bethel, Mount Charles and Holmbush. Carlyon Parish Council covering Carlyon Bay and Tregrehan. St Austell Bay Parish Council covering Charlestown, Duporth and Trenarren.
Pentewan Valley Parish Council covering Tregorrick, London Apprentice and Pentewan. Before this date the area had been an unparished area. St Austell is the main centre of the china clay industry in Cornwall and employs around 2,200 people as of 2006, with sales of £195 million; the St Austell Brewery, which celebrated its 150th anniversary in 2001, supplies cask ale to pubs in Cornwall and other parts of the country. Its flagship beer is St Austell Tribute. St Austell Brewery's first public house, The Seven Stars Inn, purchased in 1863, still stands today on East Hill in the town. Tregonissey House, the site of the company's first steam Brewery, built in 1870, can be seen in Market Hill. A brewery museum and visitor centre is open to the public on the present brewery site in Trevarthian Road; as in much of Cornwall and neighbouring counties, tourism is important to St Austell's economy. Tourists are drawn to the area by nearby beaches and attractions such as the Eden Project, sited in a former clay pit, the Lost Gardens of Heligan.
The China Clay Country Park, in a former china-clay pit two miles north of the town, tells the story of the men and children w
Eastleigh is a town in Hampshire, between Southampton and Winchester in South Hampshire. It was developed as a railway town by the London and South-Western Railway; the town lies on the River Itchen, one of England's premier chalk streams for fly fishing, a designated site of Special Scientific Interest. The modern town of Eastleigh lies on the old Roman road, built in A. D.79 between Winchester and Bitterne. Roman remains discovered in the Eastleigh area, including a Roman lead coffin excavated in 1908, indicate that a settlement existed here in Roman times. A Saxon village called'East Leah' has been recorded to have existed since 932 AD.. There is additional evidence of this settlement in a survey from the time which details land in North Stoneham being granted by King Æthelstan to his military aid, Alfred in 932 AD; the prefix'Est' or'East' is thought to refer to its location relative to the established settlement of Baddesley. The Domesday Book of 1086 gives a more detailed account of the settlement, referred to as'Estleie'.
In 1838 the London and South Western Railway Company built a railway from Southampton to Winchester. It was decided to build a station near the little village of Barton; this railway station was named Bishopstoke Junction. In 1868 the villages of Barton and Eastley were combined into one parish. A parish church, the Church of the Resurrection, was built in the same year, at a cost of £2,300. A local noted author of many novels, Charlotte Yonge, donated £500 towards the building of the church, she was rewarded by being given the privilege to choose a name for the'new' parish. She with a new modern spelling. In 1891 the L&SWR Carriage and Wagon Works from Nine Elms in London were transferred to Eastleigh; this was followed by the Nine Elms Locomotive Works which were moved there in 1909. These railway works have since reopened, albeit on a smaller scale. Eastleigh has seen a rapid and controlled expansion in residential and commercial development over recent years; the borough of Eastleigh was ranked the "9th best place to live in the UK 2006" by a Channel 4 programme.
The United States Navy established a naval air station on 23 July 1918 to assemble and repair Caproni Ca.5 and Airco DH.4 and DH.9 bombers for the Northern Bombing Group of the First World War. The base closed shortly after the First Armistice at Compiègne. Eastleigh's best-known'resident' is the Spitfire aeroplane, built in Southampton and first flown from Eastleigh Aerodrome. A replica has been placed on the roundabout at the entrance to the airport. Eastleigh Museum, to be found in the High Street, holds information about the town and the surrounding villages, including Bishopstoke, the largest residential area. Eastleigh has two further education colleges: Barton Peveril Sixth Form College and Eastleigh College. Secondary schools include Crestwood College and primary schools include Cherbourg Primary School, Norwood Primary School, Nightingale Primary School, the Crescent Primary School and Shakespeare Infant and Junior Schools to the north of the town; the Anglican parish church is All Saints in Desborough Road.
The Roman Catholic Church of the Holy Cross was built in Leigh Road in 1902 to replace an early tin church. Emmanuel Baptist Church was founded in the early 1930s, in the former Desborough Mission Hall in Desborough Road; the building dates to 1905. Eastleigh F. C. are the town's sole senior football team playing, from 2014–15, in the Conference Premier as well as entering the FA Cup and the FA Trophy. Solent Kestrels are the town and area's basketball club, compete in the English Basketball League Division 1, the second highest level of the sport in the country, behind the nationwide British Basketball League; the team were promoted to Division 1 in 2016, after finishing as champions of Division 2 in the 2015-16 season. They are coached by play home games at the Fleming Park Leisure Centre. Eastleigh Ladies Hockey Club is based in South Hampshire, it fields 2 teams in the Hampshire Women's League, as well as playing floodlit and indoor league games. Eastleigh Rugby Football Club play from "the Hub" in Eastleigh.
They have four senior sides and young player development, their 1st XV play in the London 3 South West. Based at the Hub are "the Hurricanes", a team for young adults with learning difficulties. There is a broadly based running club. Eastleigh is represented in the House of Commons by Conservative MP Mims Davies, she was first elected for the constituency at the 2015 general election with a majority of 9,147 votes, taking over from Mike Thornton of the Liberal Democrats. Mike Thornton was elected at the 2013 by-election with a majority of 1,771 votes after the resignation of Chris Huhne, in a by-election, fought with UKIP coming in second and the Conservatives finishing in third place. In 2005 Huhne had been elected as the Liberal Democrat Member of Parliament for the Eastleigh constituency after the previous MP retired. Eastleigh has a tradition of close contests, Huhne narrowly beat the Conservative candidate Conor Burns with the second lowest swing against the Liberal Democrats of any seat with a retiring MP.
