Bandung is the capital of West Java province in Indonesia. Based on the 2015 estimate, it is Indonesia's fourth most populous city after Jakarta and Bekasi with over 2.5 million inhabitants. Greater Bandung is the country's third-largest metropolitan area with over 8.5 million inhabitants. Located 768 metres above sea level 140 kilometres southeast of Jakarta, Bandung has cooler year-round temperatures than most other Indonesian cities; the city lies on a river basin surrounded by volcanic mountains that provides a natural defence system, the primary reason for the Dutch East Indies government's plan to move the capital from Batavia to Bandung. The Dutch first established tea plantations around the mountains in the 18th century, a road was constructed to connect the plantation area to the colonial capital Batavia. In the early 20th century the Dutch inhabitants of Bandung demanded the establishment of a municipality, granted in 1906, Bandung developed into a resort city for plantation owners.
Luxurious hotels, cafés, European boutiques were opened, leading the city to be nicknamed Parijs van Java. After Indonesia declared independence in 1945, the city experienced has experienced ongoing development and urbanisation, transforming from an idyllic town into a dense 16,500 people/km2 metropolitan area with living space for over 8 million people. New skyscrapers, high-rise buildings and gardens have been constructed. Natural resources have been exploited by conversion of the protected upland area into highland villas and real estate. Although the city has encountered many problems, it still attracts large numbers of tourists, weekend sightseers, migrants from other parts of Indonesia. In 2017 the city won a regional environmental sustainability award for having the cleanest air among major cities in ASEAN; the city is known as a Smart City, leveraging technology to improve government services and social media, that alert residents to issues such as floods or traffic jams. The first Asian-African Conference, the Bandung Conference, was hosted in Bandung by President Sukarno in 1955.
Redevelopment of the existing Bandung international airport was completed in 2016. To improve infrastructure, the construction of a Jakarta-Bandung High-speed rail was started in 2016, with projected completion in 2020; this is to be complemented by an indigenous type of Light Rail Transit. The new larger second airport, Bandung Kertajati International Airport, opened in June 2018; the official name of the city during the colonial Dutch East Indies period was Bandoeng. The earliest reference to the area dates back to 1488, although archaeological findings suggest a type of Homo erectus species had long lived on the banks of the Cikapundung River and around the old lake of Bandung. During the 17th and 18th centuries, the Dutch East Indies Company established plantations in the Bandung area. In 1786, a supply road connecting Batavia, Cianjur, Bandung and Cirebon was constructed. In 1809, Napoleon Bonaparte, French Emperor and conqueror of much of Europe including the Netherlands and its colonies, ordered the Dutch Indies Governor H.
W. Daendels to improve the defensive systems of Java to protect against the British in India. Daendels built a road, stretching 1,000 km from the west to the east coast of Java, passing through Bandung. In 1810, the road was laid down in Bandung and was named De Groote Postweg, the present-day location of Jalan Asia-Afrika. Under Daendels' orders, R. A. Wiranatakusumah II, the Chief Administrator of the Bandung regency at that time, moved the office from Krapyak, in the south, to a place near a pair of holy city wells, the present-day site of the city square, he built his dalem, masjid agung and pendopo in the classical Sundanese orientation, with the pendopo facing Tangkuban Perahu mountain, believed to have a mystical ambience. In 1880, the first major railroad between Batavia and Bandung was completed, boosting light industry in Bandung. Chinese flocked into the city to help services and as vendors; the area adjacent to the train station is still recognisable as the old Chinatown district.
In 1906, Bandung was given the status of gemeente, twenty years stadsgemeente. Beginning of time the early 1920s, the Dutch East Indies government made plans to move their capital from Batavia to Bandung. Accordingly, during this decade, the Dutch colonial government commenced construction of military barracks, the central government building and other government buildings. However, this plan was cut short by World War II, after which the Dutch were not able to re-establish their colony due to the Indonesian Declaration of Independence; the fertile area of the Parahyangan Mountains surrounding Bandung supports productive tea plantations. In the nineteenth century, Franz Junghuhn introduced the cinchona plant. With its cooler elevated landscape, surrounded by major plantations, Bandung became an exclusive European resort area. Wealthy plantation owners visited the city on weekends, attracting ladies and business people from the capital, Batavia. Jalan Braga grew into a promenade street with restaurants and boutique shops.
Two art-deco style ho
Stella Vander is a French singer and musician. Born in Paris into a family of Polish immigrants, she began writing music in the early sixties together with her uncle Maurice Chorenslup, their songs were parodies of the Yé-yé style, popular at the time. Stella's first EP, which included "Pourquoi pas moi", was released in November 1963, when she was twelve. In 1966, "Un air du folklore Auvergnat" increased her fame, followed by protests by the Auvergnat association—which took the lyrics seriously, her take on music was "engagingly sarcastic". 1966's Beatnicks D'Occasion targeted weekend scenesters. Her final record as Stella was released in 1967. "I wasn't 17 yet, but I just said'Ok, pfft. Leave it.'" She was married with Magma drummer Christian Vander and has appeared on numerous Magma albums. Since Magma's reformation in the late 1990s, she has assumed a larger role in the band's studio and performance efforts, is Magma's most enduring and prominent vocalist. In 1991 she released her first solo album as D'épreuves d'amour.
Mayme Farmer Irwin Logsdon was an American mathematician known for her research in algebraic geometry and mathematics education. She was the first woman to receive tenure in the University of Chicago mathematics department. Logsdon taught at a high school from 1900 to 1911 before returning school herself, she earned a Ph. B. S. M. and Ph. D. in mathematics from the University of Chicago in 1913, 1915, 1921 respectively. Her doctoral advisor was L. E. Dickson, she taught at Hastings College from 1913 to 1917 and at Northwestern University from 1917 to 1919. She returned to her alma mater in 1921 where she was the only female regular faculty member above the rank of instructor until 1982 when Karen Uhlenbeck was appointed professor of mathematics. Logsdon remained at the University of Chicago for a large portion of her career, until 1946, she concluded her career at the University of Miami, retiring in 1961. Phd students at the University of Chicago include Anna A. Stafford, James Edward Case, Clyde Harvey Graves, Frank Ayres, Jr.
She wrote two texts Elementary Mathematical Analysis and A Mathematician Explains both for undergraduate mathematics. Logsdon was a fellow of the International Education Board, a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Mathematical Society, the Mathematical Association of America, the director of the American Association of University Women