David Chidgey had succeeded the Conservative MP Stephen Milligan after his high-profile death. Chris Huhne was appointed as Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change following the 2010 general electi
Eastbourne is a town, seaside resort and borough in the non-metropolitan county of East Sussex on the south coast of England, 19 miles east of Brighton. Eastbourne is to the east of Beachy Head, the highest chalk sea cliff in Great Britain and part of the larger Eastbourne Downland Estate. With a seafront consisting of Victorian hotels, a pier and a Napoleonic era fort and military museum, Eastbourne was developed at the direction of the Duke of Devonshire from 1859 from four separate hamlets, it has a growing population, a broad economic base and is home to companies in a wide range of industries. Though Eastbourne is a new town, there is evidence of human occupation in the area from the Stone Age; the town grew as a fashionable tourist resort thanks to prominent landowner, William Cavendish to become the Duke of Devonshire. Cavendish appointed architect Henry Currey to design a street plan for the town, but not before sending him to Europe to draw inspiration; the resulting mix of architecture is Victorian and remains a key feature of Eastbourne.
As a seaside resort Eastbourne derives a large and increasing income from tourism, with revenue from traditional seaside attractions augmented by conferences, public events and cultural sightseeing. The other main industries in Eastbourne include trade and retail, education, manufacturing, professional scientific and the technical sector. Eastbourne's population is growing; the 2011 census shows that the average age of residents has decreased as the town has attracted students and those commuting to London and Brighton. Flint mines and Stone Age artefacts have been found in the surrounding countryside of the Eastbourne Downs. Celtic people are believed to have settled on the Eastbourne Downland in 500BC. There are Roman remains buried beneath the town, such as a Roman bath and section of pavement between Eastbourne Pier and the Redoubt Fortress. There is a Roman villa near the entrance to the Pier and the present Queens Hotel. In 2014, skeletal remains of a woman who lived around 425AD were discovered in the vicinity of Beachy Head on the Eastbourne Downland Estate.
The remains were found to be of a 30-year-old woman who grew up in East Sussex, but had genetic heritage from sub-Saharan Africa, giving her black skin and an African skeletal structure. Her ancestors came from below the Saharan region, at a time when the Roman Empire extended only as far as North Africa. An Anglo-Saxon charter, circa 963 AD, describes a landing stream at Burne; the original name came from the'Burne' or stream which ran through today's Old Town area of Eastbourne. All that can be seen of the Burne, or Bourne, is the small pond in Motcombe Gardens; the bubbling source is guarded by a statue of Neptune. Motcombe Gardens are overlooked by St. Mary's Church, a Norman church which lies on the site of a Saxon ‘moot’, or meeting place; this gives Motcombe its name. In 2014 local metal-detectorist Darrin Simpson found a coin minted during the reign of Æthelberht II of East Anglia, in a field near the town, it is believed that the coin may have led to Æthelberht's beheading by Offa of Mercia, as it had been struck as a sign of independence.
Describing the coin, expert Christopher Webb, said, "This new discovery is an important and unexpected addition to the numismatic history of 8th century England." Following the Norman conquest, the Hundred of what is now Eastbourne, was held by Robert, Count of Mortain, William the Conqueror's half brother. The Domesday Book lists 28 ploughlands, a church, a watermill and salt pans; the Book referred to the area as'Borne'.'East' was added to ‘Borne’ in the 13th century, renaming the town. A charter for a weekly market was granted to Bartholomew de Badlesmere in 1315–16. During the Middle Ages the town was visited by King Henry I and in 1324 by Edward II. Evidence of Eastbourne's medieval past can seen in the 12th century Church of St Mary, the manor house called Bourne Place. In the mid-16th century Bourne Place was home to the Burton family, who acquired much of the land on which the present town stands; this manor house is owned by the Duke of Devonshire and was extensively remodelled in the early Georgian era when it was renamed Compton Place.
It is one of the two Grade I listed buildings in the town. Eastbourne has Cornish connections, most notably visible in the Cornish high cross in the churchyard of St Mary's Church, brought from an unspecified location in Cornwall. In 1752, a dissertation by Doctor Richard Russell extolled the medicinal benefits of the seaside, his views were of considerable benefit to the south coast and, in due course, Eastbourne became known as "the Empress of Watering Places". Eastbourne's earliest claim as a seaside resort came about following a summer holiday visit by four of King George III's children in 1780. In 1793, following a survey of coastal defences in the southeast, approval was given for the positioning of infantry and artillery to defend the bay between Beachy Head and Hastings from attack by the French. Fourteen Martello Towers were constructed along the western shore of Pevensey Bay, continuing as far as Tower 73, the Wish Tower at Eastbourne. Several of these towers survive: the Wish Tower is an important feature of the town's seafront and was the subject of a painting by James Sant RA, part of Tower 68 forms the basement of a house on St. Antony's Hill.
Between 1805 and 1807, the construction took place of a fortress known as the Eastbourne Redoubt, built as a barracks and storage depot, armed with 10